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Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a.
Table of contents
In these signal transduction pathways, there are often shared components that can interact with either pathway. A more complex instance of crosstalk can be observed with transmembrane crosstalk between the extracellular matrix ECM and the cytoskeleton. One example of crosstalk between proteins in a signalling pathway can be seen with cyclic adenosine monophosphate 's cAMP role in regulating cell proliferation by interacting with the mitogen-activated protein MAP kinase pathway.
This signal is then transduced through the membrane, stimulating adenylyl cyclase on the inner membrane surface to catalyze the conversion of ATP to cAMP.
Crosstalk can even be observed across membranes. Membrane interactions with the extracellular matrix ECM and with neighboring cells can trigger a variety of responses within the cell.
crosstalk - Wiktionary
However, the topography and mechanical properties of the ECM also come to play an important role in powerful, complex crosstalk with the cells growing on or inside the matrix. A more complex, specific example of crosstalk between two major signaling pathways can be observed with the interaction of the cAMP and MAPK signaling pathways in the activation of lymphocytes.
In this case, components of the cAMP pathway directly and indirectly affect MAPK signaling pathway meant to activate genes involving immunity and lymphocytes. Newly formed cAMP is released from the membrane and diffuses across the intracellular space where it serves to activate PKA.
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The catalytic subunit of PKA must bind four molecules of cAMP to be activated, whereupon activation consists of cleavage between the regulatory and catalytic subunits. In lymphocytes, the intracellular levels of cAMP increase upon antigen-receptor stimulation and even more so in response to prostaglandin E and other immunosupression agents. PKA has even been highlighted as a direct inducer of genes contributing to immunosupression.
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