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Table of contents
- GOVERNOR WINTHROP'S JOURNAL. Anno Domini, 1630. March 29th, Monday.
- Editorial Reviews
- 5 The Treatise on the Apocalypse
- The Monastery, by Walter Scott
In a word, I had commenced local antiquary, and was not unworthy of the name. Whilst I was in this pleasing career of busy idleness, for so it might at best be called, it happened that I was one night sitting in my little parlour, adjacent to the closet which my landlady calls my bedroom, in the act of preparing for an early retreat to the realms of Morpheus. Grimslees, the Captain is no in his bed? I plainly perceived this last compliment was made for my hearing, by way both of indicating and of recommending the course of conduct which Mrs. Grimslees desired I should pursue.
But I had not been knocked about the world for thirty years and odd, and lived a bluff bachelor all the while, to come home and be put under petticoat government by my landlady. Accordingly I opened my chamber-door, and desired my old friend David to walk up stairs. This is a gentleman every inch of him, and a virtuoso, a clean virtuoso-a sad-coloured stand of claithes, and a wig like the curled back of a mug-ewe. The very first question he speered was about the auld drawbrig that has been at the bottom of the water these twal score years — I have seen the fundations when we were sticking saumon — And how the deevil suld he ken ony thing about the old drawbrig, unless he were a virtuoso?
David being a virtuoso in his own way, and moreover a landholder and heritor, was a qualified judge of all who frequented his house, and therefore I could not avoid again tying the strings of my knees. Ah, David, this has been some of your chattering; you are perpetually bringing your guests on my shoulders, as if it were my business to entertain every man who comes to the George.
In five minutes after this dialogue, I found myself in the parlour of the George, and in the presence of the stranger. He was a grave personage, about my own age, which we shall call about fifty, and really had, as my friend David expressed it, something in his face that inclined men to oblige and to serve him. It consisted of a uniform suit of iron-gray clothes, cut in rather an old-fashioned form. His legs were defended with strong leathern gambadoes, which, according to an antiquarian contrivance, opened at the sides, and were secured by steel clasps.
His countenance was worn as much by toil and sorrow as by age, for it intimated that he had seen and endured much. His address was singularly pleasing and gentlemanlike, and the apology which he made for disturbing me at such an hour, and in such a manner, was so well and handsomely expressed, that I could not reply otherwise than by declaring my willingness to be of service to him. When the cloth was removed, and we had each made a tumbler of negus, of that liquor which hosts call Sherry, and guests call Lisbon, I perceived that the stranger seemed pensive, silent, and somewhat embarrassed, as if he had something to communicate which he knew not well how to introduce.
To pave the way for him, I spoke of the ancient ruins of the Monastery, and of their history. But, to my great surprise, I found I had met my match with a witness. Deputy Register of Scotland, 6 and his lucubrations; a gentleman whose indefatigable research into the national records is like to destroy my trade, and that of all local antiquaries, by substituting truth instead of legend and romance. It would, I am sure, move his pity to think how many old dogs he hath set to learn new tricks, how many venerable parrots he hath taught to sing a new song, how many gray heads he hath addled by vain attempts to exchange their old Mumpsimus for his new Sumpsimus.
But let it pass. Humana perpessi sumus — All changes round us, past, present, and to come; that which was history yesterday becomes fable today, and the truth of today is hatched into a lie by tomorrow. Finding myself like to be overpowered in the Monastery, which I had hitherto regarded as my citadel, I began, like a skilful general, to evacuate that place of defence, and fight my way through the adjacent country. I had recourse to my acquaintance with the families and antiquities of the neighbourhood, ground on which I thought I might skirmish at large without its being possible for the stranger to meet me with advantage.
But I was mistaken. The man in the iron-gray suit showed a much more minute knowledge of these particulars than I had the least pretension to. He could tell the very year in which the family of De Haga first settled on their ancient barony. Not a Thane within reach but he knew his family and connexions, how many of his ancestors had fallen by the sword of the English, how many in domestic brawl, and how many by the hand of the executioner for march-treason. Their castles he was acquainted with from turret to foundation-stone; and as for the miscellaneous antiquities scattered about the country, he knew every one of them, from a cromlech to a cairn , and could give as good an account of each as if he had lived in the time of the Danes or Druids.
I was now in the mortifying predicament of one who suddenly finds himself a scholar when he came to teach, and nothing was left for me but to pick up as much of his conversation as I could, for the benefit of the next company. Here, however, my flank was again turned by the eternal stranger. This observation he made in a tone of perfect good-humour.
GOVERNOR WINTHROP'S JOURNAL. Anno Domini, 1630. March 29th, Monday.
I pricked up my ears at the hint, and answered as politely as I could, that my ignorance of his condition and rank could be the only cause of my having stumbled on anything disagreeable; and that I was most willing to apologize for my unintentional offence, so soon as I should know wherein it consisted. I have been too long accustomed to more severe and cruel misconstructions, to be offended at a popular jest, though directed at my profession. A European potentate, who still cherishes the Catholic faith, has offered us a retreat within his dominions, where a few of my scattered brethren are already assembled, to pray to God for blessings on their protector, and pardon to their enemies.
No one, I believe, will be able to object to us under our new establishment, that the extent of our revenues will be inconsistent with our vows of poverty and abstinence; but, let us strive to be thankful to God, that the snare of temporal abundance is removed from us. It is said to have possessed nearly two thousand pounds in yearly money-rent, fourteen chalders and nine bolls of wheat, fifty-six chalders five bolls barley, forty-four chalders and ten bolls oats, capons and poultry, butter, salt, carriage and arriage, peats and kain, wool and ale.
Unquestionably the wealth of the community, as it endangered the safety of the establishment by exciting the cupidity of others, was also in frequent instances a snare to the brethren themselves. And yet we have seen the revenues of convents expended, not only in acts of beneficence and hospitality to individuals, but in works of general and permanent advantage to the world at large. The noble folio collection of French historians, commenced in , under the inspection and at the expense of the community of Saint Maur, will long show that the revenues of the Benedictines were not always spent in self-indulgence, and that the members of that order did not uniformly slumber in sloth and indolence, when they had discharged the formal duties of their rule.
As I knew nothing earthly at the time about the community of St. Maur, and their learned labours, I could only return a mumbling assent to this proposition. I have since seen this noble work in the library of a distinguished family, and I must own I am ashamed to reflect, that, in so wealthy a country as ours, a similar digest of our historians should not be undertaken, under the patronage of the noble and the learned, in rivalry of that which the Benedictines of Paris executed at the expense of their own conventual funds. When I was quartered in a Monastery in Flanders, in the campaign of , I never lived more comfortably in my life.
They were jolly fellows, the Flemish Canons, and right sorry was I to leave my good quarters, and to know that my honest hosts were to be at the mercy of the Sans-Culottes. But fortune de la guerre! The poor Benedictine looked down and was silent. I had unwittingly awakened a train of bitter reflections, or rather I had touched somewhat rudely upon a chord which seldom ceased to vibrate of itself. But he was too much accustomed to this sorrowful train of ideas to suffer it to overcome him. On my part, I hastened to atone for my blunder.
My new friend hastened to relieve my indecision. But I assure you it relates entirely to events and persons removed to the distance of two centuries and a half. I have experienced too much evil from the violent unsettlement of the country in which I was born, to be a rash labourer in the work of innovation in that of my ancestors. I again assured him of my willingness to assist him in anything that was not contrary to my allegiance or religion. They are not, indeed, of that dynasty to restore which my ancestors struggled and suffered in vain; but the Providence who has conducted his present Majesty to the throne, has given him the virtues necessary to his time — firmness and intrepidity — a true love of his country, and an enlightened view of the dangers by which she is surrounded.
The efforts of an individual, obscure and humble as myself, might well retard, but could never advance, a work so mighty. Ere my companion replied, he took from his pocket a clasped paper book, about the size of a regimental orderly-book, full, as it seemed, of memoranda; and, drawing one of the candles close to him, for David, as a strong proof of his respect for the stranger, had indulged us with two, he seemed to peruse the contents very earnestly.
Is there not in the side wall of the chapel, or recess, which you mention, a large carved stone, bearing a coat of arms, which no one hitherto has been able to decipher? But if your information be correct, he who made out these bearings must have had better eyes than mine. I have made several reconnoissances among the old people, in hopes to learn something of the armorial bearings, but I never heard of such a circumstance. It seems odd that you should have acquired it in a foreign land. It is possible, in like manner, that on the Potomac or Susquehannah, you may find traditions current concerning places in England, which are utterly forgotten in the neighbourhood where they originated.
But to my purpose. In this recess, marked by the armorial bearings, lies buried a treasure, and it is in order to remove it that I have undertaken my present journey. I know the value which men of your persuasion put upon the bodies and limbs of saints. I have seen the Three Kings of Cologne. The excellent relative whom I have already mentioned, amused his leisure hours with putting into form the traditions of his family, particularly some remarkable circumstances which took place about the first breaking out of the schism of the church in Scotland.
He became so much interested in his own labours, that at length he resolved that the heart of one individual, the hero of his tale, should rest no longer in a land of heresy, now deserted by all his kindred. As he knew where it was deposited, he formed the resolution to visit his native country for the purpose of recovering this valued relic. But age, and at length disease, interfered with his resolution, and it was on his deathbed that he charged me to undertake the task in his stead.
The various important events which have crowded upon each other, our ruin and our exile, have for many years obliged me to postpone this delegated duty. Why, indeed, transfer the relics of a holy and worthy man to a country, where religion and virtue are become the mockery of the scorner? I have now a home, which I trust may be permanent, if any thing in this earth can be, termed so.
Thither will I transport the heart of the good father, and beside the shrine which it shall occupy, I will construct my own grave. But you shall read his history. I shall be happy at once to gratify your curiosity, and to show my sense of your kindness, if you will have the goodness to procure me the means of accomplishing my object.
With this promise we parted for the night; and on the ensuing morning I made it my business to see the sexton, who, for a small gratuity, readily granted permission of search, on condition, however, that he should be present himself, to see that the stranger removed nothing of intrinsic value. The sexton also stipulated, that our researches should take place at night, being unwilling to excite observation, or give rise to scandal. My new acquaintance and I spent the day as became lovers of hoar antiquity.
Night found us in the interior of the ruins, attended by the sexton, who carried a dark lantern, and stumbling alternately over the graves of the dead, and the fragments of that architecture, which they doubtless trusted would have canopied their bones till doomsday. I am by no means particularly superstitious, and yet there was that in the present service which I did not very much like.
There was something awful in the resolution of disturbing, at such an hour, and in such a place, the still and mute sanctity of the grave. My companions were free from this impression — the stranger from his energetic desire to execute the purpose for which he came — and the sexton from habitual indifference.
We soon stood in the aisle, which, by the account of the Benedictine, contained the bones of the family of Glendinning, and were busily employed in removing the rubbish from a corner which the stranger pointed out. But the sexton would have been de trop in the group.
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Ere the stranger, assisted by the sexton in his task, had been long at work, they came to some hewn stones, which seemed to have made part of a small shrine, though now displaced and destroyed. I interposed as a neutral party, and taking the box from the sexton, reminded him, that if there were treasure concealed in it, still it could not become the property of the finder. The stranger requested us to go before, assuring us that he would follow in a few minutes.
I stole back, and beheld the old man actually employed as Mattocks had informed me. The language seemed to be Latin; and as, the whispered, yet solemn accent, glided away through the ruined aisles, I could not help reflecting how long it was since they had heard the forms of that religion, for the exercise of which they had been reared at such cost of time, taste, labour, and expense. I wad hae made nae great charge. I wadna hae excised Johnnie, dead or alive. We entered, accordingly, the little parlour, into which Mattocks was also about to push himself with sufficient effrontery, when David, with a most astounding oath, expelled him by head and shoulders, d — ning his curiosity, that would not let gentlemen be private in their own inn.
Apparently mine host considered his own presence as no intrusion, for he crowded up to the table on which I had laid down the leaden box. It was frail and wasted, as might be guessed, from having lain so many years in the ground. On opening it, we found deposited within, a case made of porphyry, as the stranger had announced to us. He undid the box with great caution; but the shrivelled substance which it contained bore now no resemblance to what it might once have been, the means used having been apparently unequal to preserve its shape and colour, although they were adequate to prevent its total decay.
We were quite satisfied, notwithstanding, that it was, what the stranger asserted, the remains of a human heart; and David readily promised his influence in the village, which was almost co-ordinate with that of the bailie himself, to silence all idle rumours. I am induced to believe that their publication will not be an unacceptable present to the British public; and willingly make over to you any profit that may accrue from such a transaction.
I stared a little at this annunciation, and observed, that the hand seemed too modern for the date he assigned to the manuscript. My uncle commenced this book; and I, partly to improve my habit of English composition, partly to divert melancholy thoughts, amused my leisure hours with continuing and concluding it.
You will see the period of the story where my uncle leaves off his narrative, and I commence mine. In fact, they relate in a great measure to different persons, as well as to a different period. Retaining the papers in my hand, I proceeded to state to him my doubts, whether, as a good Protestant, I could undertake or superintend a publication written probably in the spirit of Popery. I remembered I was writing for a land unhappily divided from the Catholic faith; and I have taken care to say nothing which, justly interpreted, could give ground for accusing me of partiality.
But if, upon collating my narrative with the proofs to which I refer you — for you will find copies of many of the original papers in that parcel — you are of opinion that I have been partial to my own faith, I freely give you leave to correct my errors in that respect. I own, however, I am not conscious of this defect, and have rather to fear that the Catholics may be of opinion, that I have mentioned circumstances respecting the decay of discipline which preceded, and partly occasioned, the great schism, called by you the Reformation, over which I ought to have drawn a veil.
And indeed, this is one reason why I choose the papers should appear in a foreign land, and pass to the press through the hands of a stranger. To this I had nothing to reply, unless to object my own incompetency to the task the good father was desirous to impose upon me. On this subject he was pleased to say more, I fear, than his knowledge of me fully warranted — more, at any rate, than my modesty will permit me to record.
At length he ended, with advising me, if I continued to feel the diffidence which I stated, to apply to some veteran of literature, whose experience might supply my deficiencies. Upon these terms we parted, with mutual expressions of regard, and I have never since heard of him. After several attempts to peruse the quires of paper thus singularly conferred on me, in which I was interrupted by the most inexplicable fits of yawning, I at length, in a sort of despair, communicated them to our village club, from whom they found a more favourable reception than the unlucky conformation of my nerves had been able to afford them.
They unanimously pronounced the work to be exceedingly good, and assured me I would be guilty of the greatest possible injury to our flourishing village, if I should suppress what threw such an interesting and radiant light upon the history of the ancient Monastery of Saint Mary. At length, by dint of listening to their opinion, I became dubious of my own; and, indeed, when I heard passages read forth by the sonorous voice of our worthy pastor, I was scarce more tired than I have felt myself at some of his own sermons.
Still, however, there remained the great difficulty of finding some one who could act as editor, corrector at once of the press and of the language, which, according to the schoolmaster, was absolutely necessary. Since the trees walked forth to choose themselves a king, never was an honour so bandied about. The schoolmaster alone seemed of malleable stuff; and, desirous perhaps of emulating the fame of Jedediah Cleishbotham, evinced a wish to undertake this momentous commission.
But a remonstrance from three opulent farmers, whose sons he had at bed, board, and schooling, for twenty pounds per annum a-head, came like a frost over the blossoms of his literary ambition, and he was compelled to decline the service. In these circumstances, sir, I apply to you, by the advice of our little council of war, nothing doubting you will not be disinclined to take the duty upon you, as it is much connected with that in which you have distinguished yourself. What I request is, that you will review, or rather revise and correct, the enclosed packet, and prepare it for the press, by such alterations, additions, and curtailments, as you think necessary.
Forgive my hinting to you, that the deepest well may be exhausted — the best corps of grenadiers, as our old general of brigade expressed himself, may be used up. A few hints can do you no harm; and, for the prize-money, let the battle be first won, and it shall be parted at the drum-head. I hope you will take nothing amiss that I have said.
I am a plain soldier, and little accustomed to compliments. I may add, that I should be well contented to march in the front with you — that is, to put my name with yours on the title-page. John Ballantyne, Hanover Street, Edinburgh. But the landlord of the period was not the same civil and quiet person by whom the inn is now kept. David Kyle, a Melrose proprietor of no little importance, a first-rate person of consequence in whatever belonged to the business of the town, was the original owner and landlord of the inn. Poor David, like many other busy men, took so much care of public affairs, as in some degree to neglect his own.
There are persons still alive at Kennaquhair who can recognise him and his peculiarities in the following sketch of mine Host of the George. David Kyle was a constant and privileged attendant when Lord Sommerville had a party for spearing salmon; on such occasions, eighty or a hundred fish were often killed between Gleamer and Leaderfoot.
The same story which Ramsay and Dunbar have successively handled, forms also the subject of the modern farce, No Song, no Supper. I had a great mind to remove the passages from this edition, but the more candid way is to explain how they came there. Do not admire, that, notwithstanding the distance and ceremony of your address, I return an answer in the terms of familiarity. The truth is, your origin and native country are better known to me than even to yourself.
You derive your respectable parentage, if I am not greatly mistaken, from a land which has afforded much pleasure, as well as profit, to those who have traded to it successfully — I mean that part of the terra incognita which is called the province of Utopia.
Its productions, though censured by many and some who use tea and tobacco without scruple as idle and unsubstantial luxuries, have nevertheless, like many other luxuries, a general acceptation, and are secretly enjoyed even by those who express the greatest scorn and dislike of them in public.
The dram-drinker is often the first to be shocked at the smell of spirits — it is not unusual to hear old maiden ladies declaim against scandal — the private book-cases of some grave-seeming men would not brook decent eyes — and many, I say not of the wise and learned, but of those most anxious to seem such, when the spring-lock of their library is drawn, their velvet cap pulled over their ears, their feet insinuated into their turkey slippers, are to be found, were their retreats suddenly intruded upon, busily engaged with the last new novel.
I have said, the truly wise and learned disdain these shifts, and will open the said novel as avowedly as they would the lid of their snuff-box. I will only quote one instance, though I know a hundred. Did you know the celebrated Watt of Birmingham, Captain Clutterbuck? I believe not, though, from what I am about to state, he would not have failed to have sought an acquaintance with you. It was only once my fortune to meet him, whether in body or in spirit it matters not. There were assembled about half a score of our Northern Lights, who had amongst them, Heaven knows how, a well-known character of your country, Jedediah Cleishbotham.
Watt, the man whose genius discovered the means of multiplying our national resources to a degree perhaps even beyond his own stupendous powers of calculation and combination; bringing the treasures of the abyss to the summit of the earth — giving the feeble arm of man the momentum of an Afrite — commanding manufactures to arise, as the rod of the prophet produced water in the desert — affording the means of dispensing with that time and tide which wait for no man, and of sailing without that wind which defied the commands and threats of Xerxes himself.
This potent commander of the elements — this abridger of time and space — this magician, whose cloudy machinery has produced a change on the world, the effects of which, extraordinary as they are, are perhaps only now beginning to be felt — was not only the most profound man of science, the most successful combiner of powers and calculator of numbers as adapted to practical purposes — was not only one of the most generally well-informed — but one of the best and kindest of human beings.
There he stood, surrounded by the little band I have mentioned of Northern literati, men not less tenacious, generally speaking, of their own fame and their own opinions, than the national regiments are supposed to be jealous of the high character which they have won upon service. Methinks I yet see and hear what I shall never see or hear again.
His talents and fancy overflowed on every subject. One gentleman was a deep philologist — he talked with him on the origin of the alphabet as if he had been coeval with Cadmus; another a celebrated critic — you would have said the old man had studied political economy and belles-lettres all his life — of science it is unnecessary to speak, it was his own distinguished walk.
I know little apology for troubling you with these things, excepting the desire to commemorate a delightful evening, and a wish to encourage you to shake off that modest diffidence which makes you afraid of being supposed connected with the fairy-land of delusive fiction. I will requite your tag of verse, from Horace himself, with a paraphrase for your own use, my dear Captain, and for that of your country club, excepting in reverence the clergyman and schoolmaster: Having told you your country, I must next, my dear Captain Clutterbuck, make free to mention your own immediate descent.
You are not to suppose your land of prodigies so little known to us as the careful concealment of your origin would seem to imply. But you have it in common with many of your country, studiously and anxiously to hide any connexion with it. There is this difference, indeed, betwixt your countrymen and those of our more material world, that many of the most estimable of them, such as an old Highland gentleman called Ossian, a monk of Bristol called Rowley, and others, are inclined to pass themselves off as denizens of the land of reality, whereas most of our fellow-citizens who deny their country are such as that country would be very willing to disclaim.
The especial circumstances you mention relating to your life and services, impose not upon us. We know the versatility of the unsubstantial species to which you belong permits them to assume all manner of disguises; we have seen them apparelled in the caftan of a Persian, and the silken robe of a Chinese, 12 and are prepared to suspect their real character under every disguise. But how can we be ignorant of your country and manners, or deceived by the evasion of its inhabitants, when the voyages of discovery which have been made to it rival in number those recorded by Purchas or by Hackluyt?
These were the men for discoveries. But there are feats, and these both numerous and extraordinary, performed by the inhabitants of your country, which we read without once attempting to emulate. You are not born of woman, unless, indeed, in that figurative sense, in which the celebrated Maria Edgeworth may, in her state of single blessedness, be termed mother of the finest family in England.
You belong, sir, to the Editors of the land of Utopia, a sort of persons for whom I have the highest esteem. What I have remarked as peculiar to Editors of the class in which I venture to enrol you, is the happy combination of fortuitous circumstances which usually put you in possession of the works which you have the goodness to bring into public notice.
One walks on the sea-shore, and a wave casts on land a small cylindrical trunk or casket, containing a manuscript much damaged with sea-water, which is with difficulty deciphered, and so forth. At least I can answer for myself, that in my solitary walks by the sea, I never saw it cast ashore any thing but dulse and tangle, and now and then a deceased star-fish; my landlady never presented me with any manuscript save her cursed bill; and the most interesting of my discoveries in the way of waste-paper, was finding a favourite passage of one of my own novels wrapt round an ounce of snuff.
Isaac Johnson, died; his wife the lady Arabella of the house of Lincoln, being dead about one month before. He was a holy man, and wise, and died in sweet peace, leaving some part of his substance to the colony. French of Watertown had his wigwam burnt and all his goods. Billigton executed at Plimouth for murdering one. The wolves killed some swine at Saugus: Rosseter one of the assistants died.
She had about 60 passengers who came all well. John Grant, master, Mr. Gosse wrote me that his shipping this year had utterly undone him. Divers had their hay-stacks burnt by burning the grass. There was no running water, and if there were any springs they would not suffice the town. The most part of the people had built already, and would not be able to build again: Neale and three other gentlemen came hither to us, he came in the bark Warwich this summer to Piscataqua, sent as Governor there for Sir Ferdinand Georges and others.
Many of our cows and goats were forced to be still aboard for want of houses. Being come on shore they kindled a fire, but having no hatchet, they could get little wood, and were forced to lie in the open air all night, being extremely cold. In the morning two of their company went towards Plimouth, supposing it had been within seven or eight miles, whereas it was near fifty miles from them.
By the way they met with two Indian squaws, who coming home, told their husbands that they had met two English men: The girl escaped best, and one Harmer, a godly man of the congregation of B. A house at Dorchester was burnt down. The ship Lyon, Mr. Williams a godly man, with his wife, Mr. Throgmorton,—Perkins,—Augre and others with their wives and children, about twenty passengers, and about tons of goods.
The Governor went aboard the Lyon riding by Long-Island. And it hath been observed ever since this bay was planted by the English, viz, seven years, that at this day the frost hath broken up every year. Of the elder planters and such as came the year before, there were but two, and those servants, which had the scurvy in all the country. At Plimouth not one had it, nor out of those who came this year whereof there were above sixty.
Pierce, in the Lyon, who was her consort, had not towed her home to Bristol. Of the other ships which returned, 3, viz. Sharp's house in Boston took fire the splinters being not clayed at the top and taking the thatch burnt it down, and the wind being N. The next day after dinner he returned here, the Governor giving him cheese and pease and a mug and some other small things.
The Governor gave them three ducks at their setting sail, the wind being N. Sharpe went away at the same time in another shallop. About 10 of the clock Mr. Wilson and divers of the congregation met at the Governor's, and there Mr. The beginning of this month we had very much rain and warm weather. The Governor entertained them at dinner, but would send none with him.
At noon, Cheeseburrows house was burnt down, all the people being present. There came a shallop from Piscataqua which brought news of a small English ship come thither with provisions and some Frenchmen to make salt. There came to the Governor Capt.
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This ship the Angel set sail from. A small ship of 60 tons arrived at Natascott Mr. These were the company called the husbandmen, the ship called the plough; most of them proved familists and vanished away. Newell the elder of the congregation at Boston went to Watertown to confer with Mr. Philips, the pastor, and Mr. The matter was debated before many of both congregations, and by the approbation of all the assembly except three, was concluded an error.
Elston and two of Mr. About this time last year, the company here set forth a pinnace to the parts about Cape Cod, to trade for corn, and it brought here about 80 bus. At the last court a young fellow was whipped for soliciting an Indian squaw to incontinency: At the same court one Henry Lincon was whipped and banished for writing letters into England, full of slander against our government, and orders of our churches. The Blessing went on a voyage to the eastward. In the morning there came thither an Indian squaw, but perceiving her before she had opened the door, he barred her out, yet she stayed there a great while essaying to get in, and at last she went away, and he returned safe home, his servant having been much perplexed for him, and having walked about, and shot off pieces and hollooed in the night, but he heard them not.
W who kept with him, they having killed them, burnt the house over them, and carried away their guns and what else they liked: This Bagnell was sometimes servant to one in the Bay, and these three years had dwelt alone in the said isle, and had gotten about l. Pierce in his ship boat, the ship gave them six or seven pieces.
We kept a day of thanksgiving at Boston.
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The Governor of Plimouth came to Boston and lodged in the ship. Pierce went down to his ship which lay at Nantascot. The congregation at Watertown, whereof Mr. Brown were fit to be continued their elder or not, to which, after some weeks, they returned answer to this effect: Upon the answer which we received of our letter, which did no way satisfy us. But the Pastor, Mr. Thence they came to another brook, greater than the former, which they called Master's Brook, because the eldest of their company was one John Masters. Thence they came to another high pointed rock, having a fair ascent on the West side, which they called Mount Feake from one Robert Feake, who had married the Governor's daughter in law.
On the West side of Mount Feake they went by a very high rock from whence they might see all over Whipcutt, and a very high hill due West about 40 miles off, and to the N. Eliot and others, went over Mistick river at Meadford, and going N. They went all about it upon the ice. From hence towards the N. This place they called Cheese Rock, because when they went to eat somewhat, they had only cheese, the Governor's man forgetting, from haste, to put up some bread.
The occasion was for that a warrant being sent to Watertown for levying of 8l. Commissioners appointed to set out the bounds of the towns. At her coming into Natascott, with a S. It was in the new meeting-house, which was thatched, and the thatch only blacked a little. At a court at Boston, the deputy Mr. Maverick's pinnace went out towards Virginia. The points discused were two. The first, upon what grounds he did it.
Upon this there arose another question about his house. Another question fell out, which was this. The Governor answered him, that the ordering of the watch did proporly belong to the constable, but in those towns where the Captains dwelt, they had thought fit to leave it to them, and since Captain Patrick was removed, the constable might take care of it, but advised him withal to acquaint the deputy with it, and at the court it should be ordered.
This much displeased the Captain, who came to this meeting to have it redressed. The Governor told the rest what he had done, and upon what ground, whereupon they refused to do any thing in it till the court. A proposition was made by the people that every company of train-men might choose their own Captain and officers, but the Governor giving them reasons to the contrary, they were satisfied with it. Wilde and old Mr. Also the Charles of Barnstable, with near 80 cows and 6 mares, Mr. Hatherly the merchant, and about 20 passengers, all safe, and in health.
The French came in a pinnace to Penobscott and rifled a trucking house belonging to Plimouth, carrying thence weight of beaver and other goods. One Abraham Sheert of Penaquid, and one Captain Wright and others coming to Piscataquack, being bound for this Bay in a shallop with l. A shallop of one Henry Waye of Dorchester having been missing all the winter, it was found that the men in her being five were all killed treacherously by the eastern Indians.
A fishing shallop at Isle of shoals was overset. One Noddle an honest man of Salem, running wood in a canoe, in the South River was overturned and drowned. The man that was blown away with the powder, in the boat at Piscataq, was after found with his hands and feet torn off. If not, then what should be best done?
Whether there might be divers pastors in the same church. The strife in Watertown congregation continued still, but at length they gave the separatists a day to come in, or all to be proceeded against. At Watertown there was, in the view of divers witnesses, a great combat between a mouse and a snake, and after a long fight the mouse prevailed and killed the snake. The minister of Boston, Mr. Wilson, a very sincere holy man, hearing of it, gave this interpretation: After many importunings and days of humiliation by those of Boston and Roxbury, to seek the Lord for Mr.
The Governor answered that he had performed the words of the promise, for he had a house up, and seven or eight servants abiding in it by the day appointed; and for the removing of his house he alledged, that seeing that the rest of the assistants went not about to build, and that his neighbours of Boston had been discouraged from a moving thither by Mr. Deputy himself, and thereupon had, under all their hands, petitioned him; according to the promise he had made to them when they first sat down with him at Boston, viz that he would not remove except they went with him, he would not leave them: Then he demanded of him the ground and limits of his authority, whether by the patent or otherwise?
The deputy replied, that then he had no more authority than every assistant except power to call courts and proceedings for honor and order. Speaking this somewhat apprehensively, the deputy began to be in a passion, and told the Governor that if he was so round, he would be round too. By what authority he lent 28lb. Governor's answer —It was of his own powder, and upon their urgent distress, their own powder proving naught when they were to send to the rest of their men at Sowamsett.
That he had licensed him only to go forth on trading as he had divers others as belonging to his place. By what authority he had given them at Watertown leave to erect a wear upon Charles-river, and had disposed of lands to divers? But the deputy had taken more upon him, in that, without order of the court, he had impaled at Newtown above acres, and had assigned lands to some there. He did it by that authority which was granted him in court, viz. That upon any sentence in criminal causes, the Governor might, upon cause, stay the execution till the next court,— now the cause was, that being in the winter they must otherwise have perished.
Why the fines were not levied? The congregation of Boston and Charlestown begun the meeting house at Boston, for which, and Mr. Wilson's house they had made a voluntary contribution of about l. So again when there hath a very tempest at N. Pelham had a small house near the wear at Watertown, made all of clapboards, burnt down by making a fire in it when it had no chimney.
This week they harvested in barley and oats at Sagus above 20 acres good corn, and strove with the plough. Great store of eels and lobsters in the bay; two or three boys have brought in a bushel of great eels at a time, and 60 great lobsters. But the deputy having received one part of the order, returned the same to the governor, with his reason to Mr. Wilson, that he was so well persuaded of the Governor's love to him and did prize it so much, as if he had given him l. Upon this there was a camp pitched at Boston in the night, to exercise the soldiers against need might be; and Captain Underhill, to try how they would behave themselves, caused an alarm to be given upon the quarters, which discovered the weakness of our people, who like men amazed, knew not how to behave themselves, so as the officers could not draw them into any order.
Pierce, in the ship Lyon, arrived, and came to an anchor before Boston. They had been twelve weeks aboard, and eight weeks from the lands end. He had 5 days E. Pierce carried them in his shallop to Massagascus. The next morning Mr. Pierce returned to his ship, and the Governor and his company went on foot to Plimouth, and came thither within the evening. The Governor of Plimouth, Mr. Brewster the Elder, and some others, came forth and met them without the town, and conducted them to the Governor's house, where they were kindly entertained, and feasted every day at several houses.
On the Lord's day was a sacrament which they did partake in; and in the afternoon Mr. Smith spake briefly, then Mr. Wilson to speak to it, which they did. When this was ended, the deacon, Mr. The Lieutenant Holmes with two others and the Governor's man, came along with them to the great swamp about 10 miles. About this time Mr. Dudley his house at Watertown was preserved from burning down, and all his family from being distroyed by gun-powder, by a marvellous deliverance: The hearth of the hall chimney burning all night upon a principal and store of powder being near, and not discovered till they arose in the morning, and then it began to flame out.
The Governor received a letter from Capt. Wilson formerly their teacher , was chosen pastor, and — Oliver a ruling elder, and both were ordained by imposition of hands, first by the teacher, and then two deacons in the name of the congregation upon the elder, and then by the elder and the deacons upon the pastor. Gallopp with his shallop, the wind being very great at S. By letters from Capt.
It was further advertised by some that came from Penobscott, that the pirates had lost one of their chief men by a musket shot from Pemaquid, and that there remained but 15, whereof four or five were detained against their wills, and that they had been at some English plantations, and taken nothing from them but what they paid for, and that they had given another pinnace in exchance for that of Mr. They also sent a writing directed to all the Governors, signifying their intent not to do harm to any more of their countrymen, but to go to the southward and advise them not to send against them, for they were resolved to strike themselves rather than be taken: Also that a plantation should be begun at Agawam being the best place in the land for tillage and cattle lest an enemy finding it void, should possess and take it from us.
A maid servant of Mr. Skelton of Salem, going towards Sagus was lost seven days, and at length came home to Salem. All that time she was in the woods, having no kind of food, the snow being very deep, and as cold as at any time that winter. Three of the pirates company ran from them and came home. Bradford having been governor about ten years, and now by importunity got off. Their victuals also grew short, so as they were forced to eat muskles; yet they were very merry and came all safe home the 3d day after, thro the Lord's special providence. Upon view of the place it was agreed by all, that to build a fort there, would be of too great charge, and of little use, whereupon the planting of that place was deferred.
Levett, who carried them and died at sea. Winthrop went with twelve men to begin a plantation at Agawam, after called Ipswich. One John Edye a Godly man of Watertown congregation, fell distracted, and getting out one evening, could not be found, but eight days after, he came again of himself. He had kept his strength and colour, yet had eaten nothing as must needs be conceived all that time.
Hodges one of Mr. Pierce his ship was cast away upon a shoal four miles from Feake Isle, ten leagues to the N. They had a shallop and their ship's boat aboard. They were 9 days in much distress before they found any English. The William and James Mr. The Mary and James arrived, Mr. Coddington one of the assistants, and his wife, came in her. In her return she was cast away upon Isle Sable, but men were saved.
England for their agent here Captain Neale. We sent forth a pinnace after the pirate Bull, but after she had been forth two months, she came home having not found him. After, we heard he was gone to the French. A Dutch pink arrived here which had been to the Southward a trading.
Graves in the ship Eliz. They came from Yarmouth in six weeks, lost not one person but above 40 sheep. Bradford came into the bay, and went away the 18th. They came partly to confer about joining in a trade to Connecticut, for beaver and hemp: Much sickness at Plimouth, and above twenty died of pestilent fevers. Graves returned and carried a freight of fish from hence and Plimouth.
They went out to gather oysters, and not making fast their boat when the flood came it floated away, and they were both drowned, altho they might have waded out on either side, but it was an evident judgment of God upon them, for they were wicked persons: Captain Walter Neale of Piscat.
And indeed if he courteously should have invited him, standing upon these terms, he had blemished his reputation. He made three exceptions: For that we termed the bishops reverend bishops, which was only in repeating the accusations made. Knox called the In. In this ship came Mr. Stone, ministers, and Mr.
Stone went presently to Newtown, where they were to be entertained, and Mr. Cotton stayed at Boston. Cotton being desired to speak to the question which was of the church he shewed out of the canticles 6. Because they had no settled congregation there. The said 4th of September, came in also the ship called the Bird, Mr. He lodged at Indian towns all the way. But divers of the council, upon second thought, did after refuse this contribution. The Dutch Governor wrote back to our Governor his letter was very courteous and respectful as it had been to a very honorable person whereby he signified that the Lords the states had also granted the same parts to the West India company, and therefore requested that he would forbear the same till the matter were decided between the King of England and the said Lords.
The said bark did pass and repass over the shoals of Cape Cod, about three or four leagues from Natucket Isle, where the breaches are very terrible, yet they had three fathom water all over. The company of Plimouth sent a bark to Connecticut at this time to erect a trading house there; when they came they found the Dutch had built there, and did forbid the Plimouth men to proceed, but they sat up their house notwithstanding about a mile above the Dutch. Cotton's congregation in England was chosen a ruling elder, and Mr. Cotton was then chosen teacher of the congregation of Boston, and ordained by imposition of hands.
The same day Mr. L— a godly minister to Piscataq. He brought news that the Richard a bark of 50 tons which came forth with the Griffin, being come above leagues, sprang such a leak as she was forced to bear up and put into Waymouth. Hooker was chosen pastor and Mr. Stone teacher in such a manner as before at Boston. The wolves continued to do much hurt among our cattle—and this month by Mr.
Grant there came over sour Irish grey hounds which were sent to the Governor by Mr.
The disease was the small pox. Some of them were cured by such means as they had from us; many of their children escaped and were kept by the English. The Governor answered that if Piscataq. A small ship of about 60 tons was built at Meadford, and called the Rebecca. The evils which were springing, were, 1.
Many spent much time idly, because they could get as much in four days as would keep them a week. Skelton the pastor of Salem, and Mr. News of the taking of Machias by the French. Some differences fell out still now and then, between the Governor and deputy, which were soon healed. The Governor told them it should rest till the court, and withal gave the letter to Mr.
Hooker with this speech: Hooker who both so-journed in his house partakers with him. Hooker, and myself do most kindly accept the good will, but we desire, without offence, to refuse the offer, and that I may only trade with you for two hogs, and so very lovingly concluded. At this meeting there arose some difference between the Governor and Mr. The towns in the bay took away many of the children, but most of them died soon after. James Sagamore of Sagus died also and most of his folks.
John Sagamore desired to be brought among the English, so he agreed and promised, if he recovered, to live with the English and serve their God. He left one son which he disposed to Mr. Wilson the pastor of Boston to be brought up by him. He gave to the Governor a good quantity of wampampeague, and to divers others of the English he gave gifts and took order for the payment of his own debts and his men's; he died in a persuasion that he should go to the Englishmen's God. Divers of them in their sickness confessed that the Englishmen's God was a good God, and that if they recovered they would serve him.
It wrought much with them that when their own people forsook them, yet the English came daily and ministered to them, and yet few took any instructions by it. One Couper of Piscataq. At the same plantation a company having made a fire at a tree, one of them said, this tree will fall, and accordingly it fell upon him and killed him. It pleased the Lord to give special testimony of his presence in the church of Boston after Mr. Cotton was called to office there, more were converted and added to that church than to all the other churches in the bay or rather the lake, for so it were more principally termed, the bay being that part of sea between the two capes, Cape Cod and Cape Anne.
Wilson a singular gift, to the great benefit of the church. After much deliberation and serious advice, the Lord directed the teacher Mr. Williams then of Salem had sent to them, and which he had formerly written to the Governor and council of Plimouth, wherein among other things, he disputes their right to the lands they possessed here, and concluded that claiming by the King's grant, they could have no title, nor otherwise except they compounded with the natives. There were three passages chiefly whereat they were much offended.
For that he chargeth him and others with blasphemy for calling Europe Christendom or the church world. Endicott being absent the Governor wrote to him to let him know what was done, and withal added divers arguments to confute the said errors, wishing him to deal with Mr. At the next court he appeared privately, and gave satisfaction of his intention and gilt, so it was left and nothing done in it. The manner was thus, [ See after Nov. Hall and the two others who went to Connecticut, Nov. The Governor and council met again at Boston to consider of Mr.
Wilson, and weighing his letter, and further considering of the aforesaid offensive passages in his book which being written in very obscure and implicative phrazes might well admit of doubtful interpretation they found the matters not to be so evil as at first they seemed. Four died of the pox while he was there. This winter was very mild, little wind, and most S. One snow of the 15th of this month was near two feet deep all over. The Gramposs came up towards Charlestown by the tide of ebb. This was found to be so chargeable and so long time ere it could be finished, that it was given over.
Cotton concluded that where by the custom of the place, they were not a sign of a woman's sobriety, they were not commanded by the apostle. After some debate, the Governor perceiving it to grow to some earnestness, interposed and so it brake off. Satan bestirred himself to hinder the progress of the gospel as among other practices, appeared by this. He stirred up a spirit of jealousy between Mr. Morris, Ensign to Capt. Underhill, taking some distaste in his office, requested the magistrates that he might be discharged of it, and so was, whereby he gave offence to the congregation of B.
Order was taken for ministering an oath to all house keepers and sojourners being 20 years of age and not freemen, and for making a survey of the houses and lands of all freemen. The occasion of the death of those men at Kenebeck was this. The Plimouth men had a grant from the grand patentees of N. At the general court at Boston, upon the complaint of a kinsman of the said Hoskin. This we did that notice might be taken that we did disavow the said action which was much condemned of all men, and which was feared would give occasion to the King to send a general Governor over, and beside, had brought us all, and the gospel under a common reproach of cutting one another's throats for beaver.
At the general Court Mr. Ludlow was chosen deputy, and John Haynes, Esq. Many good orders were made this court, it held three days, and all things were carried very peaceably, notwithstanding that some of the assistants were questioned by the freemen for some errors in their government, and some sines imposed, but remitted again before the court broke up. The week the court was, there came in six ships with store of passengers and cattle.
Parker a minister and a company with him being about one hundred, went to sit down at Agawam and divers others of the new comers. One —, a Godly minister, upon conscience of his oath and care of the common W. They obtained his recovery while the congregation were assembled. It appeared after that the King had written to Sir Jo.
The last month arrived here 14 great ships and one at Salem, Mr. Humphry and the lady Susan his wife one of the Earl of Lincoln's sisters arrived here. Cradock's letter, but not to return any answer or excuse to the council at that time. Divers of the ships lost many cattle, but the two which came from Ipswich, of more than , lost but 7.
None of the ships lost any passengers, but the E. Dorcas which having a long passage, and being hurt upon a rock at Silly, and very ill victualled, she lost 60 passengers at sea, and divers came sick on shore, who all recovered through the mercy of God except. Humphry brought 16 hiefers given by a private friend, viz. Richard Andrews, to the plantation, viz.
To every of the ministers one, and the rest to the poor, and one half of the increase of the ministers to be reserved for other ministers. Wilson so soon as he had his, gave it to Mr. Humphry's means much money was procured, and divers promised yearly pensions. Six of Newtown went in the Blessing being bound to the Dutch plantation to discover Connecticut river, intending to remove their town thither. Winslow two of the magistrates of Plimouth, with Mr. There met thereabout, Mr. Wilson, and after they had sought the Lord, they fell first upon some passages which they had taken some offence at, but those were soon cleared.
Then for the matter itself it fell into these points. Whether their right of trade there were such as they might lawfully hinder others from coming there. Admitting that, whether in point of conscience they might so far stand upon their right as to take away or hazard any man's life in defence of it. The Governor and Mr. Winthrop wrote their letters into England to mediate their peace, and sent them by Mr. Wilson, Sir Ferdinand Gorges and Capt. Cradock wrote to the Governor and assistants, and sent a copy of the council's order, whereby we were required to send over our patent.
Upon long consultation whether we should return answer or not, we agreed, and returned answer to Mr. Cradock, excusing that it could not be done but by a general court which was to be holden in September next. Winthrop the late Gov. The deputy Roger Ludlow was chosen overseer of the work. Samuel Skelton pastor of Salem died. A letter to Mr. They have a great trade of beaver, about 9 or 10, skins in a year. Our neighbours of Plimouth had great trade also this year at Kenebeck, so as Mr.
Winslow coming in his bark from Connecticut to Naragansett, and left her there, and intending to return by land, he went to Osamekin the Sagamore, his old ally, who offered to conduct him home to Plimouth, but before they took their journey Osamekin sent one of his men to Plimouth to tell them that Mr.
Winslow was dead, and directed him to shew how and where he was killed, whereupon there was much fear and sorrow at Plimouth. They had written to Captain Wiggin of Piscat. Young wrote to make offer to deliver cattle here. But the main business which spent the most time, and caused the adjourning of the court, was about the removal of Newtown.
The principal reasons for their removal, were, 1. Hooker, as a fundamental error, that towns were set so near each to other. The strong bent of their spirits to remove thither. Against these, it was said, 1. That in poit of conscience they ought not to depart from us, being knit to us in one body, and bound by oath to seek the welfare of this Commonwealth. That in point of state and civil policy, we ought not to give them leave to depart. Being new, were now weak and in danger to be assailed.
The departure of Mr. We should expose them to evident peril both from the Dutch who made claim to the same river and had already built a sort there, and from the Indians, and also from our own state at home, who would not endure they should sit down without a patent in any place which our King lays claim unto. They might remove to Merimack or any other place within our patent. Upon these and other arguments the court being divided, it was put to vote, and of the deputies 15 were for their departure, and 10 against it.
Before they began Mr. Cotton preached being desired by all the court, upon Mr. Hooker's instant excuse of his unfitness for that occasion he took his text out of Hag. At this court Mr. This being advised from our friends to be intended specially for us, and that there were ships and soldiers provided, given out as for the carrying the new Governor, Capt. About this time one Alderman of Bear Cove, being about 50 years old, lost his way between Dorchester and Wessagasus, and wandered in the woods and swamps three days and two nights without taking any food, and being near spent, God brought him to Scituate, but he had torn his legs much, other harm he had none.
Cotton at Boston one Thursday or the 5th day of the week, and Mr. Hooker at Newtown the next 5th day, and Mr. Wilde at Roxbury the next 4th day. He went to Scituate, being desired to be their pastor. Maverick came and undertook that the offender should be forthcoming. Richard Brown of Watertown in the name of the rest, that the ensign at Salem was defaced, viz. Much matter was made of this, as fearing it would be taken as an act of rebellion, or of like high nature, in defacing the King's colours: Though the truth were it was done upon this opinion, that the red cross was given to the King of England by the Pope, as an ensign of victory, and so a superstitious thing, and a relique of antichrist.
What proceeding was hereupon, will appear after, at next court in the first month, for by reason of the great snows and frosts we used not to keep courts in the three winter months. The Rebeccah came from Naragansett with bushels of corn given to Mr. The Indians had promised him bushels, but their store fell out less than they expected. They gave him also an Island, in the Naragansett Bay, called Chippaceersett, about six miles long and two broad.
Pierce took the height there, and found it The country on the W. He saw there above men, women and children, yet the men were many abroad on hunting. Natuckett is an Island full of Indians, about 10 leagues in length E.
5 The Treatise on the Apocalypse
And now there came two men who brought another present of wampampeague, the deputy brought them to Boston where most of the assistants were assembled by occasion of the lecture, who calling to them some of the ministers, grew to this treaty with them: They answered, that the Sachem who then lived was slain by the Dutch, and all the men who were guilty were dead of the pox, except two, and that if they were worthy of death, they would move their Sachem to have them delivered for they had no commission to do it but they excused the fact, saying that Capt.
When they came to the Governor, they agreed, according to the former treaty, viz. The next morning news came that two or three hundred of the Naragansetts were come to Cohan, viz. The agreement they made with us was put in writing, and the two ambassadors set their marks, one a bow with an arrow in it, and the other a hand. Explore the Home Gift Guide. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon.
The Monastery, by Walter Scott
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