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The similarities in the dance iconography suggests that there may be a link between ancient Indra and Shiva. Rudra's evolution from a minor Vedic deity to a supreme being is first evidenced in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad — BC , according to Gavin Flood. The period of BC to AD also marks the beginning of the Shaiva tradition focused on the worship of Shiva as evidenced in other literature of this period.

He who sees himself in all beings, And all beings in him, attains the highest Brahman , not by any other means. The Shaiva Upanishads are a group of 14 minor Upanishads of Hinduism variously dated from the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE through the 17th century. A few texts such as Atharvashiras Upanishad mention Rudra , and assert all gods are Rudra, everyone and everything is Rudra, and Rudra is the principle found in all things, their highest goal, the innermost essence of all reality that is visible or invisible.

The Shaiva Puranas , particularly the Shiva Purana and the Linga Purana , present the various aspects of Shiva, mythologies, cosmology and pilgrimage Tirtha associated with him. Dualistic Shaiva Agamas which consider soul within each living being and Shiva as two separate realities dualism, dvaita , are the foundational texts for Shaiva Siddhanta. Shiva-related literature developed extensively across India in the 1st millennium CE and through the 13th century, particularly in Kashmir and Tamil Shaiva traditions.

The figure of Shiva as we know him today may be an amalgamation of various older deities into a single figure. Vishnu and Siva [ The latter were either taken to represent the multiple facets of the same god or else were supposed to denote different forms and appellations by which the god came to be known and worshipped.

An example of assimilation took place in Maharashtra , where a regional deity named Khandoba is a patron deity of farming and herding castes. Shaivism is one of the four major sects of Hinduism, the others being Vaishnavism , Shaktism and the Smarta Tradition. Shaivas believe that Shiva is All and in all, the creator, preserver, destroyer, revealer and concealer of all that is. Shiva is the primal soul, the pure consciousness and Absolute Reality in the Shaiva traditions.

The Shaivism theology is broadly grouped into two: The Tantric Shiva tradition ignored the mythologies and Puranas related to Shiva, and depending on the sub-school developed a spectrum of practices. For example, historical records suggest the tantric Kapalikas literally, the "skull-men" co-existed with and shared many Vajrayana Buddhist rituals, engaged in esoteric practices that revered Shiva and Shakti wearing skulls, begged with empty skulls, used meat, alcohol and sexuality as a part of ritual. The Vaishnava Vishnu-oriented literature acknowledges and discusses Shiva. Like Shaiva literature that presents Shiva as supreme, the Vaishnava literature presents Vishnu as supreme.

However, both traditions are pluralistic and revere both Shiva and Vishnu along with Devi , their texts do not show exclusivism, and Vaishnava texts such as the Bhagavata Purana while praising Krishna as the Ultimate Reality, also present Shiva and Shakti as a personalized form and equivalent to the same Ultimate Reality. The Skanda Purana, for example, states:. Mythologies of both traditions include legends about who is superior, about Shiva paying homage to Vishnu, and Vishnu paying homage to Shiva.

However, in texts and artwork of either tradition, the mutual salutes are symbolism for complementarity. The goddess-oriented Shakti tradition of Hinduism is based on the premise that the Supreme Principle and the Ultimate Reality called Brahman is female Devi , [] [] [] but it treats the male as her equal and complementary partner. The earliest evidence of the tradition of reverence for the feminine with Rudra-Shiva context, is found in the Hindu scripture Rigveda , in a hymn called the Devi Sukta: I am the Queen, the gatherer-up of treasures, most thoughtful, first of those who merit worship.

Thus gods have established me in many places with many homes to enter and abide in. Through me alone all eat the food that feeds them, — each man who sees, breathes, hears the word outspoken. They know it not, yet I reside in the essence of the Universe. Hear, one and all, the truth as I declare it. I, verily, myself announce and utter the word that gods and men alike shall welcome. I make the man I love exceeding mighty, make him nourished, a sage, and one who knows Brahman.

Name and title

I bend the bow for Rudra [Shiva], that his arrow may strike, and slay the hater of devotion. I rouse and order battle for the people, I created Earth and Heaven and reside as their Inner Controller. The Devi Upanishad in its explanation of the theology of Shaktism, mentions and praises Shiva such as in its verse In the Smarta tradition of Hinduism, Shiva is a part of its Panchayatana puja. Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all idols murti are icons to help focus on and visualize aspects of Brahman, rather than distinct beings.

The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, recognize the Absolute symbolized by the icons, [] on the path to realizing the nondual identity of one's Atman soul, self and the Brahman. Shiva is considered the Great Yogi who is totally absorbed in himself — the transcendental reality. He is the Lord of Yogis , and the teacher of Yoga to sages. The theory and practice of Yoga, in different styles, has been a part of all major traditions of Hinduism, and Shiva has been the patron or spokesperson in numerous Hindu Yoga texts.

These ideas are estimated to be from or after the late centuries of the 1st millennium CE, and have survived as Yoga texts such as the Isvara Gita literally, "Shiva's song" , which Andrew Nicholson — a professor of Hinduism and Indian Intellectual History — states have had "a profound and lasting influence on the development of Hinduism".

Other famed Shiva-related texts influenced Hatha Yoga , integrated monistic Advaita Vedanta ideas with Yoga philosophy and inspired the theoretical development of Indian classical dance. These include the Shiva Sutras , the Shiva Samhita , and those by the scholars of Kashmir Shaivism such as the 10th-century scholar Abhinavagupta.

The Trimurti is a concept in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified by the forms of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the maintainer or preserver and Shiva the destroyer or transformer. According to Gavin Flood , "Shiva is a god of ambiguity and paradox," whose attributes include opposing themes. In Yajurveda , two contrary sets of attributes for both malignant or terrifying Sanskrit: The duality of Shiva's fearful and auspicious attributes appears in contrasted names.

The name Rudra reflects Shiva's fearsome aspects. According to traditional etymologies, the Sanskrit name Rudra is derived from the root rud- , which means "to cry, howl". Sharma follows this alternate etymology and translates the name as "terrible". Sharma translates the three as "one who captivates", "one who consolidates", and "one who destroys". This name was adopted by the great Vedanta philosopher Adi Shankara c.

Shiva is depicted as both an ascetic yogi and as a householder grihasta , roles which have been traditionally mutually exclusive in Hindu society. As a family man and householder, he has a wife, Parvati and two sons, Ganesha and Kartikeya. The consorts of Shiva are the source of his creative energy. They represent the dynamic extension of Shiva onto this universe.

Some regional deities are also identified as Shiva's children. As one story goes, Shiva is enticed by the beauty and charm of Mohini , Vishnu's female avatar, and procreates with her. As a result of this union, Shasta — identified with regional deities Ayyappan and Aiyanar — is born.

The depiction of Shiva as Nataraja Sanskrit: When it requires the world or universe to be destroyed, Shiva does it by the Tandava, [] [] and Lasya , which is graceful and delicate and expresses emotions on a gentle level and is considered the feminine dance attributed to the goddess Parvati. This form represents Shiva in his aspect as a teacher of yoga, music, and wisdom and giving exposition on the shastras.

According to Ellen Goldberg, the traditional Sanskrit name for this form is best translated as "the lord who is half woman", not as "half-man, half-woman". Shiva is often depicted as an archer in the act of destroying the triple fortresses, Tripura , of the Asuras. Apart from anthropomorphic images of Shiva, he is also represented in aniconic form of a lingam. One common form is the shape of a vertical rounded column in the centre of a lipped, disk-shaped object, the yoni , symbolism for the goddess Shakti.

It implies the regenerative divine energy innate in nature, symbolized by Shiva. In that hymn, a description is found of the beginningless and endless Stambha or Skambha , and it is shown that the said Skambha is put in place of the eternal Brahman. Just as the Yajna sacrificial fire, its smoke, ashes, and flames, the Soma plant, and the ox that used to carry on its back the wood for the Vedic sacrifice gave place to the conceptions of the brightness of Shiva's body, his tawny matted hair, his blue throat, and the riding on the bull of the Shiva, the Yupa-Skambha gave place in time to the Shiva-Linga.

The oldest known archaeological linga as an anicon of Shiva is the Gudimallam lingam from 3rd-century BCE. Five is a sacred number for Shiva. These are represented as the five faces of Shiva and are associated in various texts with the five elements, the five senses, the five organs of perception, and the five organs of action. Puranic scriptures contain occasional references to "ansh" — literally portion, or avatars of Shiva, but the idea of Shiva avatars is not universally accepted in Saivism.

For example, in the Hanuman Chalisa , Hanuman is identified as the eleventh avatar of Shiva. Maha Shivaratri is a major Hindu festival, but one that is solemn and theologically marks a remembrance of "overcoming darkness and ignorance" in life and the world, [] and meditation about the polarities of existence, of Shiva and a devotion to humankind. Others visit one of the Shiva temples or go on pilgrimage to Jyotirlingam shrines. Those who visit temples, offer milk, fruits, flowers, fresh leaves and sweets to the lingam. Another major festival involving Shiva worship is Kartik Purnima , commemorating Shiva's victory on the demons Tripurasura.

Across India, various Shiva temples are illuminated throughout the night. Shiva icons are carried in procession in some places. The festival is one where both the Vaishnava and Shaiva communities join the celebrations, because Vishnu gives away his sister Minakshi in marriage to Shiva. Some Shaktism-related festivals revere Shiva along with the goddess considered primary and Supreme.

These include festivals dedicated to Annapurna such as Annakuta and those related to Durga. The ascetic, Vedic and Tantric sub-traditions related to Shiva, such as those that became ascetic warriors during the Islamic rule period of India, [] [] celebrate the Kumbha Mela festival. The biggest is in Prayaga renamed Allahabad during the Mughal rule era , where millions of Hindus of different traditions gather at the confluence of rivers Ganges and Yamuna. In the Hindu tradition, the Shiva-linked ascetic warriors Nagas get the honor of starting the event by entering the sangam first for bathing and prayers.

Batara Guru's wife in southeast Asia is the same Hindu deity Durga, who has been popular since ancient times, and she too has a complex character with benevolent and fierce manifestations, each visualized with different names such as Uma, Sri, Kali and others. However, among the texts that have survived into the contemporary era, the more common are of those of Shaiva Siddhanta locally also called Siwa Siddhanta, Sridanta. In the pre-Islamic period on the island of Java , Shaivism and Buddhism were considered very close and allied religions, though not identical religions.

Shaivism was also popular in Sogdia and the Kingdom of Yutian as found from the wall painting from Penjikent on the river Zervashan. The god enjoys an exalted position as a household deity in Japan and is worshipped as the god of wealth and fortune. Shiva as Upaya and Shakti as Prajna. Dattatreya Avtar and Parasnath Avtar. In contemporary culture, Shiva is depicted in films, books, tattoos and art.

He has been referred to as "the god of cool things" [] and a "bonafide rock hero". Popular films include the Gujarati language movie Har Har Mahadev [] and well-known books include Amish Tripathi 's Shiva Trilogy , which has sold over a million copies. Mahadev , a mythological drama about Shiva on the Life OK channel was among the most watched shows at its peak popularity. In the Final Fantasy videogame series, Shiva is often depicted as a benevolent ancient being of Ice Element who frequently aids the heroes against mighty foes via summoning.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Hindu deity. For Jewish period of mourning, see Shiva Judaism. For other uses, see Shiva disambiguation. Statue of Lord Shiva at Murudeshwar. Self-realization and Shaiva Upanishads He who sees himself in all beings, And all beings in him, attains the highest Brahman , not by any other means.

Shaivism and History of Shaivism. Nandi Tantrism Jyotirlinga Shiva Temples. Shiva is represented in his many aspects. Shiva as a meditating yogi in Rishikesh. Maha Sivaratri festival is observed in the night, usually in lighted temples or special prabha above. Shiva has been adopted and merged with Buddhist deities. Acala is a fierce Shiva adaptation. American Studies in the Art of India. The problem with the way she does it is that she unleashes, not hell, but such a mass of prophets, mystics, and philosophers upon the reader that we can move across the thought and ideas of three or four people in a single page - almost all of whom are men, Julian of Norwich, Bridget of Sweden, and Theresa of Avila just manage to squeeze in.

I did wonder how representative and reasonable some of the judgements were at times - but then this is always the case in dense surveys like this. What is particular, and maybe refreshing for some readers, is that Armstrong doesn't much like her own native Western European tradition of Christianity. Every other approach to faith comes across as simply better.

Sufis, Buddhists, and Hassidic Jews among others leap out of the pages as less anxious, more compassionate, kinder, and generally less inclined to self abuse. This may or may not be fair, but in the context of a post colonial world is certainly interesting, although I suppose not original. If belief in a single God is widespread, so is faith that the grass is always greener in the next field.

Still her passion and commitment towards certain kinds of manifestation of faith is clear as evidenced by phrases like "religions such as Buddhism, which have the advantage of being uncontaminated by an inadequate theism" p , one can't claim that she hides her point of view. The sense of her struggle with her own religious background is palpable, but also the relief and comfort that she has found through learning about the three major monotheisms. The ideal reader for this book might well be someone who for all their Jewish, Christian, or Muslim faith feels estranged or simply somewhat distanced from the particular Synagogue, Church, or Mosque they are familiar with.

This is a book that can provide that reader with a broader perspective. She compares trends in Hinduism and Buddhism to the big three monotheisms, this is something she could have made more of. The way that Buddhist Nirvana is described seems to her to be analogous to the experience of God as experience by mystics from the monotheistic religions for instance.

Her survey is a wealth of detail, often curious. I particularly liked her account of the disappointment of the pagan philosopher Plotinus that he didn't get to visit India to study with its sages, he had thought of joining the Roman army as a means of getting there. Somehow turning up in armour, sword in hand, doesn't strike me as the best way to introduce yourself and your philosophical longings to the wise people of a different land. Maybe a similar thought occurred to Plotinus.

Another point that caught my attention was the question of if the God of Abraham and the God of Moses were one and the same, equally she didn't soft pedal the polytheistic sides of Hebrew practice prior to the Babylonian captivity.


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Something that Armstrong I felt did well was the sense of how ideas from one tradition oozed over to others. The influence of the pagan philosophers on Christianity is, I imagine, fairly well known, but she points out as well the interrelationships of developments in Judaism and Islam, and Islam also had a strong engagement with Aristotle in particular. She even makes Origen's self-castration, as inspired by the Gospels, sound like a reasonable action for a good half a page view spoiler [ which is quite an achievement hide spoiler ].

On the downside the mass of characters can be overwhelming, and you are probably best off approaching a book like this with a reasonable background knowledge to start with. If you don't know your Avicenna from your Aquinas this book may well be a struggle. View all 22 comments. I still can't decide if it's good or not. That's that problem with being kinda dumb. View all 9 comments. Jan 03, Camille rated it it was amazing Shelves: If I could give a book six stars, I would give them to this book.

I feel like I learned something new on nearly every page. This book is truly a history book on a grand scale. It reminds me of the type of history Will Durrant wrote, where he would take a period of time and write extensively about all the facets of history within that time. Armstrong, on the other hand, takes just one facet of history and writes extensively about it over a long year period of time.

Reading it has allowed m If I could give a book six stars, I would give them to this book. Reading it has allowed me to see patterns and connections in history that I never considered before. I know I will continue to think upon what she said and use it as I try to make sense of the world. I highly recommend her talk where she makes her wish. I highly recommend all the TED prize winners' talks! View all 4 comments. The Tendencies of Religions A facebook conversation: Started with this post , with the following Ambedkar quote: They also ridicule Christianity on the score of the Inquisition.

But really speaking, who is better and more worthy of our respect—the Mahomedans and Christians who attempted to thrust down the throats of unwilling persons what they regarded as necessary for their salvation, or the Hindu who woul The Tendencies of Religions A facebook conversation: But really speaking, who is better and more worthy of our respect—the Mahomedans and Christians who attempted to thrust down the throats of unwilling persons what they regarded as necessary for their salvation, or the Hindu who would not spread the light, who would endeavour to keep others in darkness, who would not consent to share his intellectual and social inheritance with those who are ready and willing to make it a part of their own make-up?

I have no hesitation in saying that if the Mahomedan has been cruel, the Hindu has been mean; and meanness is worse than cruelty. Use force to make others join your faith B. Use force to keep out of those who want to join your faith Me: I wanted to strip the discussion of dalit angle, but, YES, this has got me thinking. This man has hit the nail on the head. Hinduism is the only one that opted to have exclusion as a theme and that, I suspect, because there was no occupation effort.

The same religion in south east asia saw the need to absorb locals in: Ambedkar claims elsewhere that early Hinduism was an evangelizing religion and that once caste and varna systems were hardened, it had to stop being one. Judaism discourages missionary activities and maintains an exclusivist doctrine, again based on purity of the chosen people. Does this seem like a useful line of enquiry? Are there any books that explore the tendencies of religions? Would love to read a few. View all 12 comments. Feb 23, John rated it did not like it Shelves: This is one of those books that make me feel woefully deficient in a certain subject.

Having never taken a comparative religion class, and in fact bordering on an antiestablishment stance when it comes to organized religion, I can only conclude that this book was not the place to start. The first couple of chapters which reviewed mankinds evolution from a polythesim to the monothesims of Judiasm, Christianity, and Islam were interesting, and for me blessedly linear and understandable. From ther This is one of those books that make me feel woefully deficient in a certain subject.

From there things rapidly deteriorated as Armstrong ran through the impact and thought process that philosophy, mysticism, reform and enlightenment had on the three monothestic faiths. These chapters were filled with dense pondorous examples of each of these disciplines, crammed wtih foreign names and terms, forcing me to reread pages and chapters, still without making much headway.

I hate to indulge myself this way, but to illustrate my point I quote from page a part of a paragraph which starts, "Luria gave a new meaning to the original image of the exile of the Shekinah. It will be recalled that in the Talmud, the Rabbis had seen the Shekinah voluntarily going into exile with the Jews after the destruction of the Temple.

A History of God: The 4,Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam by Karen Armstrong

The Zohar had identified the Shekinah with the last sefirah and made it the female aspect of divinity. In Luria's myth, the Shekinah fell with the other sefiroth when the Vessels were shattered. And it goes on Further compounding the problem are a lack of any headings on subgroupings in Armstrong's chapters, which are composed of paragraphs that run nearly a page long each. It is this amount of dense detail that continually makes rereading a necessity, rather than a luxury. I was tempted on multiple occasions to put this book down, and finished with a sense that I had read line for line the entire federal IRS tax code.

Overall, not the place to start. View all 8 comments. Aug 19, Margitte rated it really liked it Shelves: I haven't finished reading the book. I still plan to though, but not in one sitting. One of Britain's foremost commentators on religious affairs, Arms I haven't finished reading the book. However, it is an informative journey, educational in many instances, and thought-provoking throughout.

It is not only the historical timeline of the development of religion of God , the evolutionary process of polytheism to monotheism for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, but also a philosophical experience. I can only hope that all information in the book is accurate and worth learning.

It certainly can be essential reading for those studying theology science beliefs , mythology and comparative religion. This book tells the story as it unfolded through the ages, changed according to needs, and ultimately split people into different groups honoring the same God. Someone long ago said that people build different bridges to God, but in the end they worship their bridges instead of God. This book discusses this truth: The real story of mankind, widely accepted in the scientific world, is written down in the Enuma Elish, the Babilonian story of Creation which was discovered in the library of Ahurbanipal, estimated to have been written BCE.

It is not the story as the Bible told it. The first few chapters were really interesting. But from then on it becomes a philosophical discussion of concepts and names which makes me feel dumb and an-alphabetic! But with increased concentration, and a few rereads, several rereads of the same, very long paragraphs, I finally get it all. There are several videos available on Youtube to enlighten the experience.

My problem is that I constantly fall asleep. However, I do think this book is worth reading for those who are interested in an objective approach to the bridges we built to God. View all 5 comments. Feb 01, Jan rated it it was amazing Shelves: Karen Armstrong is a former Catholic nun and studied at Oxford.

Her book, The Spiral Staircase, is a good description of the struggles that led to her leaving the convent. There have been several good books written on the historic Jesus Christ, but very few on the historic God.

And, yes, over a sweep of 4, years, evolving is clearl Karen Armstrong is a former Catholic nun and studied at Oxford. And, yes, over a sweep of 4, years, evolving is clearly the correct word. If you apply the same tools to the study of history of God that one would apply to the study of history of anything over 4, years, you will see it through the lens of different periods of time. Perhaps, somewhat unfortunately for religion and for God, we are in a period marked by the predominance of rationality.

Ever since Kant, philosophers have admitted the existence of a god cannot be logically supported and of course, Kant still willingly chose to believe. So where does Ms. Armstrong take us in world after Kant, Hume, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and the like? She worries about the intolerance inherent in monotheism if I believe in the one true god, your god must be wrong. She reminds us that although the Existentialists told us we are better off without god since the pat answers and the certainty that god gives stifles our wonder of the world and negates our freedom, the growing drug addiction and crime rates are not signs of a spiritually healthy society.

Armstrong left organized religion, she never left her search for spirituality. I found the best statement of her conclusion was actually in The Spiral Staircase: Those who enjoy watching humans have a crack at an unanswerable question. As such, I had a number of things I wanted to say in my review, yet, I think a quick bit of advise would suffice as an alternative.

Unless you're moving into the field of Theology in which case I doubt you'll read this anyway I would advise NOT to try and kill yourself over remembering every name, every sub-catogary and every belief system held about God thought this book. You'll kill your enjoyment, and ultimately the point of the book along with it. Instead, try and cultivate a curious, open attitude whilst allowing yourself to be guided through the pages of Karen Armstrong's hard earned endeavour.

I found that I enjoyed this text immensely when simply learning about how human beings tried to understand the ineffable. The different people who went up against this question have come up with some interesting thought trails, and it's quite fun to see how societies throughout time have deviated into their own systems of understanding, only for some of them to come to the same conclusion after much difference in doctrine.

My only other advise would be to test yourself whilst reading this. See where you stand with your beliefs after reading about the God of Mystics, then come back and re-evaluate. Believe me, you won't think quite the same afterwards. Ultimately, this is just another story of human kind trying to make sense of what it is we're doing here, and I believe if the reader imagines this whilst reading A History of God , they won't be disappointed with the result.

Karen Armstrong yang dulu adalah seorang biarawati dan kemudian meninggalkan ordo nya, kini lebih terkenal sebagai pemerhati dan komentator agama-agama dunia. Sudah banyak buku yang ia tulis yang mengangkat tema keagamaan dan juga biografi tokoh agama seperti Nabi Muhammad dan Sidharta Gautama. Kali ini dalam Sejarah Tuhan gold edition diterbitkan Mizan tahun Armstrong membahas dengan lugas, secara gamblang namun mudah dipahami tentang tiga agama monotheis terbesar di dunia: Yahudi, Krist Karen Armstrong yang dulu adalah seorang biarawati dan kemudian meninggalkan ordo nya, kini lebih terkenal sebagai pemerhati dan komentator agama-agama dunia.

Yahudi, Kristen dan Islam. Dalam bab pendahuluan ada secuil kisah ketika Armstrong berada dalam sebuah ordo Katolik dan keluarnya dari ini yang melatarbelakangi ia menulis Sejarah Tuhan. Cerita ini menjadi awal yang menarik dan juga pembukaan dari pembahasan yang panjang dan padat akan buku ini. Bab-bab berikutnya adalah komentar Armstrong tentang sejarah "pencarian Tuhan" yang bermula dari agama-agama politheisme Mesopotamia dan bagaimana keyakinan mereka bersinergi dengan kisah pencarian Tuhan oleh Abraham dan sejarah awal Yudaisme. Pembahasan kemudian berlanjut dalam sejarah iman Kristiani dan bagaimana konsepsi Trinitas menjadi diterima dalam keyakinan Kristen.


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Agama terakhir yang dibahas adalah Islam dan hubungan agama yang dibawa Rasulullah ini terhadap 2 agama sebelumnya. Tak hanya tentang sejarah Tuhan yang muncul dalam Yahudi, Kristen dan Islam saja namun Armstrong juga membahas tentang perkembangan spritualisme dalam ketiga agama tersebut terutama dalam hal filsafat dan mistikisme. Menariknya Armstrong menerangkan bahwa sufisme Islam mempengaruhi juga Kabbalah Yahudi. Terakhir Armstrong memberikan penjelasan tentang wajah ketuhanan yang baru dalam era Pencerahan, fundamentalis dan revolusi modern.

Hal ini ditutup dengan komentarnya tentang bagaimana nasib Tuhan dan agama di masa sekarang. Armstrong dalam bukunya memberikan pemahaman yang lebih luas akan sejarah agama samawi.

Bible Facts

Sangat seru untuk jadi bahan diskusi. Buku yang patut dibaca semua orang agar menyegarkan kita kembali tentang makna sejarah atas ketuhanan itu sendiri dan bagaimana lika liku perkembangan agama di dunia. Buku ini memang tebal, hardcover pinjaman neng Erry. Ternyata benar kata broda Graha, meski tebal dan gada gambarnya ; , namun tidak membosankan untuk dibaca. Dalam buku ini, Ms. Armstrong menitik beratkan pada tiga agama samawi di dunia, dengan sedikit meyinggung Buddha, Hindu dan kepercayaan lainnya. Geographically the most widely diffused of all faiths, it has a constituency of more than 2 billion believers.

Thus, in his lifetime Jesus was called Jesus son of Joseph Luke 4: After his death he came to be called Jesus Christ. Passages such as Acts of the Apostles 2: Jesus Christ or Christ Jesus Romans 1: Although born in Bethlehem , according to Matthew and Luke , Jesus was a Galilean from Nazareth , a village near Sepphoris, one of the two major cities of Galilee Tiberias was the other.

He was born to Joseph and Mary sometime between 6 bc and shortly before the death of Herod the Great Matthew 2; Luke 1: According to Matthew and Luke, however, Joseph was only legally his father. Joseph is said to have been a carpenter Matthew As a young adult, he went to be baptized by the prophet John the Baptist and shortly thereafter became an itinerant preacher and healer Mark 1: In his mids Jesus had a short public career, lasting perhaps less than one year, during which he attracted considerable attention. Sometime between ad 29 and 33—possibly ad 30—he went to observe Passover in Jerusalem , where his entrance, according to the Gospels, was triumphant and infused with eschatological significance.

While there he was arrested, tried, and executed. His disciples became convinced that he still lived and had appeared to them. They converted others to belief in him, which eventually led to a new religion , Christianity. Rome had legions in both countries but not in Palestine. That end was achieved for a long time by permitting Herod to remain king of Judaea 37—4 bc and allowing him a free hand in governing his kingdom, as long as the requirements of stability and loyalty were met.

Both sons were given lesser titles than king: Archelaus was ethnarch, and Antipas was tetrarch. That minor Roman aristocrat later called a procurator was supported by a small Roman army of approximately 3, men. The soldiers, however, came not from Italy but from nearby Gentile cities, especially Caesarea and Sebaste; presumably, the officers were from Italy. Although nominally in charge of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, the prefect did not govern his area directly. Instead, he relied on local leaders. They came to Jerusalem only to ensure peace during the pilgrimage festivals— Passover , Weeks Shabuoth , and Booths Sukkoth —when large crowds and patriotic themes sometimes combined to spark unrest or uprisings.

On a day-to-day basis Jerusalem was governed by the high priest. Assisted by a council, he had the difficult task of mediating between the remote Roman prefect and the local populace, which was hostile toward pagans and wanted to be free of foreign interference. His political responsibility was to maintain order and to see that tribute was paid. Since he and Pilate were in power together for 10 years, they must have collaborated successfully.