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Perhaps the biggest effect of information technology on warfare will be the elimination of the concept of a front, according to Berkowitz. If fronts persist at all, they will live in cyberspace where info-warriors battle not over turf, but over control of routers, operating systems, and firewalls. Well-timed, pinpoint computer network attacks will be much more likely. But, regardless of its accuracy, his book surfaces critical questions for the Intelligence Community. First, the things he gets right and what these mean for intelligence: Information technology has changed warfare not by degree, but in kind, so that victory will increasingly go to combatants who maneuver bits faster than their adversaries.

As countries like China, India, Pakistan, and Russia grow their IT talent base—and IT market share—faster than the United States, the strengths of their intelligence services will likely increase relative to those of US intelligence. Because cyber-wars will be played out on landscapes of commercial IT, intelligence agencies will need new alliances with the private sector, akin to existing relationships between nation states.

And the Intelligence Community will have to confront knotty problems such as: The growing importance of IT in warfare will also change the way intelligence agencies support atom-based conflicts. New technology will collect real-time intelligence for fast-changing tactical engagements, but the mainstay product of the Intelligence Community, serialized reports, is far too slow for disseminating these high-tech indications and warnings. Faster means of delivering—and protecting—raw collection must be devised, so that real-time intelligence can be sent directly to shooters without detouring through multiple echelons of military intelligence analysts.

Also, remote sensors designed to report on the capabilities, intentions, and activities of armed forces, will not find lone terrorists. Radically new sensing networks that blanket the globe will be needed to collect pinpoint intelligence on individual targets.

The distinction between intelligence and tactical operations data such as contact reports and significant activity reports will blur as national intelligence means are focused on real-time tactical missions. Now, the areas in which The New Face of War misses the mark: First, military power in the future will not flow solely from precision zapping and deployment of small, networked forces. Some missions, such as peacekeeping, will always demand the highly visible presence of large forces. The bottom line is that as intelligence agencies get better at tracking and collecting on individuals terrorists, they will still need robust targeting and force protection capabilities against large conventional forces.

The evolution of media, with which we began this discussion, teaches powerful lessons about the folly of too quickly abandoning the old for the new. The printing press did not abolish handwriting; motion pictures did not kill live theater; television did not doom radio; and the Internet did not extinguish magazines. For each of these transitions from old to new, there were plenty of pundits who prophesized the demise of legacy forms of communication at the hands of new information technology.

Berkowitz is in good company, though. The US Air Force was so sure that close air combat was obsolete, that the first F-4 fighters did not have cannons. Excerpts from an April report compiled from sixteen U. In the United Kingdom , critics have claimed that the Blair government used the War on Terror as a pretext to radically curtail civil liberties, some enshrined in law since Magna Carta.

For example, the detention-without-trial in Belmarsh prison: European Convention on Human Rights impose on the government a "legal obligation" to investigate and prevent potential torture and human rights violations.


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Bush's remark of November claiming that "You're either with us or you are with the terrorists," [22] has been a source of criticism. Keaney of Johns Hopkins University's Foreign Policy Institute said "it made diplomacy with a number of different countries far more difficult because obviously there are different problems throughout the world.

I think that history is definitely repeating itself and for the Muslim world and I think even a great part of the non-Muslim world now, are beginning to recognize that there are ambitions that the United States has on the lands and wealth of nations of Islam. University of Chicago professor and political scientist, Robert Pape has written extensive work on suicide terrorism and states that it is triggered by military occupations , not extremist ideologies.

In works such as Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism and Cutting the Fuse , he uses data from an extensive terrorism database and argues that by increasing military occupations, the US government is increasing terrorism. In , a National Intelligence Estimate stated that the war in Iraq has increased the threat of terrorism.

The estimate was compiled by 16 intelligence agencies and was the first assessment of global terrorism since the start of the Iraq war. Cornelia Beyer explains how terrorism increased as a response to past and present military intervention and occupation, as well as to 'structural violence'.

Structural violence, in this instance, refers to economic conditions of backwardness which are attributed to the economic policies of the Western nations, the United States in particular. British Liberal Democrat politician Shirley Williams wrote that the United States and United Kingdom governments "must stop to think whether it is sowing the kind of resentment which is the seedbed of future terrorism. Department of State as a terrorist organization, sparking criticism.

In , New York Times terrorism reporter Rukmini Callimachi said "there are more terrorists now than there are on the eve of September 11, not less There are more terror groups now, not less. The alleged mastermind behind the September 11, attacks was part of the mujahideen who were sponsored, armed, trained and aided by the CIA to fight the Soviet Union after it intervened in Afghanistan in Venezuela accused the U.

As many critics have pointed, out, terrorism is not an enemy. It is a tactic. Because the United States itself has a long record of supporting terrorists and using terrorist tactics , the slogans of today's war on terrorism merely makes the United States look hypocritical to the rest of the world. A prudent American president would end the present policy of "sustained hysteria" over potential terrorist attacks.. In the months leading up to the invasion of Iraq, President Bush and members of his administration indicated they possessed information which demonstrated a link between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda.

Published reports of the links began in late December ABC News broadcast a story of this link soon after. Amnesty International Secretary General Irene Khan criticized the use of pro-humanitarian arguments by Coalition countries prior to its invasion of Iraq , writing in an open letter: Let us not forget that these same governments turned a blind eye to Amnesty International's reports of widespread human rights violations in Iraq before the Gulf War.

The term "torture by proxy" is used by some critics to describe situations in which the CIA [41] [42] [43] [44] and other US agencies transferred supposed terrorists, whom they captured during their efforts in the 'War on terrorism', to countries known to employ torture as an interrogation technique. Some also claimed that US agencies knew torture was employed, even though the transfer of anyone to anywhere for the purpose of torture is a violation of US law. Where appropriate, the United States seeks assurances that transferred persons will not be tortured.

This US programme also prompted several official investigations in Europe into alleged secret detentions and unlawful inter-state transfers involving Council of Europe member states, including those related with the so-called War on Terrorism. A June report from the Council of Europe estimated that people were kidnapped by the CIA on EU territory with the cooperation of Council of Europe members and rendered to other countries, often after having transited through secret detention centres " black sites " , some located in Europe, utilised by the CIA.

According to the separate European Parliament report of February , the CIA has conducted 1, flights, many of them to destinations where these alleged 'terrorists' could face torture, in violation of article 3 of the United Nations Convention Against Torture.

Terrorism: The Newest Face of Warfare

One aspect of the criticism regarding the rhetoric justifying the War on Terror was religionism, or more specifically Islamophobia. Theologian Amir Hussain, who studies contemporary Muslims societies in North America, defines this concept as a stereotyping of all followers of Islam as real or potential terrorists due to alleged hateful and violent teaching of their religion.

He goes on to argue that "Islam is reduced to the concept of jihad and Jihad is reduced to terror against the West. In , strong majorities supported the U. The report also indicated that Indian public support for the War on Terror has been stable. House Committee on Foreign Affairs , noted that and according to the Pew Research Center polls conducted in , "the ongoing conflict in Iraq continues to fuel anti-American sentiments.

He criticized the War on Terror as describing the mission as "deeply ashamed that I served a criminal organization such as NATO, led by the USA and its perverse interests around the world. Researchers in communication studies and political science found that American understanding of the "War on Terror" is directly shaped by how mainstream news media reports events associated with the conflict.

Kuypers illustrated "how the press failed America in its coverage on the War on Terror. This goes beyond reporting alternate points of view, which is an important function of the press.


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    • Others have also suggested that press coverage contributed to a public confused and misinformed on both the nature and level of the threat to the U. Lustick, claimed, "The media have given constant attention to possible terrorist-initiated catastrophes and to the failures and weaknesses of the government's response. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people. In Defence of the Terror: Liberty or Death in the French Revolution Reprint ed.

      Retrieved 24 July Globalization and Violence, Vol. Globalizing War and Intervention. Nationalism, Globalism and State-Terrorism. London and New York: Archived from the original on 27 April A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review". Retrieved 6 September Archived 16 February at the Wayback Machine. The negotiation dynamics of four UN counter-terrorism treaties, — , p. Marshall Center Occasional Paper Series Terror in the Mind of God. University of California Press. Federal Bureau of Investigation.

      Archived from the original PDF on 9 July Iraq has accused the United States of state terrorism amid signs that the war of words between the two countries is heating up. This article examines the complex relations between a violent non-state actor, the Al Qaeda network, and order in the international system. Al Qaeda poses a challenge to the sovereignty of specific states but it also challenges the international society as a whole.

      Social Science Research Network. This would end the argument that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter For those like Professor Walzer who value the just-war tradition as a disciplined way to think about the morality of war Archived from the original on 16 April A scholar's historical and political survey of terrorism finds that it works". The New York Times: Inside Terrorism falls into the category of 'must read,' at least for anyone who wants to understand how we can respond to international acts of terror.

      Archived from the original on 8 June On the Spartacus Educational web site.

      The Work Of A Nation. The Center of Intelligence.

      Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy illustrated, reprint ed. They prefer to use terms like "martyrdom Time , 26 September Like other guerrillas and suicide bombers, they prefer the term "freedom fighters". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 11 December Seto The Morality of Terrorism Includes a list in The Times published on 23 July , which were described as Jewish terrorist actions, including those launched by Irgun, of which Begin was a leading member. Archived from the original on 5 February Column 72, "However, Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela and Menachem Begin —to give just three examples—were all denounced as terrorists but all proved to be successful political leaders of their countries and good friends of the United Kingdom.

      UN reforms receive mixed response BBC website "Of all groups active in recent times, the ANC perhaps represents best the traditional dichotomous view of armed struggle. Once regarded by western governments as a terrorist group, it now forms the legitimate, elected government of South Africa, with Nelson Mandela one of the world's genuinely iconic figures.

      Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 23 November McCabe 25 August Queen's University Belfast School of Law. Archived from the original PDF on 1 December Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 9 January Manohar Parrikar — Times of India". Columbia University Press, The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. University of California Press, From the Fenians to Al Qaeda". Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 1 December Terrorism and homeland security: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why: Journal of Forensic Sciences. Social and religious motivations behind terrorism in Chechnya": Archived from the original on 19 September Archived from the original PDF on 21 December Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 1 October The terrorists appear to be deliberately homing in on the few remaining places where Israelis thought they could socialize in peace.

      Why Terrorist Groups Endure". Archived from the original on 22 March Europe's longest-enduring terrorist group. A fascist hero in democratic Kiev. NewYork Reviev of Books. The Shining Path, a faction of Peruvian militants, has resurfaced in the remote corners of the Andes.

      The New Face of War: How War Will Be Fought in the 21st Century — Central Intelligence Agency

      The war against the group, which took nearly 70, lives, supposedly ended in In the s, the rebels were infamous for atrocities like planting bombs on donkeys in crowded markets, assassinations and other terrorist tactics. Car bomb in South Africa kills 16". The outlawed anti-apartheid group the African National Congress has been blamed for the attack He said the explosion was the "biggest and ugliest" terrorist incident since anti-government violence began in South Africa 20 years ago.

      Homegrown terrorism is a devil of a problem". Pennsylvania State University, A failed state or a clever gambler? Almost everyone Stern interviewed said they were doing God's will, defending the faithful against the lies and evil deeds of their enemies. Retrieved 22 March Southern Poverty Law Center. Is There a Causal Connection? A passenger on the flight, Heath Schofield, explained the suspicions: There were just two people in the whole crowd who looked like they didn't belong there.

      Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved August 10, International Studies Association, Atlanta. The Foreign Policy of State Terrorism". The Dynamics of Governmental Violence and Repression". Defence and Peace Economics. Rummel New Brunswick, N. Archived 30 October at the Wayback Machine. State Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in the South.

      Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century. Authoritarian Development and U. Washington did everything in its power to encourage and facilitate the army-led massacre of alleged PKI members, and U. Post Responses to Genocide. Blumenthal and Timothy L. The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? In Esparza, Marcia; Henry R.

      State Violence and Genocide in Latin America: Managing the effects of terrorism" PDF. Journal of Travel Research. Eds Tourism in turbulent times: Analysing the politics of risk and in security in global travel". Tourism and Hospitality Research. In Safety and Security in Tourism: Report from a field experiment".

      Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. Research and Analysis Branch. The Financial Action Task Force. The Day Wall Street Exploded: See the following works: Hoffman, Bruce June American Political Science Review. Making Sense of Suicide Missions 1st ed. Cited in Richardson, Louise Understanding the Terrorist Threat. That's the beauty of asymmetric warfare. You don't need a lot of money, or an army of people. University of Chicago Press, A Reassessment Paul Wilkinson. Terrorism and Political Violence , Vol.

      Bibi van Ginkel 31 March Towards an Effective Counter Narrative". Retrieved 7 September Implications of the Obama Presidency. Retrieved April 26, Of those, splintered and were still active in Jones and Libicki, , p. Understanding the Decline and Demise of Terrorist Campaigns. The history of terrorism: Trauma and Human Bonds.