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the German fencing school, influenced by the .. Pardoel, Henk: Fencing A Bibliography Edition, Amsterdam . Schultz, Alwin: Das höfische Leben zur Zeit der Minnesänger, Leipzig Zum anderen sind es Fürsten, die Fechtbücher zur Repräsentation und manchmal . Ein Beispiel dafür ist das Fechtbuch des Anthon.
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The authorship is a disputed ques- tion. This is the most credible hypothesis. The theory of one Nibelun- gen poet is rendered almost untenable by the inequality of the poem. Some passages of Homeric grandeur contrast with the worse than mediocrity of others. The poem divides itself naturally into two parts, the centre-point of the first being the death by treachery of Siegfried, the hero. The centre-point of the second part is the vengeance of his wife, Kriemhilde. In form it is composed of a stanza of four lines, rhyming in pairs and marked by the cesura: This first verse gives the keynote to the whole story of the first part.
But two eagles tore it to pieces before her eyes. Never had she felt so great a sorrow. The fulfilment of the omen it is the work of the poem to unfold. Siegfried, a dauntless hero, strong and beautiful, in- vulnerable because he has bathed in the blood of a dragon which he has overcome, hears of the beauty and pride of Kriemhilde, sister of the Burgundian King, Gunther.
He goes, therefore, to "Worms on the Rhine, helps King Gunther against the Saxons, conquers them, and promises Gunther further help in his wooing of Brunhild, provided he shall receive as a reward the hand of his sister, Kriem- hilde. Siegfried, by the help of his " Tarnkappe," which renders him invisible, fights with and overcomes the warlike queen; Brunhild all the time believing that Gunther conquers by his own strength.
They return to Worms, and the bridal feast takes place for both pairs, Gunther and Brunhild ; Kriemhilde and Siegfried. However, the Amazonian queen refuses obedience to her husband; Sieg- fried, at Gunther's request, overcomes her a second time again made invisible by his Tarnkappe and taking her girdle and ring, gives them to his own wife. This is the fatal turning-point of the story. Then Siegfried takes his queen home to the Netherlands, where he rules over the Nibelungen, amd possesses the greatest treasure ever won by hero.
After a lapse of time, how long we are not told, Sieg- fried, accompanied by his old father, Siegmund, as well as by his wife, conies back to Worms at Gunther's invitation. One evening the two queens quarrel over the heroic deeds of their respective husbands.
Brunhild treats Kriemhilde disdainfully, and the latter in revenge boasts that it was Siegfried, not Gunther, who overcame Brunhild in fight. As confirmation she shows Brunhild's ring and girdle. From this moment Siegfried's fate is sealed. They affect to require Siegfried's help in a new Saxon war, and Kriemhilde, in order that the treacherous Hagen may, as she thinks, shield her husband in fight, shows him the one vulnerable spot between Siegfried's shoulders, where a linden leaf, blown by the wind, kept the dragon's blood from touching him.
She marks the spot with a silken cross. The scheme to discover the secret from Kriemhilde having succeeded, overtures of peace are sent to the Saxons, and the heroes go hunting. At the end of the day Siegfried is thirsty, Gunther, Hagen and he run a race to a spring. Siegfried far outruns the others, but waits until they come up with him, in order that King Gunther may drink first. Gunther drinks ; then Siegfried stoops, and the treacherous Hagen drives a spear into his back, where the too unsus- pecting Kriemhilde has marked the silken cross.
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Siegfried falls and dies " the flowers are all beflecked with his blood. The character of Kriem- hilde as an avenger now develops. Hagen has brought the Nibelungen treasure to Worms, and sunk it in the Rhine. She knows her brother's treachery and her own present helplessness, but she bides her time, and her time comes. King Etzel Attila seeks her hand in marriage. She favours his wooing, goes with him to the Huns, and causes the Burgundians to be invited to visit them, with the deter- mination to compass their ruin.
Mermaids of the Danube prophesy to Hagen on the way that they shall " return no more to the Burgunderland. Except the chaplain, no one returned. The heroes are entertained by the Markgraf Riidiger, a generous, open-hearted warrior, who is wrecked, too, at last in the universal ruin, and they find Dietrich von Bern and Hildebrand, his armour-bearer, in the land of the Huns.
They fight with terrible loss on both sides. The Burgundians are all imprisoned in one building; the Huns surround it and set fire to it. The Burgundians, in the frightful heat, drink blood to quench their thirst. Not a man comes out alive except Gunther and Hagen. Hagen is brought before Etzel and Kriemhilde, with whom is Dietrich, lamenting his fallen men, for only Hildebrand survives. Kriem- hilde asks Hagen where he has hidden the Nibelungen treasure, and, as he will not reveal the secret while one of his king's race still lives, she has the head of her brother Gunther brought to him.
From thee, fiendish woman, it shall remain hidden for ever. Hildebrand, maddened by her action, rushes on her and kills her with one blow. Etzel and Dietrich remain weeping " as ever joy is turned at last to sorrow " and in this sweeping tragedy the Mbelungenlied is ended. The Volksepos second in importance is Gud- run. The " Gud- runstrophe" has the third and fourth lines ending in an unaccented syllable. The story of Hilde, which forms the first part of the poem, serves as a prologue to the longer and more interest- ing second "Lied," the story of Gudrun, Hilde's daughter.
Hagen, King of Ireland, puts to death every suitor who dares to woo his daughter Hilde. Notwith- standing the danger, Hettel, King of the Hegelingen Friesland , ventures, with the help of his three faithful "Mannen," Wate, Frute, and Horand, to seek the love of the princess. He wins her to his side, and subsequently, after showing his prowess in arms, succeeds in appeasing the wrath of King Hagen, and marries Hilde.
The story of Gudrun is much longer, and con- tains more of the tragic element. Hettel and Hilde have a daughter, Gudrun, to woo whom Hartmut of Normandy crosses over the sea. The king refuses him Gudrun's hand on account of old enmity between the two royal houses. Then Herwig of Zealand comes as a suitor, and, being rejected also, has recourse to his sword to win his bride. His valour wins Gudrun's heart, and the betrothal takes place. But, while Hettel and Herwig together are engaged in repelling an attack of the Moors, Ludwig of Normandy and his son, the rejected Hartmut, carry off Gudrun.
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Father and lover rush in pursuit, but are worsted in the battle; Hettel falls, and the Normans put to sea with Gudrun and her maidens, under cover of the darkness. So many of the fighting men are slain, that Herwig is compelled to wait thirteen years, till the boys have grown to manhood, before going to rescue Gudrun from her captors. The crowning insnlt is that she, a king's daughter, is compelled to wash clothes upon the strand. The supernatural element is introduced only once in the poem, when a speaking sea-bird, in answer to Gudrun's questions as she stands on the shore, announces that Herwig is coming to her rescue across the sea.
He and the same old heroes who fought for Hettel, Wate, Frute, and Horand, arrive at last, together with Ortwin, Gudrun's brother ; a wild and sanguinary contest ends in victory for Herwig, and Gudrun is restored to her lover and her people. The unknown author of Gudrun has told his tale with the clear simplicity of a simple age. He does not wholly disdain to touch the chord of sentiment, to picture some- thing of the inner workings of his heroes' minds and feel- ings, but he never dwells on them, he goes straight on with the action of his tale.
Most touching are the verses which treat of Gudrun's hard captivity, and of her un- alterable faithfulness to her betrothed. Such nobleness of soul is the dearest theme of German song. Minor popular Epics of the Bliitezeit. The abundance of sagas provided the singers of this fertile time with a rich variety of subject. There appeared now a number of less important poems, all founded on the real or fabulous adventures of the hero, Dietrich von Bern the poetical and legendary representative of the great King of the Ostrogoths, Theodoric of which only a list of the chief names need be given here.
Dietrichs Flnclit zu den Hunnen. From the Longobardische Sage are taken: Fidelity and constancy, the perpetually recurring theme of the commemorators of the German heroes, are eulogized again in the last. Wolfdietrich is the illegitimate son of Hugdietrich, who, to favour his other sons, com- missions the boy's tutor, Berchtung, to kill him.
But the latter first saves Wolfdietrich's life, and then suffers every vicissitude, rather than fail in his faith to him. He follows and serves his master in adversity in something the same manner as Hildebrand serves Dietrich von Bern. The four different existing texts of this work attest the popularity of the subject. A brief enumeration of the subjects will lead most easily to the consideration of the poets. French legendary treatment of the history of Charle- magne. Unlike the poets of the Volksepos, nameless and hidden from posterity, the poets of the Hofisches Epos are known to us by name as well as by their works.
The most impor- tant are the four following: Heinrich von Veldeke, a native of Mastricht, who may have been at Court when, in , the Kaiser Friedrich Barbarossa knighted his two eldest sons, and celebrated the event by the most magnificent festivities. The patronage of poets and poetry was now general among the nobles, and in many of the courts of German princes.
Landgrave of Thuringia especially, a little later, made him- self famous in this respect. Veldeke enjoyed his full share of fame. The work which first made him celebrated among his contemporaries was his translation of the ". In addition to his lyrical " Biichlein," in which his own love-stories are told with charming simplicity, Hartmann's epic poems are four in number. The two first belong to the Arthurian Legend. Ereck und Unite the story called in Tennyson's " Idylls " " Geraint and Enid " tells how the knight, too much occupied by his lady's love, is in danger of " verliegen," i.
Iwein oder der Ritter mit dem Lowen. In this poem the knight himself is in fear of " verliegen. After having been a prey to madness from which he is miracu- lously healed, he frees a lion, and at last, hiding his real name under the pseudonym of Knight with the Lion, he wins his lady's love again. Gregorius auf dem Stein is founded on a French legend. Gregorius, like OBdipus of old, has unknowingly married his mother. When this is discovered he condemns himself to the hardest penance. Then his repentance is accepted ; he becomes pope and is canonized. The Suabian knight, Heinrich, banished from men as a leper, can only be healed by the heart-blood of a maiden, voluntarily given to save him.
The daughter of a peasant is ready to sacrifice herself for him, but at the moment when she is to die, his soul, shaking off the bonds of selfishness, refuses to allow her to suffer, and resigns itself to the Will of God. This resignation brings about his miraculous cure, and the maiden becomes his wife. These four poems form Hartmann's best known work.
The greatest poet of the Hofisches Epos is unquestionably the Bavarian knight, Wolframvon JUschenbacb, both in his representation of the unvarying truth of nature and in his untrammelled breadth of view, for Hartmann and the other poets saw no further than the canon of chivalry, and must be judged from the standpoint of their own time. Wolfram died about , and may have been sixty years of age. It is remarkable that he could neither read nor write, and boasted of his inability as being a knight, not a clerk.
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His chief works are: The chance sight of a band of Arthur's knights arouses the spirit of adventure latent in him. He follows them, and his mother falls dead when he passes from her sight. This is Parzival's first unconscious sin. Then he slays a kinsman and robs the body of its sword, thus erring again, this time in the hasty ignorance of youth. At Arthur's court he learns the rules of chivalry and etiquette, one item important in its consequences being, not to ask unnecessary questions, frees and marries the Queen Condwiramurs, and goes again to seek adventures.
His wanderings bring him to the castle where the Holy Grail according to sacred legend the vessel in which Christ dispensed the Last Supper, afterwards used by St. Joseph of Arimathgea to receive His Blood from the Cross can be found only by one who asks its whereabouts. He finds the " Grailking" Amfortas sick, but refrains from questioning. Had he not done so he would have healed the king, and found the Grail. When Parzival discovers this he cries out against the injustice of God, and swears henceforth to trust only in his lady's love, no longer in God's help.
At last he is shown by a pilgrim the vanity and sin of his self-sufficiency, through repentance becomes worthy to find the Grail, and is called to be " Gralkonig. In the series of songs left in a fragmentary state to which the name " Titurel " has been given, Wolfram von Bschenbach re-introduces at greater length some of the minor characters in " Parzival," and paints them throughout with the stroke of a master hand.
Titurel is the first " Gralkonig," the great-grandfather of Parzival. The hero is Sfc. William, Count of Aquitaine, who fought against the Saracens in the year , and, in the poem, carried off a Moorish lady, who became a Christian. She is baptized by the name Giburg, and is a beautiful poetic creation. The fourth poet remaining to be classed with Heinrich von Veldeke, Hartmann von Aue, and Wolfram von Eschenbach is died at the beginning of the thirteenth century.
In ideals and high conception he remains far behind Wolfram, and appears not to have been of Doblebirth. Hejmakes social condicts his tavourite subj ect. While possessing undoubted poetical geniusptrottfried seems to have been carried away by his own proficiency in word-painting, by love of conceits, and, in short, by the substitution of artificiality for nature.
Gottfried JBnds no word of upbraiding for Tristan's guilty love for Marke's wife, no blame of his treachery to his uncle. The poem was never entirely finished. Eilhard von Oberge, author of another " Tristan und Isolde," anterior to that of Gottfried von Strassburg. French, which had already appeared in the dialect of the Lower Rhine about Rudolf von Ems, died in , followed Gottfried von Strassbnrg in manner, but adopted graver, less worldly matter.
This is founded on a legend in the life of Buddha. Wilhelm von Orlens, half historical. Alexander, another rendering of the deeds of Alexander the Great. Weltchronik, brought down only to the time of Solomon. Frequently classed with Rudolf von Ems is Konrad von Wurzburg, who died in , at Basle, apparently of an epidemic, since his wife and daughters died at the same time. His works, of mediocre value, are: Frau Welt, a legend from the French, tending to show the deceitfulness of worldly glory.
Otto mit dem Barte, an old German saga. Die goldene Schmiede, in praise of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The popular story of the " Schwanritter" " Swan-knight," known to us in the modern " Lohengrin. He believed in his own merit, however, and wrote a " Klage der Kunst " in which he lamented the too cold reception of poetry by an unappreciative world. The consideration of these minor poets brings us to the satirical writers of the period, the chief of whom are: He is didactic in tone, holds to a strongly expressed moral, and is in the main a strict churchman. This does not prevent him from introducing a fraudulent priest into his best remembered satire.
Pfaffe Amis deceives first his bishop, then all with whom he is brought into contact, plays tricks of all sorts, harmless and the reverse, and deals largely in false relics and sham miracles. His tricks are, at a later period, attri- buted to the German favourite, " Tyll Eulenspiegel. This is Wernher der Gartener, who wrote " Meier Helm- brecht. As his father will not permit him to go on his travels, he defies him and joins a robber-band.
After having returned home and told his adventures, supposed to be courtly, but really only of drinking and wild revels, he goes back to his robber companions, followed by his sister. She is on the point of being married to one of the robbers, when the officers of justice swoop down upon them ; Helmbrecht is blinded as a punishment, and afterwards driven away and finally hanged by the peasants.
The satire is written as a warning against the rising discontent of the times. SIDE by side with the epic or narrative poem, lyricism, practised by princes, even emperors, was in its mediaeval glory. Heinrich von Veldeke, already men- tioned among the epic poets as the author of an JEneid, did essential service to poetry in general by the intro- duction of purer rhyme, by which the mere assonance of an earlier period was now entirely superseded.
Veldeke's lyric poetry is gray and lively, extensive in volume and excellent in kind. He was one of the founders of "Minne- poesie" Love-poetry , and seems to have been of espe- cially susceptible and lively temperament. His graceful songs bear witness to this: As a rule the lyric poets " Minnesinger " sons of the troubadours as they are, having inherited the mantle of the old " Spielmann " and added to it the courtly grace of a chivalrous age are witty, bright and lively, whatever shortcomings may fall to their share.
Minnegesanq was not wholly devoted to songs of love though that was its primary object. We may divide the subjegts into three classes: Political songs, celebrating the service of Jeudal lords. There were three principal forms: Das Lied, the strophe of which contained two equal parts called " Stollen," and one unequal part called " Abge- sang. Der Leich, having metrical changes. Der Spruch, which contained a religious or political doctrine. There are three valuable collections of the lyrics of this 1.
The Pariser Handschrift so called because the MS. The Heidelberger Handschrift, now in Stuttgart. Spervogel, who wrote on the subject of worldly wisdom. Hitter von Kiirenberg wrote in the popular, as dis- tinguished from the courtly style, and used the Mbelungen- strophe.
Dietmar von Aist also wrote in the popular manner, and used for his songs short lines rhyming in pairs. Friedrich von Hausen, a knight from the Palatinate who was in high favour with Frederick Barbarossa, died while on the Crusade, in , shortly before the death of the Emperor. In his love-songs he laments the necessity of leaving his lady for the holy war, and is fond of repre- senting conflicting emotions.
Reinmar von Hagenau gives utterance to interminable lamentations of unrequited love. His style is flowing and full of melody, but a certain artificiality shows itself in his verse ; fashion rather than feeling is his motive power. VValther von der Vogelweide. His name is the greatest among the writers of Minnepoesie. It was his to show the wide-reaching influence of song, and as withlihe qagdern French chansonmer, politics played an important part in his widely-sung lyrics.
Hearken all the world, I have a fief! His fresh and striking pictures impress themselves at once on the imagination That wearisome- ness of detail, that artificial piling of figure upon figure, the one destroying the other, which marks the poet made, not born, is nowhere to be found in Walther. If he is describ- ing a maiden, some happy characteristic, dashed in with one touch, brings her before the mind's eye at once. One telling line in the opening of a lyric takes the place of whole verses of details. Again, in his political songs and " Spriiche " he never fails to hit the mark he aims at.
Walther von der Yogel- weide is the greatest of all the Minnesingers, and Minne- gesang, having in him reached its culminating excellence, begins after him to decline. The degeneration of " Minne " had already begun before thejdeath of its greatest repre- sentative in The ever-recurring plaint of the Minor Minnesingers is the degeneracy of the times, and the avarice of men who should be the patrons of poets.
A few names only can be mentioned here: Heinrich von Meissen, died , called "Frauenlob" from the subject of one of his poems. There had been a discussion as to the relative value of the two words, " Weib " and "Frau. His " praise of women " reaches its climax in his laudation of the Blessed Virgin. Ulrich von Lichtenstein wrote his own memoirs from , entitled " Frauendienst. Although a marrieomari" with a family a circumstance which appeared to him an insignificant detail he served two ladies, and for them performed the wildest and most extravagant feats.
At another time lie had an operation performed on his mouth because she expressed herself dis- satisfied with the shape. Ulrich von Lichtenstein's lyrics, which are interspersed in " Frauendienst," deserve to be classed after those of Walther von der Vogelweide. One of the writers of this period, -whose songs show the enmity existing betweed the rich peasants and the poor nobility in Austria and Bavaria, was Neidhart von Reuenthal died about , whose special claim to popularity consisted in charmingly witty and grace- ful dancing-songs, partly to be sung in the open air in the summer dances, partly for winter dancing under cover.
He mingled village poetry with the courtly style, and was often sarcastic as well as humorous. During the decline of Minnegesang the Streitgedicht, re- lating the minstrel- war in the Wartburg, was written by an unknown poet about Landgrave Hermann of Thuringia was an enthusiastic patron of minstrels, and so freely hospitable that Walther von der Yogelweide warned those who were "Ohrenkrank" not to come to that assemblage of " Bose und Gute.
Heinrich von Ofterdingen, a poet only mentioned here, Wolfram von Eschenbach and Walther von der Yogelweide. Heinrich von Ofterdingen sings the praises of the Archduke of Austria, Wolfram and Walther urge the superiority of Hermann of Thuringia. The poem is in reality a kind of apotheosis of Wolfram von Eschenbach, who is made to overcome an enchanter by the power of his universal knowledge, and unconquerable eloquence.
When, however, this poem was written, the glory of Minnegesang had passed away, and the years of scarcity which, in all literatures, seem to follow the years of fatness, had begun. As early as the twelfth century didactic poetry had begun to be in vogue. In the beginning of the thirteenth a Herr von Windsbach, called " Winsbeke," earned himself the honour of being the only nobleman of the Middle High German period who wrote a didactic poem, the Winsbeke, counsels of a knight to his son. The Winsbekin, advice of a mother to her daughter, is a pendant to the " Winsbeke," written by an unknown author.
He gives, among other things, systematic teaching in etiquette: Freidank, who accompanied Friedrich Barbarossa to the Crusade in , wrote a more popular work than that of Zirclaria, which he named " Bescheidenheit. Freidank was a warm supporter of the Emperor. He allows three classes only a place in the social system Peasants, Nobles, Clergy. Traders he considers the outcome of evil. Hugo von Trimberg wrote, about , a satirical poem called the "Renner" against the deceib and flattery of chivalry.
Fables and " Beispiele," i. Strieker, who has been referred to as the author of " Pfaffe Amis," wrote largely in those styles. Ulrich Bonar, a preaching monk, was the author of a: Latin remained the language of science during the Middle High German period, but it is to be noticed that two friars, Brother David von Augsberg and Brother Berthold von Regensburg both died in preached in German.
The German Empire was in itself too much distracted for literature to nourish. The Emperors, far from extending encouragement to letters, had their hands full enough in the attempt to maintain their own power. The clergy had degenerated ; prosperity had spoilt them, and they were in need of that persecution which acts as the refiner's fire. The people, left to their own devices, were wild and lawless, and quickly lost the power of appreciation of poetic ideals which had dis- tinguished them in the first Bliitezeit. What writers there were, at this time, were of such inferior order that their mediocrity scarcely merits casual mention in what is only intended to be an introduction to the study of German Literature.
This period will, therefore, be treated as cursorily as possible. The " Mystiker" Mystics , the first philosophers in the German language, of whom the chief was Meister Eckart, died in , at Cologne, were the sole opponents of the universal lawlessness. They taught that everything earthly is vanity, and that the one worthy aim of life is the striving after perfect union of the soul with God.
Their influence was probably felt chiefly, though not solely, in monasteries. Dissatisfaction with the clergy was growing among the people. The begging friars who had professed and practised poverty, still professed but practised it no longer. Rulman Mersivin, , a layman, wrote bitterly against the Church in faulty, tedious prose. The Plague, " Black Death," which ravaged Germany from , was another hindrance to development of all kinds, but at last the Drama seemed to be awakening in this unfruitful time.
The Rise of the Drama in Germany has much in common with its rise in other European countries. First came the sacred plays, one of the earliest of which is Von den Mugen und thorichten Jungfrauen, played at Eisenach in , and Mysteries, Moralities, Carnival-plays succeeded each other with the scenic shortcomings of early dramatic art in England.
As time went on, the comic element developed in season and out of season. The modern hatred of the Jewish usurer is foreshadowed in the representation of Judas as testing the thirty pieces of silver, to see if they are good coin. Scholars attempted to popularize Latin plays. JReuchlin composed in Latin " Henno," which was acted in , and contains the same story as the French "Maitre Pathelin," and from time to time Latin plays were reproduced.
The Epic of the Period is represented by the Tier epos, illustrating the cunning of the fox and his tricks played on the other animals. It had already been introduced from France at an earlier epoch, and made its second appear- ance in Germany at the end of the fifteenth century.
Lyric Poetry found its expression in early popular ballads Volkslieder , of which Germany possesses so many treasures. The Meistersanger were attempting to continue the work of the Minnesanger, in a studied and systematic manner. Minnegesang was still heard only in faint echoes, the " Spielmann " was a thing of the past, but in the towns poetic guilds were beginning. Before becoming " Meister," the aspirant had to pass through four preliminary grades in the " Meisterschule. During the time of the eclipse of poetry, learning revived. Humanismus, study of the humanities, began.
The uni- versities were at work. Erfurt, soon to feel the shock of the Reformation, had in eight humanist professors. The Didactic School found a representative in Sebastian Brant, who died in He translated Cato's Moral Maxims a mediaeval Latin poem , revised Freidank's " Bescheidenheit," and was the author of a long satirical poem Das Narrenschif. Woodcuts are given in the book, which appeared in , and its popularity was great. A Latin translation made the " Narrenschiff " known in all Europe.
A satirical writer of great power, whose work resembles that of Sebastian Brant, was the adversary of Luther, Thomas Murner, a Franciscan monk, who died in His Narrenbeschworung was another assemblage of fools, described in better verse than Brant's. Murner beschworen," and " Schelmenzunft," and " Gauchmatte. Martin Luther, born , died , in addition to his origination of the great religious upheaval of the time, which need not be considered here, performed the greatest possible work for language and literature by providing a standard of speech in his Translation of tine Bible.
In England, Chaucer's " Can- terbury Tales " had produced an analogous effect ; in Germany, hitherto, though High German was struggling to the front, the dialects still maintained a certain footing. A standard was wanting, and that standard Luther's Bible became. He determined, in , to attempt the great work ; in March, , he left his retirement in the Wartburg, having finished the New Testament. The whole Bible first appeared in six divisions in , and revised editions were afterwards published. Luther mainly employed the language of the Saxon chancery. At first dialect hampered him, but clearness came with his rapid writing, and the language stood a thorough and solid foundation for the Modern German of to-day.
The invention of printing, as in other countries, fixed the forms of the language, and aided in establishing uniformity. The translation of the Bible is Luther's greatest, but not his only literary work. His pamphlets belong chiefly to religious controversy rather than to literature, but they possessed a forcible style, varied to the varying occasion, and unfailing fertility in figure. As a hymn-writer, of such hymns as " Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott," his claim to admiration is undoubted ; indeed he is not only the founder of the German Protestant hymn, but, until the most modern times, he remains unsurpassed in it.
Of the latter the principal, Thomas Murner, has already been named. Jahrhundert befindet sich der Altar auf der Marienburg. Die Urschrift aus dem Ende des Jahrhunderts getreu nachgebildet von Adolf Matthias Hildebrandt. Mit einem Vorworte und Bemerkungen von Gustav A. Der heemeyster van prusen ; zu dem Wappenbuch vgl.
Eine neue Zeit bricht an
Claes Heinen, roi d'armes des Ruyers, hg. Paul Adam-Even S. Paravicini , Malereien wie Anm. Marian Biskup , Jan Dlugosz: Ulrich von Richental , Chronik des Constanzer Concils bis , hg. In die Suchmaschine bitte "Richental" eingeben! Berlin, Staatsbibliothek PK, Ms. Rheude, Faksimilia aus einem alten Wappenbuch, Deutscher Herold. Mitteilungen 51 S. Verzeichnis der Handschriften der Stiftsbibliothek von St. Hundert Kostbarkeiten aus der Stiftsbibliothek St.
Gallen, beschrieben von dems. London, Lambeth Palace, Ms.
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Chronik des Deutschherrenordens, in: Acht Jahrhunderte Deutscher Orden in Einzeldarstellungen, hg. Siegfried von Feuchtwangen bei Hennenberger: Werner Uhlich wie Anm. Amts- und Famwappen Feuchtwangen Hennenberger ; Abb. Amts- und Famwappen Jungingen Hennenberger. Stephan Kwiatkowski und Janusz Mallek S. Zu den Fleurs de Lys im Mittelalter: Nickel , Hochmeisterwappen wie Anm.
Zu den Bedeutungen stauferzeitlicher Adler vgl. Vierteljahrsschrift 5 S. Catalogo della mostra, hg. Ein Blick in bisher unbeachtete Quellen, in: Franz-Reiner Erkens S. Hierzu, zu weiteren Quellen und ihrer Bewertung vgl. Die "Goldbulle von Rimini" wird neuerdings auf statt auf datiert und uminterpretiert; vgl. Diese Frage bedarf einer eigenen Untersuchung. Etwa zur selben Zeit hat auch Erzherzog Maximilian I. Dieselbe Tradition spiegeln folgende Hochmeisterlisten ohne Wappen: HA OF , fol.
Iv-2r [Hochmeisterliste in Reinschrift], 2v-3r [Landmeisterliste in Reinschrift] 5r-7r [Hochmeisterliste als Konzept], 7v-8r [Landmeisterliste als Konzept], [unpaginiert vor 9]vr [Berechnungen der Regierungsjahre der Hochmeister]. Schrift und Inhalt weisen mit einer Ausnahme auf das Die wichtigsten Unterschiede listet Roth wie Anm. Adelsbriefe, Toronto , unpaginiert zu Blatt HA OBA , fol. Die Datierung der Wappenskizze auf um erfolgte mittels eines Buchstabenvergleichs mit: Ich danke meinem Mann, Dr.
Herr Heinrich von Gottes gnaden Administrator des Hochmeisterthumbs in Preussen Meister Deutschen Ordens inn deutschen unnd welschen landenn mit 17 Namen von Mitgliedern des Ordensrates], [zu einzelnen Balleien und zu Verhandlungen auf Reichstagen in Regensburg und Frankfurt]. Die "Chronik" Mehlmanns ist u. Das Schloss des Deutschen Ordens, bearb. Weitere Beispiele, die von Hartknoch wie Anm. Lotte Kurras , Art.
Redation benutzte Chronik von Balthasar Russow: Thom andermal Gerdruecket vnde mit etliken Historien vormehret Goethe hat bis wenige Monate vor seinem Tod an Dichtung und Wahrheit gearbeitet, deren vierter Teil nur in der provisorischen Redaktion vom Herbst vorliegt. Goethe plante - der Obertitel zeigt es - noch wenige Jahre vor seinem Tode eine Gesamtdarstellung seines Lebens bis , wie auch aus seiner Anzeige der "Ausgabe letzter Hand" vom 1. Bringt ja selbst die gemeinste Chronik etwas von dem Geiste der Zeit mit, in der sie geschrieben wurde.
Hinter der Feier des Siegs verbirgt sich eine anspruchsvolle Selbstrechtfertigung Goethes. Das aber ist die Bestimmung des Dichters, an der Goethe sein Leben lang festgehalten hat. Auch von ihrer zyklischen Form her bilden die Sonette dessen Auftakt. In seinem Brief an Zelter vom Damit hat er die beiden wohl wesentlichsten Kennzeichen seines Altersstils bezeichnet: Das Symbolische und Zyklische sind eng aufeinander bezogen, Aspekte desselben Sachverhalts.
Das zeigt besonders deutlich Goethes Brief an Iken vom Als er sich im folgenden Sommer zum dritten Mal auf den Weg in die Heimat macht, bricht eine Achse seines Reisewagens. Hier haben wir drei Formeln, die treffend Inhalt und Stil des Divan kennzeichnen. Goethe hat die persische Poesie mit einem "orientalischen Basar" verglichen: Die bedeutendsten der weltanschaulichen Gedichte sind Prooemion erschienen ; in der "Ausgabe letzter Hand" das Einleitungsgedicht der Gruppe Gott und Welt: Allein "Elpis", die Hoffnung transzendiert die Notwendigkeit auf ein Reich grenzenloser Freiheit hin.
Erst nimmt Goethe die Arbeit am zweiten Teil der Wanderjahre entschlossen wieder auf. Wie diese als ganze zu den Lehrjahren umgearbeitet wurde, so verwandelt sich die Arbeit am zweiten Teil der Wanderjahre in eine Neufassung des gesamten Werks, das als Band der "Ausgabe letzter Hand" erscheint. Durch die Wanderschaft ist der Roman nicht nur thematisch, sondern auch strukturell bestimmt, werden durch sie doch die diversen "Bezirke" miteinander verbunden. Eben dadurch weisen die Wanderjahre auf spezifische Strukturmerkmale des modernen Romans voraus.
Was diese Kritiker zu Recht erkannt haben: Wir begegnen einer geistig-ethisch substanzlos werdenden, wenn auch an ihren Standeskonventionen und -werten festhaltenden gesellschaftlichen Schicht, einer teils ins Leichtfertig-Spielerische entartenden das "Affenwesen" Lucianes und ihrer Schar , teils nach den Worten Arnims an Bettina Brentano, 5. Durch die Steigerung der Novelle zum tragischen Roman hat Goethe sich deutlich von Schiller entfernt, der das Tragische dem Drama vorbehalten wissen wollte. In seinem Brief vom Januar , und er setzt hinzu: Goethe hat in seinem Brief an Schiller vom 9.
Der Schauplatz der Wahlverwandtschaften ist ein Symbolraum, in dem die Dinge trotz ihrer realistischen Konkretheit durch leitmotivische Wiederkehr und wechselseitige Spiegelung sich zu einem dichten Beziehungsgeflecht von Chiffren zusammenziehen. Charlotte, die zweite weibliche Person des tragischen Quartetts, gelangt zu der Einsicht: Die Entfesselung von Elementen und wilden Tieren ist - im positiven wie negativen Sinne - ein beliebtes Bild der Revolution im Schrifttum der Zeit gewesen. A ls ich meinen abgeschlossenen Faust einsiegelte, war mir denn doch nicht ganz wohl dabei zumute.