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The Archaic: The Past in the Present: A Collection of wesatimunogo.cf Bishop (ed.) - The Future Past and Present - and Not yet Perfect - of Phenomenology.
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Giovan Battista D'Alessio Classics. A common assumption in recent criticism is that deictic reference in archaic Greek lyric which was usually composed for an oral performance should always be analyzed in relation to the place and time of the performance and to the persons of the performers, just as in ordinary face-to-face communication.


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In the first sections of this paper, Giovann Battista D'Alessio argues, focusing on temporal deixis and using comparative evidence, that this is not always the case, and that, on the contrary, the texts often emphasize the gap between the moment of composition and that of the performance, which can be projected into the future. In the final part, he examines some cases in which the past time of myth is re-enacted in the ritual present through texts whose deictic references merge both temporal levels together.

By the same authors Parallela Graeco-Latina: Kelly - - Husserl Studies 24 1: Customary Reflection and Innovative Habits. Vincent Colapietro - - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 25 2: How Long is Now?

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Phenomenology and the Specious Present. Susan Pockett - - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2 1: What is the Meaning of the Present and Past Tenses? Tim Stowell - manuscript.

Paul Bishop (ed.), The Archaic: The Past in the Present - PhilPapers

The Universe Around Them: Quaritch Wales - - A. Some Remarks on A. Shakespeare , the King James Bible and in archaisms. This was used in some dialects rather than the modern -s , e.

Rice Varieties in Archaic East Asia: Reduction of Its Diversity from Past to Present Times.

In some verbs, a shortened form -th appears: The forms hath and doth are found in some proverbs " Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned ", " The lady doth protest too much ". Another set of forms are associated with the archaic second person singular pronoun thou , which often have the ending -est , pronounced as a full syllable, e. In some verbs, a shortened form -st appears: In the case of the verb be , such forms included art present tense , wast past , wert past subjunctive and beest present subjunctive; pronounced as two syllables.

In all other verbs, the past tense is formed by the base past tense form of the word e. Modal verbs except must also have -t or -st added to their form, e. For example, several such forms as well as other archaic forms such as yea for "yes", thy for "your", and mine enemies for "my enemies" appear in Psalm 23 from the King James Bible:. For more information see Old English verbs , English subjunctive , and Indo-European copula for the history of the verb be. Apart from the simple past tense described above, English verbs do not have synthetic inflected forms for particular tenses , aspects or moods.

However, there are a number of periphrastic multi-word constructions with verb forms that serve to express tense-like or aspect-like meanings; these constructions are commonly described as representing certain verb tenses or aspects in English language teaching they are often simply called tenses.

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More detail can be found in the article Uses of English verb forms. The progressive or continuous aspect is expressed with a form of be together with the present participle of the verb. Thus present progressive present continuous constructions take forms like am writing , is writing , are writing , while the past progressive past continuous, also called imperfect is was writing , were writing. There is a progressive infinitive to be writing and a progressive subjunctive be writing.

Other progressive forms, made with compound forms of be , are described below. The basic present and past tenses of the verb are called simple present present simple and simple past past simple , to distinguish them from progressive or other compound forms. Thus the simple present of the above verb is write or writes , and the simple past also called preterite is wrote.

The perfect aspect is expressed with a form of the auxiliary have together with the past participle of the verb. Thus the present perfect is have written or has written , and the past perfect pluperfect is had written. A perfect subjunctive have written is also sometimes used. Future and conditional perfect forms are given below.

What is often called the future tense of English is formed using the auxiliary will. The simple future is will write , the future progressive continuous is will be writing , the future perfect is will have written , and the future perfect progressive continuous is will have been writing.


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Traditionally though now usually in formal English only shall is used rather than will in the first person singular and plural; see shall and will. The conditional , or " future-in-the-past ", forms are made analogously to these future forms, using would and should in place of will and shall. The passive voice in English is normally expressed with a form of the copula verb be or sometimes get together with the past participle of the main verb.

In this context be is not a stative verb, so it may occur in progressive forms. For details, see English passive voice. Imperatives are expressed with the base form of the verb, normally with no subject: It is possible to add the second person pronoun you for emphasis: More details can be found in the article Imperative mood. Questions are formed by subject—auxiliary inversion unless the interrogative word is part of the subject. If there is otherwise no auxiliary, the verb do does , did is used as an auxiliary, enabling the inversion. This also applies to negation: Inversion is also required in certain other types of sentences, mainly after negative adverbial phrases; here too do is used if there is no other auxiliary.

The construction with do as auxiliary is also used to enable emphasis to be added to a sentence. For details of the above constructions, see do -support. This section describes how the verb forms introduced in the preceding sections are used.

More detail can be found in the article Uses of English verb forms and in the articles on the individual tenses and aspects. In referring to an action taking place regularly and not limited to the future or to the past , the simple present is used: He brushes his teeth every morning.


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For an action taking place at the present time, the present progressive construction is used: He is brushing his teeth now. With some verbs expressing a present state , particularly the copula be and verbs expressing a mental state, the present simple is generally used: They are here ; I know that. However other state verbs use the present progressive or present simple depending on whether the state is considered temporary or permanent: The pen is lying on the table ; Paris lies on the Seine.

For past actions or states, the simple past is generally used: He went out an hour ago ; Columbus knew the shape of the world. However, for completed actions for which no past time frame is implied or expressed, the present perfect is normally used: I have made the dinner i. For an action in the course of taking place, or a temporary state existing, at the past time being referred to compare uses of the present progressive above , the past progressive is used: We were sitting on the beach when For an action that was completed before the past time being referred to, the past perfect is used: We had sat down on the blanket when