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The Art of Happiness, 10th Anniversary Edition: A Handbook for Living. Instead, Peck promotes self-discipline as the foundation of sustainable personal and spiritual development. The Road Less Traveled preaches acceptance of the tribulations of life, and focuses on how to exist peacefully with these realities. The main strategies Peck employs are delayed gratification and acceptance of responsibility. By accepting responsibility for every action of our daily lives, no matter how mundane, we eliminate the bad habits and limiting beliefs holding us back from unlocking our potential.

Predictably Irrational dives into the factors that make up our decision-making process. Ariely begins by defining rational thought and how what we think of as rational thoughts are often irrational. The first chapter sets up the rest of the theories by discussing how humans use relatively to make their decisions. The negative side of this thought process causes us to feel inferior because we constantly compare our lives to others. Ariely continues to illustrate how we as consumers assign value to objects based on desirability, availability, and quality; and how all three of these qualities are completely arbitrary.

The values of self-control and self-awareness are what makes Predictably Irrational a self-help classic. Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Power of Positive Thinking paved the way for the self-help book centered on the theory of positive thinking as the sole determining factor in what we get out of life. The Power of Positive Thinking teaches readers how to break the habit of worrying about things outside of their control. It gives practical exercises designed to get the reader to focus their negative energy into positive energy directed towards achieving their goals.

These exercises show readers how to embrace their inner power and realize they deserve to receive even their wildest dreams if only they align themselves with the energy of positive thought. The Power of Positive Thinking. This self-help classic has sold over 35 million copies worldwide in over 30 languages. You Can Heal Your Life teaches readers how to re-think their view of disease. She teaches her readers that most physical disease is a manifestation of emotional and spiritual unwellness.

Hay shows how to heal disease by healing the mind and spirit. The primary strategy for healing our thoughts is through affirmations. These are positive messages that the reader writes down or reads aloud every day to reinforce mental and spiritual strength. You Can Heal Your Life. This book from Deepak Chopra embodies core Hindu beliefs and gives readers the tools to apply these spiritual laws to their daily lives. There are seven laws that structure the book, and they are:. Each law is coupled with several strategies and anecdotes to help readers incorporate these laws into their attitude towards life.

A reoccurring theme throughout each law is the idea that the world is like a boomerang; whatever you throw out into the world will come back to you. This book is a great compliment for those who live the fast-paced western lifestyle. The Seven Spiritual Laws of Success: How to Stop Worrying and Start Living has stood the test of time as one of the most popular self-help books on the market over 60 years after its first publication. The book is divided into the following 8 sections: The 8th section provides various stories, from all types of people, which show how they used these strategies to conquer worry and live a fulfilled life.

How to Stop Worrying and Start Living. This book highlights the role storytelling plays in the development of the human psyche. It is a companion to the , six-part documentary series on PBS, in which Campbell discusses the role of myth throughout human history. He discusses how we can use these myths to interpret our own internal struggles.

The Power of Myth. The Magic of Thinking Big was first published in and its philosophies on setting goals still hold true. It preaches the importance of setting lofty goals and embracing the power of positive thought to achieve these goals. Another core concept is the power of visualization. Schwartz provides strategies for visualizing yourself achieving your goals and channeling that feeling for motivation. As these visualizations start manifesting themselves, the next step is to spread the good news.

Broadcasting good news sends out gratitude to the universe and keeps the positive cycle flowing. The Magic of Thinking Big. The Seat of the Soul provides a unique take on life that blends science, philosophy, and spirituality. The main message Zukav stresses is the idea of humans going through a psychological and spiritual evolution. This evolution involves a shift from external power to internal power. Zukav defines external power as power acquired and defined by our 5 senses.

This power is false power since it can be taken away by external forces. Internal power is authentic power since it is completely generated by the individual. The Seat of the Soul: Awaken the Giant Within is a collection of strategies for enacting change from self-help guru Tony Robbins. Robbins states the reason people struggle with change is they are not aware of the behaviors and reasons behind bad habits. Removing the limiting thought patterns that keep one stuck in their current position allows one to unlock seemingly endless possibilities for achievement.

Robbins conveys this information through easy to understand prose, which makes Awaken the Giant Within a wonderful read. Awaken the Giant Within: An interesting fact about The 48 Laws of Power is it is one of the most requested books among American prisoners. It is also a favorite of world leaders like Fidel Castro and hip-hop superstars such as 50 Cent. Greene presents these laws with actionable steps for the average reader to incorporate into their approach to life.

The book covers areas such as negotiations, how to get people to do what you want, and how to maintain the ideal relationship with superiors in the workplace. The 48 Laws of Power is a staple for anyone looking to rise to the top of their career. The 48 Laws of Power. As A Man Thinketh is a self-help book revolving around the theory of responsibility assumption.

Responsibility assumption states that humans have complete and total control of the external events that happen to them. The basic theory is man shapes his world, and therefore himself, by his thoughts. While originally published with Christians in mind, this book has evolved in the modern era as a self-help book that transcends all faiths.

As a Man Thinketh. Taleb breaks down the various ways humans assign meaning to a series of independent random events. Taleb opens with 2 basic fallacies of our perception of randomness. The first is that we tend to over-estimate cause and effect. Our brains are wired to make connections between events to formulate a reaction. The second fallacy is we view the world as explainable when in reality there is no explanation for the succession of independent and random events that make up reality.

Brown extrapolates this theory on vulnerability throughout her book. The book begins with a discussion on how humans by nature do not put themselves in vulnerable situations since our reptilian brain relies on this risk assessment to stay safe. The reality is most risks that pop up in our daily lives are not life or death, and our reptilian brain limits us by keeping us away from feeling vulnerable.

Daring Greatly helps readers free themselves from the prison of vulnerability, and to see being vulnerable as a desirable emotional state. The authors also give a 4-quadrant chart to organize daily tasks. The four categories are:.


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Readers put every task through this classification in order to figure out the most efficient schedule for their weekly planners. This book is all about self-hate, and how self-hate is a main factor in stopping us from achieving our goals. Huber starts with defining self-hate. She discusses the different ways self-hate manifests itself and how this negative self-image keeps us from having the confidence necessary for success.

The book also discusses the role self-hate plays in addiction and other harming behaviors. Huber provides a strategy based on daily meditation to foster a feeling of unconditional love towards oneself. She teaches readers how to embrace their flaws as well as the flaws in others. Once we accept that we are our own worst critic, we are free to pursue our full potential. There Is Nothing Wrong with You: Codependent No More has helped millions of people break free of the prison of codependent relationships.

Battie defines codependence as relying on relationships with others for our own self-worth and happiness. Her book is a guide in working through the reasons for this codependence and helps the reader foster internal happiness. Codependent No More made its mark as the first book on codependence written for the average reader.

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This brought the codependent relationship to the forefront of communicative theory. Battie shows how those who try to help an addict or someone who is depressed can provide the breeding ground for an unhealthy codependent relationship. She provides readers with strategies on how to help others emotionally without becoming an external source of their happiness.

A Return to Love was one of the first books ever endorsed by Oprah and has sold over 3 million copies worldwide. It has been credited as one of the main driving forces for bringing the concept of spiritual well-being to the American mainstream. It has been an essential tool in helping millions unlock a spiritual path to happiness for over 20 years. A Return to Love: The Brain That Changes Itself is a personal development book on the topic of neuroplasticity.

Neuroplasticity is the idea that the wiring of the brain that controls our habits and thought patterns are constantly changing. The book uses case studies of people with brain injuries to illustrate how other areas of the brain adapt to compensate for the injured area. This research supports the biological level of neuroplasticity.

He highlights how repeating an action or skill over a long period of time actually re-wires the neurons in the brain. The Brain That Changes Itself: Starting Strength is widely regarded as one of the best barbell-training guides on the market. This 3rd edition is updated with new testimonials and expanded exercises to maximize results. This book is a great read for those looking to build muscle. Most people see weight training in the gym in front of others as intimidating. The book contains illustrations for each exercise so readers can see how each exercise is performed.

Basic Barbell Training, 3rd edition. The Success principles is a culmination of the tips, tricks, and skills Jack Canfield has developed over 30 years as a best-selling author and motivational speaker. Canfield carries the feel-good tone of the Chicken Soup for the Soul series into this self-help classic. Throughout the book Canfield provides stories of famous celebrities and significant people from history who have used these principles to achieve greatness.

With daily practice these principles of success can fast track anyone to realizing their goals. Murphy teaches his readers how the subconscious is the key to many aspects of life, including:. Murphy uses scientific research to back his claims regarding the power of the subconscious. The Power of Your Subconscious Mind. The Science of Getting Rich helped define the self-help genre with its publication in The first page paraphrases the Hindu philosophy of Oneness, which ties into all of the ideas portrayed throughout the book. Wattles theorizes that the most efficient way to get rich is through cooperative creation instead of selfish competition.

The Science of Getting Rich is a superb read for those who want a self-help book whose advice has stood the test of time. The Science of Getting Rich. Unlimited power is another self-help masterpiece from motivational speaker Tony Robbins. The main message is that humans are born with all the power they need to achieve their dreams. Power is not acquired through gathering wealth, resources, or romance.

Moore combines research from renowned Psychologists, such as Carl Jung, with spiritual truths to provide a guide designed to nurture the soul. Moore highlights how the archetypes that pop up in ancient myths are mirrors of the human psyche, and that we all can embody any of those characteristics with proper nourishment of the soul. Care of the Soul: Kushner gives his readers timeless strategies for developing a solid foundation for handling grief. This reversal causes the stress and anxiety that come with procrastination.

Koch provides his readers with a guideline for devouring these principles and apply them to all aspects of their lives. Then Lahav and Mioduser studied the exploration strategies that participants who were blind used in a haptic and auditory virtual environment. The experiment consisted of comparing the spatial performance of two groups of participants, one exploring a real classroom and the second exploring a virtual classroom. The participants interacted with this virtual environment using a force-feedback joystick SideWinder from Microsoft.

By using this device, they could move within the virtual environment and feel an object's texture, location, and size. The analysis of the participants' explorations and descriptions of the scene showed that allocentric exploration strategies were more efficient, and confirmed that the virtual environment gave the participants who were blind better access to spatial knowledge. One of the lingering questions is: How do these virtual environments compare to information that is presented in a conventional tactile map?

The study reported here had two goals. The first goal was to gain additional insights into the utility of exploring haptic auditory representations of a spatial scene compared to a tactile map for the consistency of spatial cognitive maps elaborated by people who are blind. The blind participants explored both the map in relief tactile map and the virtual environment rendering of the same maritime geographic configuration with seamarks landmarks on the ocean.

The second goal was to determine if exploring such a virtual map can actively help coordinate egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference in virtual environments so as to build more efficient spatial cognitive maps for wayfinding and navigation in a natural environment such as an urban center. An experimental protocol requiring the participants to estimate directions between different objects in the environment was used.

The use of aligned and misaligned situations provided a mechanism for investigating the role of egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference. The role of the coordination of egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference in the development of a coherent spatial cognitive map was evaluated by the use of misaligned landmarks, which demanded the participants to associate both spatial frames of reference.

The motivation for the study was to assess the possibility of understanding space from electronic charts without vision. Indeed, navigational geographic data provide many advantages over tactile ones.

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Navigational charts are available for every place in the ocean, the scaling and panning functionalities could improve the navigational possibilities within these maps, the voice announcements could overcome some tactile discrimination limits, and input from a GPS global positioning system device could provide an updated position on the chart. In other words, the study addressed the use of numerical charts by individuals without vision to provide sailors who are blind with a future updated geographic system.

None of the participants had residual vision or light perception. Two participants were congenitally blind, and the four others lost their vision later in life at 24, 18, 23, and 42 years, respectively. The participants were recruited from a sailing association for people who are blind in Brest France , which limited our available sample size to six individuals. Even if they sailed at least once a month, none of them expected to sail on their own.

However, they were able to set up an itinerary on a tactile map and then reach the corresponding waypoints during navigation if they could use a GPS device with audio output. Usually, the sighted skipper set waypoints within the GPS from the magnets positioned by the blind sailors on the tactile map.


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All the participants used their own personal computers with text-to-speech software on a daily basis; however, they first encountered the haptic map device during the training phase of the study. In the study, we used two maps, tactile and virtual. Both were 40 centimeters wide by 30 centimeters high about 16 inches by 12 inches and 1 centimeter about. Both map scenes were the same and were unknown to the participants. We positioned a layout of six seamarks on the tactile map and used the same configuration with a sixty degree rotation on the virtual map.

Thus, the layout was the same, but the positions of the seamarks were different. We also changed the names of the seamarks to avoid any learning or confusing effect because of the order. In the tactile map, the sea was represented by smooth plastic, and the land was indicated by a rough texture generated by a mixture of sand and paint.

The salient objects were six raised markers in different geometric shapes: All the map features had undergone prior testing for legibility and ease of discrimination. This map was configured in the horizontal plane because people who are blind are most familiar with this interaction. This map exists only as a virtual environment. Participants perceive it because of the resistance of the phantom Omni haptic device.

Indeed, when the stylus position interacts with an object of the virtual environment, small electromagentic motors are launched and generate a simulation of force feedback. This interaction is further increased with auditory output. The content of the virtual map was equivalent to that of the tactile map except that it was rendered in the vertical plane. We chose it because the phantom Omni haptic device offered a wider workspace of x millimeters about 12 inches x 16 inches that corresponds to an A3 x millimeters, or about The rendering of the sea surface was soft, and sounds of waves were played when a participant touched it.

Within the virtual environment, the rendering of the earth was rough and extruded 1 centimeter from the surface of the sea. When the haptic curser came into contact with the land, the sound of the songs of birds that are found inland were played.

Comparing Tactile Maps and Haptic Digital Representations of a Maritime Environment

Between the land and the sea, the coastline was rendered as a vertical cliff that could be touched and followed. In this case, the sounds of seabirds were played. The six seamarks were generated by a spring effect, an attractor field analogous to a small magnet of 1 centimeter in diameter. When the haptic cursor contacted the seamarks, the user felt resistance, like gravity, and heard a synthetic voice that announced the names Boat, Schooner, Float, Penguin, Guillemot, and Egret of each immobile seamark.

To remove a potential learning effect during the exploration of the haptic and tactile maps, we used a crossover experimental design. If the participants were presented with exactly the same configuration of the seamarks on the tactile and virtual maps, a learning effect could occur in the second condition.

For example, after exploring the tactile map, the participants would have formed a level of spatial knowledge that would confound their learning of the same configuration in the virtual condition. To avoid any learning effect, we applied a rotation of 60 degrees to the initial configuration. To ensure that the participants mastered haptic and auditory interactions with the SeaTouch map, we trained them in the system until they were able to "navigate" easily in the virtual environment. In other words, we confirmed that they were able to follow the coastlines, move over the surface of the sea, and locate seamarks with the stylus of the haptic device.

We did not train the participants in the use of tactile maps because all the participants had already worked extensively with such maps. Before beginning any movement, the participants were informed that the ultimate purpose of the exploration phase was to obtain enough spatial knowledge to be able to answer questions about pointing to seamarks without reference to the tactile or virtual scenes. Exploring the tactile map consisted of moving fingers over the surface of the map; exploring the virtual one consisted of placing the stylus of the haptic device within the virtual environment.

In both cases, the exploration stopped when the participant could remember the names of the six seamarks and locate them on the map without confusion. The participants were told that the goal of the explorations of the tactile and virtual maps was to be able to estimate directions between the different seamarks. So as not to favor any conditions, three participants first explored the tactile map, and the other three began with the virtual one.

In line with the projective convergence technique of Hardwick, McIntyre, and Pick , we drew six triangles for each condition tactile and virtual and in each situation aligned and misaligned. After the participants explored each map, they pointed three times to each seamark from three different seamarks. Thus, for each condition, the participants answered 18 questions in an aligned situation and 18 in a misaligned situation. Data were collected from the participants by using a tactile protractor that was fixed to the table in front of them.

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The protractor's pointer was turned until the seamark's direction was estimated. To draw the corresponding triangle of a seamark, we extrapolated the estimated directions from the three starting seamarks. This data collection technique was familiar to the participants as sailors because they were used to handling a similar tool to set up their itineraries when sailing for the derivation of navigational directions.

The participants were asked to indicate angles between seamarks in two situations: In the aligned situation, a sample question was as follows: To estimate this direction, the participant could presumably work primarily from an egocentric frame of reference. In the misaligned situation, a sample question was this: In other words, the participants were forced to reorient themselves by integrating egocentric and allocentric directions. Indeed, a sailor who is blind has to process these mental-spatial operations to update his or her orientation during true navigation not necessarily facing the north and relative to the map that he or she has consulted.

Thus, this misaligned situation reflects the mental processes required by navigation. From the estimated directions, we computed triangulations. Within each series of 18 questions, each seamark was targeted three times from three other seamarks. Consequently, we were able to implement the projective convergence technique Hardwick et al. Three nonparallel lines pointing to the same location were recorded, setting out the three sides of an error triangle see Figure 1. A high level of consistency is obtained when AET is closer to 0 km 2 , whereas the consistency diminishes when AET increases.

Thus, statistical paired comparisons were performed on both map conditions tactile versus virtual in both alignment situations aligned and misaligned using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test. From a qualitative perspective, it appears that the error triangles that were generated for a typical participant were smaller in the aligned situation see Figure 2 A and B than in the misaligned situation see Figure 2C and D. Moreover, no error triangle went beyond the boundaries of either the tactile or the virtual workspace in the aligned situation, whereas some error triangles extended beyond the workspaces in the misaligned situation.

The triangles that were obtained after tactile exploration were smaller than the virtual ones that were obtained in the aligned situation see Figure 2A and B. In contrast, the tactile triangles were larger than the virtual ones in the misaligned situation see Figure 2C and D.

In other words, triangles obtained after tactile exploration can be different in size according to the alignment situations Figure 2A and C. Conversely, the size of the triangles obtained after virtual exploration remained relatively constant across the alignment situations Figure 2B and D. All the participants reported that they encountered more difficulty answering the questions in the misaligned situation.

They attributed this additional difficulty to the necessity to rotate their mental map and update their orientation prior to pointing with the protractor. We also observed these difficulties when we analyzed the data quantitatively. Indeed, AET was equal to 0.