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They need examples to help them which they can find in the cognitive approach. ESL teachers may use these common ways of teaching writing, but they need first to understand their student's difficulties. Learning writing is one of the essential difficulties that ESL students find in studying English, especially since writing is important in an academic community.

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Some ESL students may need to jump from being a student who does not speak English ever to a student who uses academic language in a short time which may put a large burden on their shoulders. Hence, teaching writing to ESL students is different than teaching native speakers. It would be helpful if ESL teachers look at these different ways of teaching writing to see which one addresses ESL students' difficulties in the best way or if a combination of these theories may be better. For example, Maxine Hairston's "Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing" advocates for students' expressivist writing to be central in a composition course, and believes students "need to write to find out how much they know and to gain confidence in the ability to express themselves effectively" Connecting College Composition to Culture" describes how studies in "little narratives [that] almost all examine literacy in particular local settings" championed by scholars who "seldom make theoretical statements that claim to be valid for literate cultures in general or literate cultures in general," which would allow students to engage in cultural critique Furthermore, In Empowering Education, Ira Shor delineates a pedagogy in which the teacher facilitates discussion of generative themes produced by the students, using the example of his basic writing course with working-class students at "a low-budget college in New York City" several decades ago From the many linguistic and sociological items…the educators selected some key concerns—generative themes expressed through generative words" For Shor's classroom, "[t]he generative themes [that have] emerg[ed]…from student culture have most often related to sex, abortion, drugs, family, education, careers, work, and the economic crisis" Shor also reviews Paolo Freire's literacy project in Brazil as described in Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed , which enforces the idea that all people are creators of culture through visuals, oral discussion, and creation of word lists that are the basis for which the people begin to use language to express how the dominant culture operates, how their home culture operates, and how these systemic actions impact themselves and the world Freire Shor insists "subject matter is best introduced as problems related to student experience, in language familiar to them" Overall, previous scholars' discussion of multiculturalism in the classroom seems to privilege "cross-cultural interactions" and valuing students' home languages as well as their cultural ideologies.

The Function of Theory in Composition Studies

However, in Donald Lazere's Political Literacy in Composition and Rhetoric , Lazere criticizes Hairston, Daniell, Schutz, Gere, and other scholars for their approaches because of their singular focus on localism in lieu of more "global" and critical approaches to the study of culture in the composition classroom Lazere's critique of previous scholarship related to multiculturalism pedagogies, in Political Literacy in Composition and Rhetoric and elsewhere, has prompted current composition theorists, both in second-language writing and in the field of composition in general, to consider how multicultural pedagogies can embrace globalism as much as localism.

For example, Lisa Eck's "Thinking Globally, Teaching Locally" describes how Eck teaches world literature courses in which students read cultural narratives and problematize them—in the article, she references her use of Tsitsi Dangarembga's Nervous Conditions in her composition classroom.

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In her approach, she engages students in the kind of literary criticism that is necessary for analyzing and evaluating critical discourse: I [also] use the Otherness of the cultures reproduced in foreign texts to estrange the American familiar" Wilson's approach to critical pedagogy in second-language writing as she describes it in her article, "Engaging Second Language Writers in Freshman Composition: A Critical Approach," utilizes a perspective that provides opportunities for the types of writing necessary for students to critically analyze and evaluate ideologies entrenched in the dominant discourse, even as they are learning English as their second language.

For example, in addition to incorporating "local topics," Wilson provides options for students to "investigate language use in certain communities, societies, or cultures" as well as "investigating" the relationships between language and power Because academic discourse is not monolithic in other words, there are curricula that address that the concept of academic discourse can be applied to specific parts of a writing curriculum , many compositionists have created a writing across the curriculum WAC movement that situates writing-intensive instruction in specific academic discourse communities.

Many university writing programs include writing in the disciplines WID courses, which focus on the genres and writing procedures that occur within specific fields of research.

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  • Many universities not in North America only offer writing instruction via writing centers. Since multimodality has resonated with Composition Studies, many writing centers have developed associated centers to support students' multimodal, multimedia composing.

    Some models for this work include the digital studio and the multiliteracy center.


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Function of Theory in Composition Studies starts out heavy on theory and may require some readers to deploy patience and consideration.

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    The function of theory in composition studies is to provide generalized accounts of what writing is and how it works. These accounts can both guide and derive from the results of empirical research and, in the case of student writing, from classroom practice. Contrary to the beliefs of some composition theorists, it is possible and, more importantly, necessary for composition studies to have an agenda for inquiry comprised of theory and empirical research in a mutually informing relationship.

    The purpose is to analyze how the field of composition has made it to our present state of affairs without such an agenda dominating our practice.

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    There is no meaningful discussion of practice in this book that limits its immediate usefulness to those in the trenches of writing instruction. But what makes this different from other texts preoccupied with theory is the hopefulness and faith in the taken-for-granted complexities of writing. Historically, readers are told, there has been a subordination of rhetoric to ideology in the writing class Datenanalyse, Abstimmung und Entwicklung Handbuch.

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