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According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital , the biggest risk for youth sport is death or serious injury including concussion. These risks come from running, basketball, association football, volleyball, gridiron, gymnastics, and ice hockey. Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports , are sports played by persons with a disability , including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of these are based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports.

However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports. The competition element of sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in the popularity of people attending to watch sport being played.

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This has led to the specific phenomenon of spectator sport. Both amateur and professional sports attract spectators, both in person at the sport venue, and through broadcast media including radio , television and internet broadcast. Both attendance in person and viewing remotely can incur a sometimes substantial charge, such as an entrance ticket, or pay-per-view television broadcast. It is common for popular sports to attract large broadcast audiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the rights to show certain fixtures.

In the United States , the championship game of the NFL , the Super Bowl , has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year.

The Uses of Sport: A Critical Study - John Hughson, David Inglis, Marcus Free - Google Книги

Sport can be undertaken on an amateur, professional or semi-professional basis, depending on whether participants are incentivised for participation usually through payment of a wage or salary. Amateur participation in sport at lower levels is often called "grassroots sport". The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this has incentivised a high paying professional sport culture, where high performing participants are rewarded with pay far in excess of average wages, which can run into millions of dollars.

Some sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateur sport.

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The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby. Technology plays an important part in modern sport. With it being a necessary part of some sports such as motorsport , it is used in others to improve performance.

Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making.

Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology. For example, in , full-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINA , as they were enhancing swimmers' performances.

The increase in technology has also allowed many decisions in sports matches to be taken, or reviewed, off-field, with another official using instant replays to make decisions.

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In some sports, players can now challenge decisions made by officials. In Association football , goal-line technology makes decisions on whether a ball has crossed the goal line or not. The final decision rests with the referee. When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa , many sports people, particularly in rugby union , adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.

In the history of Ireland , Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of football and rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban, also known as Rule 42, [63] is still enforced, but was modified to allow football and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into Aviva Stadium. Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sport, or in its reporting: On occasion, such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue, as in the Football War.

These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants. A very famous case when sport and politics collided was the Olympics in Munich. Masked men entered the hotel of the Israeli olympic team and killed many of their men. This was known as the Munich massacre.

A study of US elections has shown that the result of sports events can affect the results.

The Uses of Sport

A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showed that when the home team wins the game before the election, the incumbent candidates can increase their share of the vote by 1. A loss had the opposite effect, and the effect is greater for higher-profile teams or unexpected wins and losses. Do not imagine that there is any bird more easily caught by decoy, nor any fish sooner fixed on the hook by wormy bait, than are all these poor fools neatly tricked into servitude by the slightest feather passed, so to speak, before their mouths.

Truly it is a marvelous thing that they let themselves be caught so quickly at the slightest tickling of their fancy. Plays, farces, spectacles, gladiators, strange beasts, medals, pictures, and other such opiates, these were for ancient peoples the bait toward slavery, the price of their liberty, the instruments of tyranny.

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The practice of athletic competitions has been criticised by some Christian thinkers as a form of idolatry , in which "human beings extol themselves, adore themselves, sacrifice themselves and reward themselves. Tertullian condemns the athletic performances of his day, insisting "the entire apparatus of the shows is based upon idolatry.

God has enjoined us to deal calmly, gently, quietly, and peacefully with the Holy Spirit, because these things are alone in keeping with the goodness of His nature, with His tenderness and sensitiveness. Well, how shall this be made to accord with the shows? For the show always leads to spiritual agitation, since where there is pleasure, there is keenness of feeling giving pleasure its zest; and where there is keenness of feeling, there is rivalry giving in turn its zest to that. Popularity of major sports by size of fan base: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Sport disambiguation. Gamesmanship and Winning isn't everything; it's the only thing. Match fixing and cheating.

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Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport. Sponsored Products are advertisements for products sold by merchants on Amazon. When you click on a Sponsored Product ad, you will be taken to an Amazon detail page where you can learn more about the product and purchase it.

To learn more about Amazon Sponsored Products, click here. David Inglis is Lecturer in Sociology at Aberdeen. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Learn more about Amazon Prime. Read more Read less.

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  7. Learn the proven techniques for becoming a more positive person. Secrets of Sports Broadcasting: Practical Advice for Sportscasting Success. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Jul 23, Malcolm rated it it was amazing Shelves: There is not much among the growing scholarly critique and analysis of sports culture that draws together strands as well as this book, and engages with sport-as-sport, rather than particular sports in particular settings, with quite the level of sophistication, subtlety, or sensitivity to diversity as this book does. The authors make a powerful case for the importance of understanding sport as culture, and for the cultural analysis of sport.

    They do so by drawing on cultural materialism as deve There is not much among the growing scholarly critique and analysis of sports culture that draws together strands as well as this book, and engages with sport-as-sport, rather than particular sports in particular settings, with quite the level of sophistication, subtlety, or sensitivity to diversity as this book does. They do so by drawing on cultural materialism as developed by Raymond Williams and others in British school of cultural studies this is most emphatically not cultural materialism a la Marvin Harris and North American anthropology.

    The case is carried through wide reading in and beyond the field of sports studies, considerable research experience across a range of places and subjects, and a nuanced sense of the fit between sociology, history and cultural studies. However, I am not sure about the target audience other than someone like me — academic analyst of sport.

    As good as it is, I think many of my students would find the assumed levels of social and theoretical analysis off-putting, not that I won't expect them to read it and use it, and I may have done my students a disservice there. But all in all, an extremely useful overview of and case for the cultural analysis of sport, and should be required for all sociology of sport and many sport history students! I have to confess here that one of the authors is a pal, and Facebook buddy.

    There is a longer version of this as part of a review essay published in Sport in History - an academic journal - see http: John rated it it was amazing Feb 06, Geoff rated it it was amazing Mar 28,