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Original edition (in), no illustrations. Le Docteur Ox. . Suivi de Dix Heures en Chasse, (illustration by Gédéon Baril). [FF] Frritt-Flacc.
Table of contents

Over and beyond their travestying of Verne's scientific descriptions of the world, the editing of both titles removed any imputation that Nemo had just cause to take revenge on the British who had invaded and corrupted his native India [see Imperialism ]. In modern restored translations, the Nemo of the first tale — which is generally thought to be Verne's most inspired and sustained novel — can be recognized as an Antihero both enigmatic and obscured, a Byronic figure who ultimately bewilders the tale's narrator, despite his growing sympathy for Nemo's search for Transcendence through revenge against an easily identified Britain; later generations of readers have found him easier to empathize with, and his animus against the British Empire easier to understand, than Hetzel could have anticipated.

The Nautilus , Nemo's exceedingly-advanced electricity-powered submarine — electricity being a favourite anticipatory Power Source in the sf of the time — is capable of making long luxurious voyages at 25 knots higher in bursts , mostly submerged, including a visit to the ruins of the great City at the heart of the sunken continent of Atlantis , a stop which makes a short episode in the tale's extended Fantastic Voyage through the great Archipelago that comprises planet Earth, seen from below, each island being approached from Under the Sea the Bahamas, for instance, are great cavern-haunted mountains with insignificant caps of dry land perching flatly above them.

The geography is sometimes fantastic, including the Underground "Arabian Tunnel" which connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, and the arrival at the South Pole, which turns out to be a mountain peak thrusting out of a strangely clement ocean. These events, and the narrator Professor Aronnax's elated absorption in oceanic fauna, are usually conveyed through clearly tagged, frequently inspired Infodumps. The Nautilus 's isolation from the outside world is signalled by its crews' use of a private language see Linguistics that only they understand. Though his lower-class colleagues are given spartan accommodation, Aronnax is amply and comfortingly coddled in a chamber that exudes Second Empire plushness; this presentation of ornate luxury enabled by advanced Technology is one of the central iconic images see Icons of the romance of nineteenth-century sf, and prefigures Steampunk.

The sequel, The Mysterious Island , which takes place something like a decade later and is less prolific in sf imagery, unpacks a long, engaging Robinsonade whose band of brotherly castaways is haunted and eventually saved by Nemo in Mysterious Stranger guise. Travels and Adventures Around the Solar System is perhaps the most remarkable of Verne's mid-period works: In the introduction to his version of this work, Adam Roberts shows that Hetzel would not permit Verne to close a novel in the midst of a transformed world indeed, Verne's protagonists normally brings their gifts of travel back to an unchanged Europe.

The eponymous revenge-seeking hero of Mathias Sandorf 6 June September Le Temps ; 2vols; trans G W Hanna Mathias Sandorf 2vols much resembles the protagonist of Alexandre Dumas 's The Count of Monte-Cristo 18vols , including the disguise, the enormous fortune, the Fortress of Solitude, and only moving beyond his model through his advanced Weapons.

There is some doubt that Verne's late Robinsonades are as toothless as nineteenth-century translations have made them seem. Both exploit the romantic implications of being cast alone or with a few companions into the bosom of a bounteous Nature, and the didactic possibilities inherent in the project of re-creating a civilized life; Verne's robinsonades are carefully socialized, and their small groups of protagonists always make do very well together, even the multi-national cast of Vacances , as far as English readers of early versions of these texts could be aware.

All the same, the surface of his more significant sf novels after or so increasingly reveals a grimmer palette. That, and their inescapable pessimism about the enterprise of European imperial civilization, may have impeded their full acceptance — this, ironically, at a time when Verne had become an Icon of the European imperium at its most triumphant.

The World's Fair in Paris featured, for instance, rides in which customers could go around the world in eighty days, or 20, leagues under the sea, a techno-fetishism far distant Roger Luckhurst argues, see about the author below from Verne's own "internationalist rejection of nationalism" as represented by Captain Nemo certainly in the original text of Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea. The negative impact of Verne's later assaults on Progress may perhaps account for his exclusion, just eleven years later, from the Exposition Universalle in A Tale of Mystery and Marvel — increasingly reads, very markedly in the much grimmer second volume, almost as a black parody of Captain Nemo.

Even in the first tale the steely, domineering, comically megalomaniacal Robur, inventor of an impressive kilometer-an-hour heavier-than-air machine see Airships powered by battery-charged electrical motors, is rendered less favourably than the earlier romantic figure obsessed by planetary injustice; but he is still here allowed by Verne to represent the march of scientific progress as he forces the world to listen to him, despite the mockery of those claiming that light-than-air ships would dominate the world.

Oddly enough, Robur's arguments are first presented in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, not in France, where genuine debate over the nature of manned flight was both vigorous and long-lasting. In the Slingshot Ending that abruptly terminates the first volume, Robur saves his lighter-than-air foes from disaster when their Balloon explodes, and departs, proclaiming that his airship will usher in a Pax Aeronautica whose realm in the skies he has already dubbed Icaria. In the sequel any thought of such a relatively benign outcome is abandoned by Verne, whose distrust of early twentieth-century technocratic elitism places him in stark contrast to the late Wells of The Shape of Things to Come , where a World State is made possible through the self-declaredly benevolent rule of an "Air Dictatorship".

It is consistent with Verne's deep-held pessimism about the nature of progress that in The Master of the World, his last work of any significance, Robur has become a dangerous solipsist, a Mad Scientist fatally detached from the darkening world, blasphemous and uncontrollable as he uses his Invention to attack enemies from the air or under water; his excesses — like those of Wells's earlier Dr Moreau — are easy to read as representing the excesses of an unfettered development of science.

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History of Vernian Studies

Science and a subservient, bounteous Nature are no longer seen — in late Verne or early Wells — as benevolently united under Man's imperious control. Much of the novel reads as a highly detailed, circumstantial, clearly sarcastic Travel Guide , with the plutocratic tourists condescendingly ignorant of the appalling state of native cultures they visit as they traverse the great ocean: But this effect is inexplicably blunted in the otherwise improved translation by Noiset, as the original satirically overexcited present tense narrative has been converted to the conventional past tense even as late as Verne was not trusted to know what he is doing.

As the tale proceeds, the abducted string quartet, having been offered vast sums, makes music, and its members are beguiled by Inventions galore. But unfortunately, a sudden invasion of predator animals devastates the island's "pastoral" flocks, and a raid by thousands of native "savages" undermines civilization as well; an irreconcilable conflict between Northern and Southern American billionairess, which illustrates "the immeasurable stupidity of human beings", finally brings about the sinking of the island, and all it stands for as a symbol of Western dominance of the planet see Ship of Fools.

Contemporary critics who accept William Butcher 's attempts to "save" Verne from sf typically ignore or misrepresent this novel, an example being Rosalind Williams's truncated and unilluminating references to the text in her otherwise astute study [for titles by Butcher and Williams see about the author below]. Hector Servadac , not mentioned at all by Williams, is also typically sidelined. It is, in fact, a tale of considerable grimness, in which the eponymous Antihero applies his Invention of an Invisibility Ray to render himself and the girl he lusts after both invisible; on his death, the secret of his invention still unveiled, the girl remains invisible, though she marries the narrator of the tale in this apparently permanent condition.

Studies of the Unseen coll , whose narrator marries an invisible young woman; it is, however, more likely that he would have been familiar with H G Wells 's The Invisible Man Verne's later life had not been uneventful. Although he married, prospered mightily, lived in a large provincial house, yachted occasionally, unflaggingly produced his novels for the firm of Hetzel, and became an exemplary nineteenth-century French middle-class dignitary, his extended family was seriously dysfunctional.

A nephew tried to murder him , crippling him in the process, and his son Michel Verne was criminally profligate, leaving it to his father to pay his huge debts. These burdens clearly affected his work. While his early works certainly examine the boyish, escapist dream-life of French adolescents in , they can also be read as an ultimate requiem for the dream of his astonishing and transformative century, that waking dream of the daylight decades so effectively fleshed in his early work.

But long before that vision — that dream that the world was both illimitable and decipherable, unknown but obedient; and that Man could only improve upon creation — had clearly begun to fade, as his own life seemed to show, and as demonstrated see above in his last novels, though perhaps most clearly in a remarkable Ruined Earth tale, "The Eternal Adam" from Hier et demain [for full title see Checklist] coll ; trans I O Evans as Yesterday and Tomorrow , in which a far-future historian see Ruins and Futurity discovers to his dismay that twentieth-century civilization was overthrown by geological cataclysms, and that the legend of Adam and Eve was both true and cyclical.

No manuscript in Verne's hand exists of this story, which may have been written in large part by Michel Verne [see Checklist]; but it clearly reflects Verne's late state of mind, and has more than once been treated as a thematic summation of his career. That career is too vast to be rewritten in hindsight, or comprehended in terms of the pessimism of his last years.

It contains much that is probably irretrievably distant for modern readers, his voice muffled by the century and a half of changes he did not quite allow himself to address. But there is also much in Verne that the last half century of critical study has begun to make audible. It is a voice that did, we increasingly understand, speak to the future. It was not until Verne's work came out of copyright in the s, however, that the real rush started, beginning with Walt Disney's 20, Leagues under the Sea It was the beginning of making available to Vernian scholars important primary materials that had not been accessible before that time.

The first step was to catalog more than letters and to put them in a relative chronological order. The job was not easy and Verne was the first to blame, because he almost never correctly dated his letters. He just often wrote: The librarian in charge of this cataloging did the best she could and some scholars could consult the letters.

It was not an easy task. It took more than 30 years to get these letters published.

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  • II. Short Stories;
  • History of Vernian Studies (Verniana, Vol. 10).

This last step, covering almost 10 years, involved reading in detail these letters, connecting them with facts and events of Verne's life and deciding what the chronological order was. The three editors had a very good knowledge of Verne's life, as well as the lives of the two Hetzels. One of the authors of that biography was a granddaughter of Pierre-Jules Hetzel. After Verne's works entered into the public domain, two Swiss publishers rushed into the breach: The second collection still remains the only complete modern French-language edition of the novels and and other writings by Jules Verne.

Until the s, Martin was well known as a nuclear physicist and popularizer of nuclear physics. Martin always liked Verne but never became a specialist of him before the s. With his enthusiasm and meticulous care, he unveiled a lot of unknown aspects of Verne's life and works the contracts between Hetzel and Verne, Verne's love affairs, etc. After so many years where Verne was on the market only in very expensive editions or in badly illustrated and truncated copies in Francophone countries, finally there was a collection making Verne's novels available in cheap paperbacks, with the Hetzel illustrations and a complete text.

Every volume ended with an eight-page biography of the author. In the Society began publishing a new series of the Bulletin , with a periodicity of four issues per year. Already in , commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Verne's death, Nantes had organized the first Verne exhibition in France. It was followed by many others in , , and The project to have a Jules Verne Museum in Nantes began in and became a reality in , with the celebration of his th birthday. Continuing the author's growing popularity in French university literary circles, two books on Verne's socio-political ideas were published durng the s and s.

It was translated in German and other languages too. Family memories and comments about the letters between the Hetzels and Verne are the most interesting part of the book. Much less interesting especially for Vernians are the lengthy summaries of the novels. In , Simone Vierne became emeritus professor at the University of Grenoble France where she had taught for many years and continued to publish books and numerous articles about Jules Verne.

She was also a regular contributor to the Jules Verne Society. In addition to the meetings of the French Jules Verne Society, Vernian researchers began to gather in other conferences and seminars, the first being held in Nantes in The second one took place in Amiens in and Cerisy la Salle hosted the third one in , the year of the huge celebrations of Verne's th birthday.

Chrétien de Troyes

These conferences were the first opportunity for several young promising talents in Verne studies to get together and to create a kind of esprit de corps which has caracterized the Vernian research since then. In began the publication of a collection of important French academic studies about Verne. The thematic titles of these eight books demonstrate well the different tracks explored by Vernian research: The main problem for Vernian scholars outside of the French-speaking world is the fact that only his novels and not all of them were translated and sometimes very poorly.

Sometimes the translations of the novels were rather good, those done in Portuguese or Russian for example. The most horrific translations were the English ones, done in such a bowdlerized way, so that some of them do not deserve to be called translations at all. They took the name of Dakkar Grotto.

Mireille Mathieu - La Chanson du Départ

Historically, it might be considered as the second American Jules Verne Society, after the one of the s, created by Willis Hurd. The first issue was filled with essays by Ron Miller and Lawrence Knight, with a last page of text by Thomas Miller. The third issue would have carried texts by I. The year was the th birthday of Jules Verne. With the publication of many new studies, it was a turning point in the history of Vernian scholarship, and also in the worldwide reception of Verne.

French publishers discovered that they could make money by selling Jules Verne. In fact most of the readers usually bought only the best known novels which were the first printed in such collections and ignored the rest. Hundreds of articles and dozens of books were published in worldwide, which made Verne even more popular.

During the s, several new and important contributions to Vernian research appeared in both French and English. In , the Municipal Library of Nantes bought Verne's manuscipts from the Verne family, two new magazines were launched, two unknown plays were discovered, and some surprising breakthroughs were made concerning the sometimes huge differences in the texts of the Verne novels published after his death in Before a public auction could take place, the French government decided that his manuscripts should remain in France and they are now kept in Nantes.

Jules Verne was now viewed as a dynamic writer, passionate about politics and sociology, freedom-loving and rarely taking himself seriously, playing on words and filling his novels, plays, and stories with tongue-in-cheek asides and authorial winks so well hidden that, for a long time, his wholesome, grandfatherly public image was not affected. During this decade, two new magazines began to be published in France. In Amiens, for eleven years, from to , the Centre de documentation Documenation Center published thirty-six issues of a newsletter, with a very simple title: To sum up, in the s, there were four venues for publication about Jules Verne available in France: Still today, these four publications remain an indispensable source of information for researchers and scholars.

In terms of primary materials, the letters between Hetzel and Verne at the National Library in Paris had not yet been published and were still available only on site. Every play had to go through the Censorship Office before being allowed to be performed on stage. These two plays had to follow the same procedures and were copied by hand by an employee of the Office.

They were performed on stage, and the newspapers of the time reported about them. So, Verne scholars knew about the plays through the reviews , but the common opinion was that the text of them was lost. When the Vernian community learned about their discovery, the excitment was such that every specialist of Verne wanted these texts to be published as quickly as possible. For example, another discovery was made during the same time period, but pertaining to Verne's life. And an important missing part was the relationship between Jules Verne and his son Michel.

Suspicion of a possible collaboration between father and son in the composition of Jules Verne's later works became a growing topic of discussion among the Vernian specialists. This revelation was like an earthquake that shook the Vernian world. The discovery of the manuscripts written by Jules Verne himself allowed researchers to compare the original texts and the publications. It was also found that two other novels, L'Agence Thompson and Co. Michel was a good writer too and wrote several pieces published under his name. The controversy is still going on among the Verne scholars to know if the modifications made by Michel were improvements or mutilations of his father's texts.

Each reader must decide. At the end of the s and thoughout the s, it became obvious that more bibliographic tools on Verne and his Voyages extraordinaires would be very useful to scholars and researchers. No complete bibliography existed of Verne's primary works or of the growing secondary literature about them. In the history of spreading knowledge, humanity has passed through three main phases.

The first was to use handwriting to transmit information, the second involved printing it in books, today knowledge is digital and, with the Internet, we are disseminating information at the speed of light. That's why you are able to read what you are reading now. In addition, the end of the century and the approaching millenium was also a time of consolidating the discoveries and the new ways of looking at Verne's works that had been developed during the past few decades.

By , the Center replaced the publication J. All the volumes have notes and comments by Christian Robin. Fourteen years earlier, in , the Municipal Library of Nantes published three volumes containing the transcript of the unpublished manuscripts. At the same time, it became obvious that the letters between Hetzel and Verne available for research in the National Library of France in Paris should be published with notes and comments. The correspondence between the Hetzels father and son and the Vernes father and son , which had been hibernating at the National Library of France in Paris since , soon became available to scholars and the general public.

Jules Verne didn't write only to his publishers, but also to his family and his friends. There are thousands of letters as yet undiscovered and unpublished. Verne's correspondence remains far from being identified and organized in any systematic way. Some letters to friends or family members remain inaccessible in private collections.

Auctions are relatively rare, and online auction sites offer in most cases only short answers sent by Verne to his readers worldwide. Very courteous, Verne answered all letters he received with such short thank you notes, and they cannot all be listed. There are just too many and they are without interest for Vernian research. Even today, new Verne correspondence is published when a discovery is made and it is deemed worthy of publication.

Several monographs were published, some as result of PhD dissertations. After decades of looking at Verne's works mainly the novels biographically and thematically, it was time to study the way he wrote, analyzing his sources, the narrative structure of his writings, connecting them together, and studying his writing style. Besides his letters and speeches, there is another way to get almost the first words from Jules Verne about his life and writings. Several journalists and celebrities visited him in his home in Amiens and published their interviews. Reading Verne from a psychoanalytic perspective, Christian Chelebourg published in a very thorough reflection on the Vernian corpus distinguishing between two fundamental fantasies that determined and marked Verne's imaginary world: A professor at the University of Montpellier, Jean-Pierre Picot born in became a Verne scholar and specialist without publishing a book about Jules Verne until the end of the century.

Instead, he wrote dozens of articles in collected essays about Verne or connected subjects. Minutes or reviews of workshops, colloquia, and meetings also document Picot's presentations. Writing on many varied subjects, such as vehicles, volcanoes, vampires, islands, regression and more in Verne's works, Picot concentrated his studies mainly on the themes of tombs and death, the fantastic, the unspeakable, the invisible, and the immeasurable in Verne's works. In Belgium, for decades, the Verne scholar was Robert Pourvoyeur In Romania, two literary critics became specialists of Verne.

Besides Verne, his interests were science fiction and ufology. Beginning in , he published his scholarly findings, in German and in French, and for several decades, he has contributed to Vernian research with higly original and important studies. His most recent biography has recently been translated into Japanese.

Almost every issue is centered on a Verne novel and the whole collection represents a treasure trove of information about the reception of Verne in the Netherlands and provides insights on all the novels discussed there. The first issue dates back to and at that time, the Genootschap was just a group of people with a shared interest, and one of them was enthusiastic enough to start editing a magazine.

It took three years before the Genootschap was officially founded as an association with statutes and the like. Mathias Sandorf begins in what is today Croatia. The beginning of the story happens in Pazin or Pisino in Italian—name used by Jules Verne in the novel—or Mitterburg in German , administrative seat of Istria. An original way to become a member was invented by the club: Their collection is housed by the Municipal Library of Pazin. It took a few years for the NAJVS to evolve from a collector's club to a group where Vernian research became the main focus.

The end of the s and the s represent a kind of Golden Age of Vernian research in Anglophone countries. Evans born in , no relation to I. Evans is also the editor of the book series Early Classics of Science Fiction , published by Wesleyan University Press, which published first English language translations of several of Verne's later novels. Almost at the same time, on the other side of the Atlantic, two British Verne scholars each published a book about the most widely translated of all French uthors. Following the appearance of the Gallagher, Mistichelli and Van Eerde bibliography in , in another pioneering Verne reference work was published, after many years of research and teamwork: Half of the book is dedicated to a detailed bibliography of Verne's texts available in English at that time.

He also added a short history of the various North American Jules Verne societies. In a new Jules Verne biography came out simultaneously in several languages French, English, Italian, Spanish , written by an American journalist who was the Publisher's Weekly European correspondent in Paris for thirty years. Herbert Lottman specialized in writing biographies of mainly French literary well known figures, without being a specialist of any of them. Jules Verne's presence on the World Wide Web flourished during the s and dozens of sites devoted to the author of the Voyages extraordinaires were born.

With its high level of quality and comprehensiveness, it immediately attracted the attention and participation of serious Verne aficionados from around the world. Through his website and Jules Verne Forum, Zvi succeeded in transcending national and cultural boundaries, making Verne studies more international in scope. During the s, Walter James Miller continued his crusade against bad English translations. Among them are some Verne manuscripts Vingt mille lieues sous les mers — Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Seas , for example , many of the in-8 o and in o Hetzel editions, and hundreds of French newspapers and magazines published during Verne's lifetime.

After the Golden Age of Verne research and discoveries, Vernian studies are now in a phase of consolidating what has been studied and discovered during the past century.

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  4. Due to globalization, a turning point occurred in , when a worldwide meeting and workshops were held in Amiens to celebrate the th anniversary of Jules Verne's death. Fans, scholars and journalists from all continents came together to celebrate. The only entity which was not represented there was In addition to becoming closer via the Internet, scholars are currently working in two ways, to enlarge the scope of Vernian research. One way is to research how and when Verne wrote his texts and to examine the manner in which they were published.

    This means consulting and comparing more source documents, scrutinizing Verne's manuscripts, and for Anglophone readers identifying the best and the worst translations. The other way is to work on developing a better contextualization of Verne and his contemporaries; instead of studying his life and his works in isolation, to put them back in their time.

    During much of the twentieth century, Verne was put in an ivory tower or on a pedestal, isolated from the world which was surrounding him. More scholars are now looking at his life and works as part of the nineteenth century, promoting multidisciplinary approach and connecting him and his writings to the literary, social, and political environment s of his time. Another scholarly innovation of the past fifteen years is that Verne's works are now more frequently published with comments, notes and annotations, not only in France, but worldwide, which makes available to the general public the results of the Vernian research and discoveries done during the previous decades.

    Several new Jules Verne societies were created in Germany, in Poland, in Japan, and in Spain covering the whole Hispanic world during the s. In the fall of , a few Verne fans came together in Berlin with the goal of meeting more or less periodically to exchange information about Jules Verne and his works and to watch together Verne-inspired movies. Mainly through the use of the Internet, this first group grew and now covers all of Germany. Continuing further on the same path, the German Club has been offering since a high quality scan of all Verne-Hetzel illustrations on an USB key.

    He grew up in Amiens, where he lived from to His main contribution to Vernian research was a Bibliography of the Polish Verne editions, printed in and available on http: In Lachacinski tried to make his local Verne Club nationwide, but without success. Various other attempts failed too. Like the other Verne Societies, the Polish Society runs a website https: Niijima was a specialist of Roussel and professor at the University of Keio.

    But Japanese Vernian scholarship began earlier, in Even if Verne was translated into Japanese long before , he was, like everywhere else, considered as a writer for children—Verne's biggest success in Japan was Deux ans de vacances The Two Years Holiday. A translation of Butor's article of was part of the issue. The website of the Japanese Society is http: His Vernian activity began in October with the online publication of a bulletin Mundo Verne. Several books have been published by the Sociedad and are available on its website www.

    Due to the activities of all these clubs and societies around the world, Verne is becoming more and more popular, often through the publishing of unknown or obscure works never translated before.

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    A good example is the English-speaking world, where good and reliable translations are now the standard. They were included in a book series edited by Arthur B. Other Verne novels were and continue to be added to the series, in reliable translations and annotated editions, such as The Mysterious Island , Five Weeks in a Balloon and Robur the Conqueror forthcoming in What began as a trend in France at the end of the twentieth century is now the established way to publish Jules Verne: It looks like a fourth volume will come out in Pluridisciplinary research also became a trend in the early 21 st century.

    Verne's tutelary figure was in the background, but he and his works served as an anchor to have papers and presentations about themes and ideas already present in his works, but which could be expanded with modern views, like science, technology, ecology, or the future of our planet.

    The comparative study of several regions of the Seine basin highlights temporal and spatial variability and questions the validity of regional facies Augereau et al. The circulation of raw materials and finished tools, and the legacies, borrowings and rejections of specific features are demonstrated; the ceramic material of the recent Neolithic, do not make it possible to highlight these phenomena. These forms are the result of two successive morphogenetic sequences, separated by the erection of the standing stones. Some are pre-megalithic and were created on the limestone blocks used as standing stones at the time they were outcrops.

    Others are post-megalithic and have continued to evolve since the stones were placed in their upright position and transformed into standing stones. A lot of standing stones have been destroyed in the past. Fifteen of them, that are still standing and have for the majority been restored, have been examined. The analysis focuses on four different topics: Some were outcrops or were sticking out from the ground before the megalith was erected and therefore correspond to the exposed sides.

    Others were on the side where the rock that was previously used, rooted in the substratum, before being extracted and erected as standing stones and those correspond to the quarried sides. Exposed sides, having been subject to erosion for a long time before being used as standing stones are often very karstified. The quarried sides have only been exposed at the time of the erection of the standing stone and therefore have only been exposed to the actions of weathering for a few thousand years.

    Pre-megalithic forms of erosion mainly come from the dissolution process of limestone, occurring on the surface of the banks or deeper. Pre-megalithic basins associated with the exposed sides, are the result of a punctual dissolution of the limestone.

    Formed horizontally, on the surface of the limestone banks, they are found in a vertical position after the erection of the standing stones. The other pre-megalithic forms are microflutings, biopedogenic karrens and cryptokarst cavities. Pre-megalithic karst erosion forms can be exokarst-shaped, they are then created on the rock outcrop basins, microflutings or endokarst-shaped where the forms are created on the inside of the rock biopedogenic karrens, crypto-karst cavities and also perforating cavities that spike through some standing stones.

    Post-megalithic erosion forms are the result of the process of karst dissolution and frost wedging. The markings of post-megalithic karst erosion started to develop after the limestone blocks were placed in their upright position as standing stones. They formed at the top of the summits or from the summits down. Rock top basins are depressions formed at the top of the monument.

    Gutters are the microrelief in linear hollows. Karrens are a result of the coalescence of several basins or gutters. Post-megalithic flutings are gutters carved from the summit of the standing stones along their faces. Moreover, frost wedging markings, either inherited or functional, can be observed on sublithographic limestone standing stones. They are made up of frost wedging chips on the summits of standing stones and frost wedging scales formed on their faces or sides. The method originally elaborated from granite menhirs Sellier, , has turned out to be applicable on limestone standing stones, providing that the properties of these rocks are taken into consideration.

    The breaking down of the different types of forms depends on the type of pans. All the rocks that have been examined, show the impacts of two generations of erosion markings, some predating, others postdating the erection of the standing stones. The method used has several applications from an archaeological point of view. It determines the origin of the rocks and the way the megaliths have weathered since their erection.

    It can also help deal with attribution problems raised by certain blocks that now lie on the ground. The presence of opposite exposed and quarried sides as well as the presence of two different generations of erosion types indicate the prehistoric origin of an isolated rock; the forms that have developed at the summits indicate the direction of standing stones before falling.

    The method presents conversely, several applications from a geomorphological point of view. It indicates the ways in which the limestone has weathered in temperate climates since the erection of the standing stones over the last few thousand years. Measuring post-megalithic microreliefs in hollows, such as basins and gutters, provides information on the weathering rates of the limestone. The speed of the corresponding erosion could be of 0. However, the erection of megaliths, being an archaeological event, becomes, in this case, a significant chronological marker that explains the conditions of the evolution of geomorphological processes.

    Many aspects can motivate the diffusion of ceramics, both in terms of the??? However, new research on the raw materials used in the ceramics of the Armorican massif western France has demonstrated the distribution of specific types of pastes the result of the alteration of the crystalline base over distances superior to those observed for potteries shaped from common clay.

    These raw materials are characterised by their rarity and by the presence of mineral inclusions conferring particular physical and mechanical properties to the ceramics, such as better resistance to thermal shocks, a more homogeneous diffusion of heat or even greater impermeability.

    Taking these observations into consideration, can ceramics be exchanged in relation to the use of a specific raw material, and in this case, be considered as a value-added object and thus exchanged as such as is the case for lithic artefacts such as jadeite axes, or even variscite beads and pendants? In order to develop new research prospects centred around the production and diffusion of ceramics in western France, the results of the petrographic studies of the potteries of several occupations located on the Armorican massif and dating from the Late Neolithic ???

    This massif has the particularity of being composed of a great diversity of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, such as granite, micaschiste or gabbro, and the potters had at their disposal a multitude of types of clay. These raw materials possess mineral inclusions having physical and mechanical characteristics, which can influence the quality of the pastes. For the Late Neolithic, we observed the privileged diffusion over more than 50 km of ceramics shaped using clays containing the alterations of talcschistes, which are only found on the island of Groix Morbihan.

    The vessels are characterised by an abundance of sheaves of talc within their pastes, giving the containers a greater impermeability, and blue amphibole grains, confirming that the island of Groix is the origin of the raw material. The status of value-added goods has an influence on the management of the raw materials and pottery production.

    Indeed, we can argue that the ceramics of this period were produced in the household and were distributed within family units or at a community level to meet subsistence needs. However, what about the potteries made with specific raw materials and used in exchange systems to obtain other value-added goods?

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    Do they originate from different production systems such as specialised workshops, or do they originate from domestic units and then pooled for exchange? Also, how were the resources controlled, but only part of the population or was it a self-service? Their ceramics are characterised by a large quantity of amphibole grains, and the paste of these vessels possesses a better diffusion of heat and a greater resistance to thermal shocks.

    These production areas distribute their ceramics, most often shaped locally and for domestic use, over several tens or even hundreds of kilometres, far beyond the other types of vessels. Furthermore, the greater the distance between the source of raw material and the final destination of the vases, the more these ceramics are discovered in ritual rather than domestic contexts. Furthermore, the use of clay with superior physical and mechanical characteristics has been documented since the beginning of the Neolithic period on the Armorican massif.

    This perpetuation in the use of these raw materials tends to show that craftspeople quickly understood the interest of these raw materials and sought out such clays. Moreover, it is rare to observe in this region such practices for the other clayey raw materials, whose sources are more common and numerous. It seems, therefore, that as in the case of lithic materials, uncommon clays acquire a different status according to their physical and mechanical quality, as well as their remoteness from the deposit.

    In this paper, we propose to engage in a reflection on the raw material used to shape ceramics as one of the factors that determine the diffusion of these products. Finally, the criteria by which consumers could "identify" the raw materials used, not easily differentiated by the naked eye, need to be defined. However, the mass of the vessel and its soapy feel, in particular for pottery with talc inclusions would also have been used to determine quality.

    This problematic needs to be explored further, notably by studying pottery discovered in ritual contexts and tombs but also in areas where other prestigious artefacts were produced such as the Grand Pressigny region. It will thus be possible to reach a greater understanding of the circulation of ceramics but also to shed new light on the occupations where these types of vases are found.

    Armorican massif, ceramics, raw materials, added value, Neolithic, Metal Ages, petrography, geochemistry, diffusion. Au Bronze final, la Bretagne se situe au c? La circulation des objets de parure en verre illustre bien l??? During the last decades, with the rise of preventive archaeology, the discovery of protohistoric glass beads has increased in different regions of France. In the same time, advances in analytical methods gave the possibility to characterize these ornaments, which are fragile and often badly altered, while respecting their integrity.

    This combination of factors has led to undertake major research programmes on the circulation of these objects by combining typo-chronological approaches with chemical analyses. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration, with both museums and preventive archaeology operators a corpus of more than two thousand objects from several hundred archaeological sites habitats and burials has been collected.

    For Brittany, more than a hundred objects, beads and bracelets were analysed among approximatively protohistorical ornaments recorded. Up to now, for this area, the only available synthetic study on the subject was that of J. Briard, published in , which dealt exclusively with earthenware beads from the Bronze Age. The aim of this paper is therefore to draw up an updated assessment of the data available for the Bronze Age in Brittany. The approach developed in this study consists, when possible, to ascertain a critical comparison of the contexts of origin of these objects with their typological and chemical parameters.

    While most of the studied objects come from well-dated sites, from the Early Bronze Age to the Late Iron Age, some of them come from uncertain contexts or consist of surface findings. The chemical and typological characteristics of the latter have, however, sometimes allowed us to associate them with the Bronze Age or the Iron Age productions.

    Since the works of J. As for the 15 glass beads, it has never been published before. These finds contribute to considerably increasing our data. The study of their contexts of provenance, correlated with their typology and chemical groups, therefore makes it possible to undertake new approaches. Recent studies have shown that the chemical analyses of this type of material make it possible to go beyond a simple inventory and that they offer new perspectives. These new tools are particularly useful for determining the origin of the glass used to make these ornaments, locating the production workshops and identifying networks of exchanges through a cartographic approach.

    Sixteen other objects can also be added to that corpus: Two of them were lost but can be assigned to Late Bronze Age productions according to their published drawing, the others will be either published separately Le Bihan et al. Only two of them, one in earthenware analysed and one in glass not analysed , show strong similarities with Bronze Age objects. Some other beads were deliberately excluded from the corpus due to a lack of reliable information about their discovery and dating. The first part of that paper offers a detailed description of the different sites and objects.

    Each beads of our corpus is confronted with the latest information available from recent publications. The second part is devoted to the typo-chronological study. The simplified typology presented in this paper fig. The third part develops the chemical results obtained on these objects and their interpretation. Two main compositional groups were found for the earthenware beads.

    The glass phase of the first one five beads has not been preserved or is highly corroded and it is therefore not possible to provide any information on the recipes used for the manufacture of these objects. For the second group three beads a thick and well-preserved blue glass phase is present on a large part of the surface of these objects.

    This vitreous phase is made of a soda-potash glass coloured by copper oxides.

    Its characteristics are similar to that of the glass made by the northern Italian workshops of the Frattesina area. If we except the presence of six modern glass beads, the thirteen remaining glass ornaments form two main compositional groups. The objects of the first one six beads are made from a plant ash soda glass which chemical characteristics correspond to those of the near-eastern glass productions.

    It is further possible to relate the glass used for five of them to Egyptian raw glass production while the glass of the remaining bead can be associated with Mesopotamian raw glass. The glass used to make the seven other beads is a soda-potash glass LMHK type, low magnesia high potash similar to the one produced by the northern Italian glass workshops of the Late Bronze Age Frattesina. Armor presents a unique decoration made up of an opaque white equatorial line with probably three eyes consisting of a central spot of opaque reddish glass circled which a thin ring of pale opaque turquoise glass.

    To date, only one other such bead has been described in Rathgall, Ireland Raftery and Henderson, During the Middle or the Late Bronze ages, the chemical analysis of glass beads highlights the presence of both Egyptian and Mesopotamian glass. The distribution of these glass ornaments may illustrate the itineraries taken by the famous??? Some of the inland sites where the beads were discovered could constitute an area of???

    The important protohistoric route of Central Brittany may have serves active mining and metallurgical centres where Italian beads are present, up to Ushant. In the future, it would be desirable to apply this work to the regions bordering Brittany in order to better characterise the trade routes used e.

    Les similitudes entre la hache de Muros et d??? En fait, il ne semble pas que ce soit le cas, mais qu??? En raison de l??? Le chevauchement et l??? Les haches font partie d??? The description of lithic assemblages focuses carefully on describing how functional aims are organized. These aims are often considered as a system of binary opposites: Gradually, the idea that the partition between the production of weapons and collective tools reflects a form of social partition took root Bon, We call this hypothesis double segmentation.

    It entails a direct correspondence between these two modes of organization. This partition cannot be demonstrated for the transformation or the use of tools, but it can be considered for the production of blanks. We will thus test this hypothesis here. These authors draw on the idea that objects participate in stabilizing intersubjective relations, following the work of S. Several integration methods exist for assessing Upper Palaeolithic functional aims. A methodological framework was thus established to incorporate these different methods, based on the theoretical organization of the products in the operational chain and the operational sequence.

    This first grid shows that neither the partition of production activities or their imbrication allows us to directly link both parts of the hypothesis. A second grid was thus established. It lists the operational configurations established for the Chatelperronian and the Laborian in the southwest of France to define how these two records of activities are linked. This is the first overall synthesis of the organization of production at the scale of the Upper Palaeolithic in France. It brings to light a wide diversity of solutions and shows that the separation between weapons and tools is not the dominant configuration at this level of analysis.

    However, we cannot infer that there is no social partition of activities during this long period. As we cannot link both sides of the hypothesis, this appears to imply that it is false. It is thus appropriate to explore the current paradigms leading to this proposal. Several pitfalls have been observed.

    The first concerns the binary system of categorization: It is thus the use of the blank that defines its role rather than the pre-existence of distinct categories. This appears to be true for several categories of objects, such as the Chatelperron blank Pelegrin, ; Baillet, These categories do not exist a priori and do not have a stable significance. The scientific approach is thus spread out in the past, if we follow the approach adopted by B. In order to implement this interpretation, we thus have to introduce additional notions: This a posteriori rationalization also involves the complete intentionality of the knapper Boissinot, The knapper is a craftsman fully conscious of the rationality and the perfect ergonomy of the system he uses.

    There are no frictions within these systems, so it is not necessary to change them. Any later developments of the system would thus come from external factors. This double segmentation counter-intuitively implies that the social aspect is not in the technique but facing it, thereby relaunching a structuring debate Guille-Escuret, According to this assumption, the technique is produced by social factors. If we follow this reasoning, technical organization reflects social organization.

    This would thus be directly deducible from the former through analysis. The technique is thus not rooted in the social domain but is the reflection of an organization that exists without it Latour, , Naively, we could thus approach the social dimension directly through our system of studying the technique. If we agree on a definition of the technique integrated in the social system, and therefore on the fact that non-humans participate in this organization through the links they establish, then we can see cases in a very different light.

    In these cases, the focus on making relatively large axial points creates what could be construed as a paradox in our way of looking at the assemblages: The production of large points is sometimes associated with the idea that they are a visible marker and can convey the identity of the user. If we follow this line of reasoning, once again, it creates a paradox: This apparent paradox could be avoided in order to deduce on the contrary that the process of displaying the individual would also appear through the centralization of production Valentin, , p.

    What does a lithic point do? Does it differentiate individuals? Does it link agents? Does it simultaneously produce these effects among others? In any case, it does a lot more than simply turn an object into a weapon.

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    Interpretation can no longer be imputed to the only positive observation inferred from the operational chain. At last, we reach a satisfactory realm of reflection: They are no longer the reflection of social norms Latour, , but the problematic conditions of social relations. In this case, the object is at the centre of interactions because it provides some of the conditions of the technical system. This is not a case of replacing social determinism by technical determinism, as these two terms are confounded Latour, This tension in the systems thus becomes a source of innovation.

    Factors of change can then be sought out in collectives associating humans and non-humans. The objects thus have more than merely representational or functional meaning, and constitute genuine agents Blandin, ; Houdart and Thierry ; Bonnot, We have not presented any new information in this criticism. We have simply attempted to deconstruct the current line of thought from the inside.