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Most of us have questioned, sometime during our lifetime, the “accepted” sequential biblical timeline of Archbishop James Ussher who claimed.
Table of contents
The method is controversial. Dever,  and Thomas L. Thompson,  but are supported by researchers such as William F. Albright,  Bryant G. Wood,  and Norman L. A timeline or chart of Biblical dates is set up according the "plain meaning" of the numbers of the years as found in the text. For an " exact " chronology, an historically established date in the common Gregorian calendar which corresponds to the occurrence of a key Biblical event known to history historicity is required as a starting point, drawn from historical events reliably known to have occurred on a specific date.
Biblical literalists can set out charts and timetables dating events in the Bible, but different methods of harmonizing the dates of those events yield differing results,   even while they generally agree on the relative order of most events. Numerical inconsistencies of chronology appear between Kings First and Second Kings and Chronicles First and Second Chronicles , and attempts by both Biblical scholars and literalists to precisely date events before the reign of Solomon have not been successful. Many biblical scholars discount the Bible's chronological data entirely,  preferring to give priority to archaeological clues in establishing biblical chronology.
Currently there is no absolute consensus on a definitive literal tabulation of dates in Biblical chronology. Biblical literalism is a term used differently by different authors discussing Bible interpretation. It has two possible meanings. It can refer to the dictionary definition of literalism: Those who relate Biblical literalism to the historical-grammatical method, use the word "letterism" to cover all methods of interpreting the Bible according to the dictionary definition of literalism and the word "letterist" to refer to those who use that methodology.
These terms are used in this article to distinguish the two approaches, literalist and letterist, literalism and letterism, the historical-grammatical interpretation and the literal letterist interpretation. Fundamentalists and evangelicals sometimes refer to themselves as "literalists" or Biblical literalists, as in saying, for example, "I'm a literalist when it comes to the Bible.
There are several important factors in Biblical literalism, including the choice of and the integrity of ancient Biblical manuscripts, literal translation word-for-word , the choice between dynamic and formal equivalence,  and literal interpretation with a choice of "readings", that is, how a particular passage or text should be read or understood according to its literal sense or meaning, according to the context.
Letterism is an hermeneutical method that derives its understanding of a text by a strictly literal analysis of words, emphasizing the "plain, explicit meaning of the biblical text". The basic premises  are: Letterist Bible chronology looks to Romans 3: A coherent  letterist viewpoint methodologically rejects any findings and conclusions of scholars and archaeologists that do not agree with what certainly appears to the ordinary reader to be the plain, explicit meaning of the Biblical text.
Several problems arise in deriving a letterist chronology from numerical data as set forth in the Biblical text. The text of the specific manuscript  or translation version of the Bible being consulted as a reliable source can affect the calculation and tabulation of the resulting numbers of the years in a literalist chronology.
For example, see the following for textual comparison of the number of years of the reign of Saul:. Several literalist translations state that Saul was one 1 year old when he was anointed king: The numerical and chronological notes in various annotated editions of the Bible Study Bibles and in various Bible commentaries are not always seen to agree with each other when they are compared. For example, archaeological datings of the site of Jericho by John Garstang and Kathleen Kenyon do not agree.
Albright and Edwin R. Thiele do not agree. Dever challenges both of these datings. Wood argues for the historicity of the Biblical account in support of Garstang's findings,  and Woods' researches have in turn been criticised. Differing key base historical dates, such as the date of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar II, affect the calculation and tabulation of the numbers of the years used to obtain the resultant datings of events in a letterist Bible chronology.
The key base historical date for the 11th year of Zedekiah and the destruction of the Temple varies according to different historians: Advances in archaeological methods and theories have prompted scholars to modify particular Biblical chronologies, such as James Ussher's chronology. The dates assigned to Biblical events in annotated Bibles do not always correspond to a simple mechanical arithmetical reckoning of the numbers of years as plainly stated in the text of the Bible.
Several examples of apparent discrepancies between calculations based on the annotations and those based on the text can be found:. Letterism does not necessarily lead to complete agreement upon a single interpretation for a given passage. A generation, for example, can be years, 80, 70, 60, 40, 35, and fewer than 20 years, although 40 years is the traditional meaning of a Biblical "generation". A letterist reading of the explicit text of the Bible presents the reader with difficulties that can only be resolved by a careful reading of various Bible texts, collation of data from these texts, and by careful critique of the occasional slightly misleading translations of the original Hebrew  according to the literalist historical-grammatical method.
A "critique" of the Scriptures is called "criticism" in Biblical Studies, that is, conducting a detailed analysis to determine their critical meaning, their integrity and reliability, according to the technical meaning of the word as used by Biblical exegetes, and is not a form of criticism of the Bible in order to find fault with it, as some radical scholars have done by abusing the tools of "literary criticism" as applied in Biblical Textual Criticism also called "Higher" Criticism.
Martin Anstey provided an important literalist analysis "Lower Criticism" of how apparent contradictions in Bible chronology can be resolved by correlating data from various Bible translations and texts. Edwin Thiele provided additional corroborating historical-cultural background on varying ancient methods of recording chronologies of kings and nations, co-regencies, overlapping reigns, differences in calendars, uses of "rounded numbers"—data vital for an undistorted understanding of the ancient authors' actual literal meaning the true "literal sense".
These apparent contradictions can only be resolved by careful collation and correlation of data from the various extant Bible texts by an historical-grammatical method of exegesis, adhering to the rules of sound interpretation. The age of Joshua in the wilderness of Paran when he was sent to spy out the land Numbers Taking the 1st year of Solomon as B. Such conclusions are purely speculative and arbitrary. The age of Joshua when he was sent with Caleb and 10 other leaders to spy out the land Numbers The Bible does not state the number of years of the conquest of Canaan, which according to the text was completed during the lifetime of Joshua " and the land was subdued before them " Joshua The ages of 15 and 53 for Joshua are also obtained when the date of his death is B.
He would have been 50 years old when Caleb was 85 Joshua Age 66 plus 38 years Deuteronomy 2: Joshua would then have died 6 years later years old B. According to Joshua The phrase " old and advanced in years " is used in the Bible to describe Abraham over years old and Sarah over 90 years old, also Job at , King David before he died at 70, and the elders among the people and among the priests of Israel. And he would not have been years old 7 years after the beginning of the conquest when Caleb was 85 years old.
For after he had blessed the year-old Caleb, Joshua " old and advanced in years " then apportioned the land to each of the tribes, and then came the subsequent controversy and threat of war over the " altar of great size " built afterward by the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of Manasseh Joshua And then according to Joshua The same term " old and well advanced in years " was used when he died at the age of If Joshua's age was 40?
This is pure speculation. It has no established historical value, however well it fits the context. Only the age of Joshua when he died is stated in the Bible. The method of mechanical arithmetic tabulation from the text of the Bible alone and reasonable supposition, as illustrated here, are not relied upon by scholars and historians as representing established historical facts.
There is no certain consensus on the exact number of years for the period of the conquest of Canaan under Joshua. The number of years spanned by " all the days of the elders who outlived Joshua " and " another generation after them " Judges 2: A generation can be years, 80, 70, 60, 40, 35, and fewer than 20 years, although 40 years is the traditional meaning of a Biblical "generation".
Beginning with a key base historical date of B. Thus the possible chronological dates of the Exodus from Egypt, according to a literalist reading of the letter of the text which draws on all of the available numbers in the Bible, are these: The literalist method of reading the plain and explicit meaning of the letter of the biblical text evidently places the date of the Exodus at some time between B. The Tempest Stele recently dated to B. Given a lack of precision due to unknown numbers of years not included by the Biblical authors, a self-consistent, textually-based literalist Bible chronology leading to total and complete consensus on the fixing of a precise historical date for the Exodus in the Bible by the method of literal letterism alone does not at present appear possible.
The following tabulation of years and dates is according to the literal letter of the text of the Bible alone. Links to multiple translations and versions are provided for verification. For comparison, known historically dated events are associated with the resultant letterist dates. The arithmetic can be checked by starting at the bottom of the table with the date of the destruction of the Temple in and adding the number of years in the Scriptures in the books of the Prophets and Chronicles and Kings back through Genesis backward up to the beginning.
A letterist count from B. See Apparent textual inconsistencies: After David had defeated the Philistines, and defeated Hadadezer —and after 18, Edomites had been slain in the Valley of Salt 2 Samuel 8 —and after Joab had defeated the Ammonites and the Syrians from beyond the Euphrates so that the Syrians feared to help the Ammonites again 2 Samuel 10 — and after Uriah the Hittite had been killed and David had married Bathsheba and their first child had died age unknown 2 Samuel , — after this period spanning an unknown brief?
This period of history is not included in the books of the Masoretic Text of the Tanakh which are accepted as inspired and canonical by Jews , and it is not included in the 66 books of the Old Testament of the Holy Bible which are accepted as inspired and canonical by Protestants. The following roughly year period of Biblical history included in the Orthodox and Catholic Bibles in this Table extends from c.
C First century B. This is the result of a counting of numbers according to the letter of the text of the Bible alone. The literal reading of the letter of the text of the Bible according to the method of letterism presents a particular difficulty when the comparative chronology of the kings is calculated, correlated and tabulated from the Bible alone. A literal count of the years of the chronology of the kings of Israel and Judah gives the following totals for the Divided Monarchy: Rehoboam 17 years 1 Kings Reckoning 12 years of the reign of Hezekiah, and beginning with Rehoboam son of Solomon: Jeroboam son of Nebat 22 years 1 Kings Ahab 22 years 1 Kings Shallum 1 month 2 Kings Pekahiah 2 years 2 Kings Jeroboam king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah were killed the same day— Hoshea king of Israel was taken away during the reign of Hezekiah king of Judah.
In the following table the apparent internal numerical inconsistencies in all the numerical textual data relating to each ruler, together with the resultant numerical differences in reckoning the length and the beginning and ending dates of his reign, are carried forward and applied to the beginning and ending dates of the succeeding ruler. The mechanical arithmetical results in this table are thus cumulative. The year of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text has been carried forward here.
Rehoboam reigned 17 years, from the 40 th year of Solomon to the 17 th year of Jeroboam. Rehoboam reigned 18 years, from the 40th year of Solomon to the 18 th year of Jeroboam. Rehoboam died the 17 th year of Jeroboam of Israel. Rehoboam died the 18 th year of Jeroboam of Israel. These numbers specify when his successor began to reign, and are carried forward in the table. The years of the death of his predecessor as reckoned from the text have been carried forward here. Jeroboam of Israel reigned 22 years, from the 1 st year of Rehoboam son of Solomon to the 3 rd year of Asa of Judah.
Asa reigned 41 years, from the 20 th year of Jeroboam of Israel to the 11 th year of Omri of Israel. Asa reigned 41 years, from the 21 st year of Jeroboam of Israel to the 12 th year of Omri of Israel. Asa reigned 41 years, from the 1 st year of Baasha of Israel to the 3 rd year of Ahab of Israel: This makes the 1st year of Jeroboam of Israel the 38 th year of King Solomon who reigned 40 years: The 4 th year of Ahab results with a reckoning of 17 years for the reign of Rehoboam.
Counting literally back 41 years of Asa from the 3 rd year of Ahab son of Omri and Ahab began to reign the 38th year of Asa , the resultant year of the beginning of Asa's reign is the 1 st year of Baasha of Israel. Asa died the 11 th year of Omri of Israel. Asa died the 12 th year of Omri of Israel. Asa died the 3 rd year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel. Asa died the 4 th year of Ahab son of Omri of Israel.
Nadab reigned 2 years, from the 2 nd year of Asa of Judah to the 4 th year of Asa of Judah. Nadab reigned 2 years, from the 1 st year of Asa of Judah to the 3 rd year of Asa of Judah. Nadab reigned 2 years. Baasha reigned 24 years, from the 4 th year of Asa of Judah to the 28 th year of Asa of Judah.
Baasha reigned 24 years, from the 3 rd year of Asa of Judah to the 27 th year of Asa of Judah. Baasha king of Israel went up against Judah the 36 th year of Asa of Judah. Baasha reigned 33 years, from the 3 rd year of Asa of Judah to the 36 th year of Asa of Judah, or later? Baasha died the 28 th year of Asa. Baasha died the 27 th year of Asa. Baasha died the 24 th year of Asa. Baasha died the 36 th year of Asa, or later? Elah reigned 2 years, from the 28 th year of Asa of Judah to the 30 th year of Asa of Judah.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 27 th year of Asa of Judah to the 29 th year of Asa of Judah. Elah reigned 2 years, from the 26 th year of Asa of Judah to the 28 th year of Asa of Judah. Elah reigned 2 years, from the 24 th year of Asa of Judah to the 26 th year of Asa of Judah.
Elah reigned 2 years, from the 36 th year or later of Asa of Judah to the 38 th year or later of Asa of Judah. Zimri reigned 7 days the 38 th year of Asa or later. Zimri reigned 7 days the 30 th year of Asa. Zimri reigned 7 days the 29 th year of Asa. Zimri reigned 7 days the 28 th year of Asa.
Zimri reigned 7 days the 27 th year of Asa. Zimri reigned 7 days the 26 th year of Asa. Zimri fled from Omri, and burned the king's house over himself, and died. Omri reigned 12 years, from the 31 st year of Asa of Judah to the 2 nd year of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
Asa reigned 41 years. Omri reigned 12 years, from the 30 th year of Asa of Judah to the 1 st year of Jehoshaphat of Judah. Omri reigned 12 years, from the 29 th year of Asa of Judah to the 41 st year of Asa. Omri reigned 12 years, from the 28 th year of Asa of Judah to the 40 th year of Asa. Omri reigned 12 years, from the 27 th year of Asa of Judah to the 39 th year of Asa.
Omri reigned 12 years, from the 26 th year of Asa of Judah to the 38 th year of Asa. Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 2 nd year of Jehoshaphat of Judah to the 24 th year of Jehoshaphat of Judah. Ahab reigned 22 years, from the 1 st year of Jehoshaphat of Judah to the 23 rd year of Jehoshaphat of Judah.
According to 2 Chronicles Ahab died the 24 th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah. Ahab died the 23 rd year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah. Ahab died the 22 nd year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah. Ahab died the 21 st year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah. Ahab died the 20 th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah. Ahab died the 19 th year of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah.
According to 1 Kings From 24 to 33 is an increase of 9 years in the reckoning of the years of the Kingdom of Israel. The reigns of the kings of Israel which are correlated to the years of the reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah will vary according to the reckoning of the years, all drawn from the literal letter of the texts of the Bible.
A literal count of the years from the 1st year of Rehoboam son of Solomon to the end of the reign of Jehoshaphat son of Asa of Judah gives a variant total of 86 or 87 years 1 Kings Ahab son of Omri of Israel died the 24th, 23rd, 22nd, 21st, 20th, 19th year of Jehoshaphat of Judah: In a table displaying the correlated years of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah the 9 years extending the year reign of Baasha of Israel to 33 years from the 3rd year of Asa of Judah to the 36th year of Asa of Judah places the reigns of Omri, Ahab and Ahaziah of Israel 9 years farther from the 87th year of the Kingdom of Judah 9 years later and the end of a 1 -year reign of Ahaziah son of Ahab of Israel 8 years farther 8 years later.
All of the above data, taken directly from the text of the Bible itself, strictly according to the letter of the text, and arithmetically reckoned mechanically, provides the following resultant figures: Jehoshaphat reigned 25 years:. Note the unusual wording of the King James Version of the text of 2 Kings 8: Compare multiple translations of 2 Kings 8: The table to this point illustrates the complex problem of constructing a literal chronology of the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah according to the letter of the text of the Bible alone.
Letterism clearly presents the chronologist with the dilemma of having to choose numerical data. He or she must judge which texts are to be ignored as "unimportant" in deriving specific historical dates for a "straightforward, uncomplicated" letterist Bible chronology.
This is a real problem when the fundamental premise of the letterist approach holds that every word of the Bible, every number, as plainly understood by the ordinary reader, is equally from the afflatus of the Holy Spirit of God Himself and cannot be untrue. Tabulation of all the numbers of the years of the kings of Israel and Judah according to the plain, explicit, uninterpreted letter of the data in the Bible offers only inconsistent and contradictory confusion, and "God is not the author of confusion.
The letterist chronologer must then judge which one s as source s to consult to the exclusion of others, and then judge which Biblical numbers to include in a tabulation of Bible chronology to the exclusion of other numbers in the sacred text that are just as equally Biblical. The Apostle Paul taught that not all are teachers or prophets and that not all have the same gifts 1 Corinthians This includes those Bible scholars who provide the most reasonable and informed exegesis of the meaning of the numbers in Biblical chronology according to the author's intent, and this in turn offers immense benefit to archaeologists as a guide.
Understanding the actual intent of the Biblical authors through the historical-grammatical method of literalist exegesis provides a means of harmonizing apparent chronological inconsistencies in the Scriptures according to the true literal sense. The apparent numerical inconsistencies highlighted by letterism can be harmonized and resolved by interpretation of the Biblical data according to the historical-grammatical method,  which aims at discovering the sensus literalis historicus , or "the literal historical meaning" of the text.
A mechanically rigid, excessively letterist reading of the text weakens the credibility of scripture. A secular-humanist liberal abuse of legitimate historical-critical methodology weakens the credibility of scripture. Both make the Bible subject to contempt and ridicule. And both cause scandal. Every person who approaches Bible study, usually to learn about the historical events it relates, is heavily influenced by the hermeneutical theory, or interpretive understandings, he or she brings to the text, consciously or unconsciously.
Philip Hyatt, very little of the Bible relates history for its own sake, or for the purposes that a modern historian would adopt. It is, therefore, history of a special order, designed not simply to inform the reader, but to awaken in the reader a response to what the Lord of history has done.
The aim of the historical-grammatical method is to strive to discover the Biblical author's original intended meaning in the text, to discover that meaning of the passage and that message which the original author would have intended and what the original hearers would have understood without adding to or taking away from the meaning of the message. Almost all of the books of the Old Testament were written to be read aloud to an assembly of persons. A fundamental principle of exegesis or exposition of the text is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection: The moment this principle is neglected the message of the author becomes obscured by uncertainty and conjecture, and exegesis becomes eisegesis.
Uncertainty remains at many points. Biblical chronology includes numbers which were significant to the biblical authors, and at times integral to their message. Furthermore, different methods of harmonizing the dates of Biblical kings yield slightly different results. Moses Maimonides wrote that passages in the Bible which, in their literal sense, contain statements that can be refuted with proof, must and can be interpreted other than literally in a figurative manner, but that a mere argument in favor of a certain proposed theory which rejects literal readings is not enough reason to reject the literal meaning of a Biblical text and interpret it figuratively when the literalist theory can be supported by an equally good argument in its favor.
A comparison of literalist chronologies such as those listed in the External links below and those which have been established by William F. Bryant, Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen present some apparent differences which to date have not been completely resolved, and research continues. Given current difficulties of harmonizing the numerical dating of plainly stated numbers of years in the chronology of the Biblical text, together with a lack of precision due to unknown numbers of years not included by the Biblical authors, a self-consistent, textually-based literalist Bible chronology leading to total and complete consensus on the fixing of precise historical dates in the Bible, by the methods of literal letterism and historical-grammatical exegesis, does not at present appear possible.
Currently, Biblical literalists have agreed that more recent literalist chronologies constructed from data in the Bible together with legitimate historical-critical findings provide useful approximations of datings as they begin to converge. More recent scientific datings of historical archaeological findings are now seen to be in closer harmony with the chronology of the Biblical text. Hyatt, Pontifical Biblical Commission, J. The original article was copied and pasted to Conservapedia by the original author  who has edited and revised and improved it here. The version here is not a mirror of the original text.
The Page history of the original article "Biblical literalist chronology" is available for viewing at this link . The text of Wikipedia is available under Creative Commons License. See Wikipedia copyright and Copyright. All honor to God. Literalist Bible chronology From Conservapedia. The subject of this article is the literalist method of dating the chronology found in the books of the Bible listed in the ancient canon of the Christian Old Testament, the Septuagint, as accepted by Orthodox and Catholic Christians before the time of the Protestant Reformation.
Literalist Bible chronology - Conservapedia
See explanatory article " Arguments and Inference ". This work is seen as significant within the tradition of Biblical literalism for developing the first Bible chronology that successfully resolved the Bible's apparent chronological gaps. Wilson appears to be quoting several sources, and she does not offer citation of her source references, e. Holmes went so far as to state that 'literalism is a modern heresy—perhaps the only heresy invented in modern times'.
The Battle for God: Bible Institute of Los Angeles, ed. Dixon , Reuben Archer Torrey. Multiple translations and versions of this Bible text are presented, followed by the text of the commentaries with their original published sources noted. Retrieved 19 January McDaniel of William F. Works by Bryant G.
How History Views the Bible , Zondervan. From these dates an historical chronology is reckoned from the length of the reigns in the books of First and Second Kings , giving Solomon's year reign as to B. Thiele based on Assyrian chronology do not agree. A recent reassessment of Assyrian chronology offers a demonstration that Assyrian records cannot be trusted. The Chronology of Ancient Assyria Re-assessed Bernard Newgrosh is one of the leading figures in British circles investigating catastrophism and the reconstruction of ancient history.
Carla, 28 February Remembrance of the Siege of Jerusalem B. Estimates of the Biblical Date for Creation. How biblical literalists get their numbers. The Heritage of Biblical Faith: A Modern Approach to the Bible.
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Philip, The Heritage of Biblical Faith , , p. Father, Son and Holy Spirit. I believe that Your Divine Son became man and died for our sins, and that He will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because You revealed them, who can neither deceive nor be decieved. Thomas Aquinas STh I, 1, 10 ad 1. This statement has been wrongly interpreted as if it is saying that only the Pope and the bishops acknowledging his authority are the only authentic Bible scholars and textual historians.
This is not its meaning. It means that they have been entrusted, as pastors of the faithful, with discerning and preserving the real meaning of the message of the text of the Bible, as a whole, as being doctinally and historically true , and with the task of evaluating the particular interpretations of exegetes and Biblical theologians as being consistent or inconsistent with the divine message of the Bible. The task of resolving apparently inconsistent numerical and chronological data in the Scriptures according to the actual "literal sense" of the text so as to support and preserve confident belief in the veracity , authenticity and accurate historical reliability of the Bible as against the skepticism of its detractors is entrusted to competent biblical researchers: It follows that those who maintain that an error is possible in any genuine passage of the sacred writings, either pervert the Catholic notion of inspiration, or make God the author of such error.
And so emphatically were all the Fathers and Doctors agreed that the divine writings, as left by the hagiographers, are free from all error, that they labored earnestly, with no less skill than reverence, to reconcile with each other those numerous passages which seem at variance — the very passages which in great measure have been taken up by the "higher criticism" ; for they were unanimous in laying it down, that those writings, in their entirety and in all their parts, were equally from the afflatus of Almighty God, and that God, speaking by the sacred writers, could not set down anything but was true See especially Anstey, Martin.
There are many methods and departments; none is without value; all of them, when done thoroughly rather than superficially, tend to the deepening of conviction as to the accuracy of the records. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Definition of Dynamic and Formal Equivalence —biblestudy. Scofield Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge — R.
Vincent Wesley's Notes —John Wesley See also the same "Bible commenter" feature link in the external online menu for each of the other Bible passages cited and linked following in the same paragraph: The Biblecommenter link provides the same source commentaries listed above for each of these, providing a supporting representative overview of the literalist premise for interpretation of the letter of the Biblical text.
Many Bible footnotes say "this verse is not in the Septuagint. Many Bible footnotes say "the number is lacking in Hebrew. Wood and Piotr Bienkowski debate: See the following articles critiquing this date for the Fall of Jerusalem and the beginning of the 70 years of Jeremiah The Importance of the Year B. It was taught for years that Jerusalem fell in B. Macmillan, ; 2nd ed. Eerdmans, ; 3rd ed.
Professor William Henry Green, D. Chronology of the Old Testament. Buckmaster, Toledo, Ohio, , intercolumnar notes. The Signification in Scripture of 'Kingdom of God'. Hobbes advances detailed critical arguments why the Vulgate rendering basis of the Douay-Rheims translation is to be preferred.
Wide as the Waters: History of the Bible in English. See 1 Chronicles We can gain much from thorough reading of the text itself, and frequently from comparison of various passages in the Bible. Still, we often require aid from outside the Bible itself. Butler, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp.
Jehu began ruling about B. The text of Psalms This is a peculiarly Hebrew idiom. Source —"Generation", Trent C. Butler, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , p. Original Hebrew Posted on March 12, theorthodoxlife. It means an active boy from the age of infancy to adolescence, and by implication a servant— boy, child, lad, servant, young man.
Grissom, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Wood and other archaeologists in agreement with him support an "Early Date" for the Exodus c. C in contrast to those who support a "Late Date" in the 13th century late s B. History of Ancient Egypt reshafim. The University of Chicago —uchicago.
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See Van Seters J. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology ; The Ten Plagues - Live from Egypt! Catholic Book Publishing Co.
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See a New Testament example: Jenkins, Everett, The Creation: The Seder Olam Chronology, p. Thames and Hudson, London, Noah , The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character , Chicago, See also Major Meteor Showers amsmeteors. An eye-witness account timewitnesses. The Japanese View eyewitnesstohistory. The same term is also applied by interchange of gender to a girl , a damsel , of similar latitude in age.
Ahmose I's successors, down to Thutmose III, built and used a large royal compound just south of this site, which was in use until the reign of Amenhotep II. Museum Tusculanum Press, Current Research, Future Prospects , edited by M. Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text for example, the Turin King List , or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers for example, the Abydos King List , even for a short period of Egyptian history. It is further complicated by occasional conflicting information on the same regnal period from different versions of the same text; thus, the Egyptian historian Manetho's history of Egypt is only known by extensive references to it made by subsequent writers, such as Eusebius and Sextus Julius Africanus and the dates for the same pharaoh often vary substantially depending on the intermediate source.
Chronicle of the Pharaohs , Thames and Hudson Ltd, paperback The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, Chronologies , 23, , pages , — James Breasted's dates are taken from his Ancient Records first published in , volume 1, sections 58— Warburton editors , Leiden: Block, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. The site remained uninhabited Joshua's curse? John Garstang determined that Jericho was destroyed by fire around B.
Kathleen Kenyon's findings disagreed with Garstang and with the accepted biblical dating, and she dated the destruction and the city wall to a much earlier time, in the —s, c. But she believed that the Exodus and the conquest under Joshua took place in the s and declared that, since the city had already been long uninhabited through the entire 13th century, it was "impossible" that Jericho had been destroyed by Joshua according to the biblical account.
Israeli-Canadian journalist Simcha Jacobovici The Exodus Decoded , pointed out that if researchers of the future insisted that the American Civil War took place at the time of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States in the s at the time of the Vietnam War, and then looked for evidence supporting occurrence of the Civil War at that time, they would find none, and the presidency of Abraham Lincoln would be regarded as only legendary.
If chronological dating provided by a more literal reading of the Tanakh were taken seriously, then concrete archaeological evidence for the historical accuracy of the biblical text would become more evident: Defending the Theistic View: This is not explicitly stated in the Book of Judges , which "plainly" relates their exploits solely as a sequential series of events, so that taking the texts literally, without recourse to the method of grammatico-historical exegesis, confronts uninstructed readers of the Bible with what appears to them to be an impossible inconsistency which can be unsettling.
See also Bible and Science: Time of Moses scibible. Counting back literally 2 generations, mechanically allotting the traditional 40 years each total 80 , from the birth of David reckoned as BC, literal count, plus 10 years according to Ruth 1: Such a literalist calculation is pure speculation and has no recognized historical value.
The Ussher chronology places the famine in B. The Book of Ruth is not dated by reference to a ruler or specific event, other than a famine. The totalled numbers of the years of the 2 generations 80 years cannot be drawn from the letter of the text of the Bible; the Bible does not give the ages and years of the 2 generations, only the genealogy of Boaz, father of Obed 1st generation , the father of Jesse 2nd generation , the father of David. Many dismiss the genealogy in 4: Saul's age when he began to reign and the number of years he reigned according to published texts vary and remain uncertain the variant Bible versions in English are here abbreviated: NET Saul was 30 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned?
NLV Saul was 40 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned? Bible versions based on the Masoretic Text MT state that "the ark" was with Saul and the people as they went into battle. Bible versions based on earlier Hebrew manuscripts, and the witness of the Septuagint and Vulgate translations of the Hebrew text predating the MT, state that "the ephod" was with Saul and the people as they went into battle—this reading is supported by the statement in the text v.
The possibility that after the death of Eli the ark was brought out of the house of Abinadab by Saul to go before the people in battle is only a speculation when the text of 1 Samuel 7: The possibility that Saul was king for 30, 28, 20 years literal reckoning as commander of 3, men of Israel 1 Samuel God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for 40 years.
The subsequent 7 months after Eli died, and the 20 -year period during which the ark of the covenant remained in the house of Abinadab after the death of Eli, until David removed it to Jerusalem, does not allow a literal year reign after Eli died, plus a literal 7 years 6 months for David's reign over the house of Judah before he was crowned king over all Israel and Judah, after which he brought the ark up to Jerusalem: Taking literally the numerical data of 40 years at face value as presented by the letter of the text of Acts This apparent paradox is resolved by literalist researchers using the literal letter of the text letterism as a beginning, and applying the historical-grammatical method of exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation, to uncover what they believe to be the real sensus literalis historicus , the true "literal sense" of the text—the actual meaning intended by the biblical author.
Compare "twenty years" in Smith's Bible Dictionary: Kirjath-jearim and the parallel Bible translations of 1 Samuel 7: Some versions state in footnotes that the "Hebrew text is defective", and "The number is lacking in Heb. Confusing Micaiah and Micah. See the following articles: Smith, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Honeycutt, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , p. Osorkon IV — B. Collins, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Browning, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , p. According to Matthew 1: And his son Tobiah died 82 years later 99 years old in B.
And his son Tobiah died years later years old in B. And his son Tobiah died years later years old in BC. Tullock, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Qahal is the root of the word Qoheleth Greek Ecclesiastes , translated "preacher", one who assembles or gathers the people. Josiah's wisdom did not depart from him as it departed from Solomon in his old age. Both Qoheleth Hebrew and Ecclesiastes Greek denote one who presides over an assembly, that is, a preacher or teacher cf.
Miller, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. The Story of Judith , University of California pages. See multiple versions of Judith 4: He did not need to issue orders in the name of the king or consult with him for permission to act. It is not strange that the ineffective and vacillating King Zedekiah is never mentioned in the Book of Judith.
Joakim exercised religious and military authority comparable to that of Jonathan in Maccabean times see 1 Maccabees The book itself belongs to the early postexilic period. Allen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Stabnow, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , p. Though there is no dispute that Jerusalem fell the second time in the summer month of Tammuz Jeremiah Thiele offers B.
The Timetables of History. Sheffield Academic Press, Browning, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Darius the Mede", T. Betts, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Redditt, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Bean, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Allen, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , p.
See also "Persia" pp. Pfeiffer Editor , Everett F. Harrison Editor pages. Which Book is the Oldest in the Bible? Posted November 3, lavistachurchofchrist. Posted on January 24, thescrolleaters. The Catholic Church Latin Rite is the largest religious body in the United States, with over 60 million adherents 4 times as large as the second largest church, the Orthodox.
The Largest Catholic Communities The Eastern Orthodox Church , officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church , and also referred to as the Orthodox Church and Orthodoxy , is the second largest Christian church in the world, with an estimated — million adherents, most of whom live in Eastern Europe , the Middle East , and Russia. The Greek Eastern Orthodox Church. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese Of America Retrieved on 7 May Eastern Orthodox Church Denomination.
Retrieved on 22 May According to this view the kingdom of the Jews of God , after the death of Judas Maccabeus and his brother Jonathan, is ruled by the high priests of the line of Aaron, "sons of men", in the name of God until the angel's annunciation to Mary and Joseph of the incarnation in her womb of the perfect high priest and king, Jesus, "one like a son of man".
See List of the independent sovereign Rulers of the Kingdom of the Medes before the rise of the third Kingdom of the Persians See the diagram-chart of the dream-image of Daniel 2 at the end of this article: The Book of Daniel, Session 1, study notes. See also "Daniel, book of," Stephen R. Miller , Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Others combine the two empires of the Medes and the Persians as one kingdom or empire, to present the Roman empire as the fourth kingdom: Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Greek, Roman.
Explanations of the rise of Republican and Imperial Pagan Rome as the complete fulfillment of the fourth empire of Daniel have proven to be difficult and unsatisfactory for some, while all of the Reformers agreed with Martin Luther that it must be so. Greece, Persia, or Rome in Daniel? See also Jaddua jewishvirtuallibrary. When read literally these verses plainly describe the dynastic histories of the Ptolemies in Egypt the king of the south and the Seleucids in Syria the king of the north , the two divisions of the Hellenistic empire that were of interest to the author verse 6.
In verses is described the struggle between the two kingdoms for control of Palestine, in which the Seleucids were eventually victorious. The reference in verse 20 is to Seleucus IV , who sent Heliodorus to plunder the temple treasure in Jerusalem 2 Maccabees 3. Finally, verses describe the career of Antiochus IV and his persecution.
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New American Bible, 1 Maccabees Simon the Just sacred-texts. The gymnasium where the youth exercised naked lay in the Tyropoeon Valley to the east of the citadel, directly next to the temple on its eastern side. Zagros Mountains A majority of Biblical scholars maintain that Daniel wrongly prophesied that Antiochus would die in Palestine. Daniel's prophesy of the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes " among the mountains in a strange land " 2 Maccabees 9: Some students of the Bible [ source: Traditionally, " the sea " and " the great sea " in the Bible is the Mediterranean Joshua 1: Flint, and others [ The Book of Daniel: Bible translations of this passage differ: The conclusion of most Old Testament scholars is that the account in Daniel 11 is completely accurate through verse 44, but wrong in verse 45, and therefore it must have been completed near the end of the reign of Antiochus but before his death in December , or at least before news of it reached Jerusalem.
New American Bible, Daniel According to this letterist reading, the "time of the end" had occurred, because the book was opened and its words could finally be read, even as we read the Book of Daniel today in the Bible. The words given to Daniel, and written and sealed up by him long before the events had taken place, have been proven true. A third reading literalist of the meaning of the words of Daniel holds that, even if they can be read, their meaning remains veiled and sealed away from our understanding, not opened to us Luke Literalists will not listen to people who claim to know the exact hour and day of the time of the end.
All this being said, it remains that a letterist reading of the plainly explicit words of the text places the open reading, publication and distribution of copies of the unsealed book in the historical period to which the earliest extant manuscripts can be traced, at the time of the Maccabees which has nothing to do with when it was originally written , and therefore, on this basis alone, its "unsealed" placement chronologically belongs here in the table at that time.
See Associates for Biblical Research: Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs: Mohr Paul Siebeck , P. He calls him Diocles, possibly his Greek name. See Parthian Empire iranchamber. John Hyrcanus I , in article The Machabees newadvent. The Book of Wisdom, prefatory notes, page The Book of Judith, prefatory notes, page Judith beheaded Holofernes and Judas Maccabeus beheaded Nicanor.
And from that time the city has been in the possession of the Hebrews. It is unlikely that the earlier Aristobulus I is indicated, who imprisoned his mother, killed his brother, and ruled less than one year — B. Nanaya in Syria and Mesopotamia aakkl. Smith and Antiochus X Eusebes livius. A different account of the death of Antiochus IV is given in 2 Mc 9, and another variant account in 1 Mc 6, The writer of this letter [2 Macc.
This fact and other indications show that the letter was written very soon after Antiochus IV died, hence in B. As with the text of Daniel The extra-biblical evidence cited by Mahlon H. Smith and others regarding the "official" circumstances of the death of Antiochus X tends to support this literalist view, as being an ancient historical revisionist account written to cover up the truth of his humiliating and scandalous death as recorded in the Bible, as being instead the death of a king in the midst of a battle against his Parthian enemy, but this is currently a minority opinion.
Rebuilding the Second Temple bible-history. They do not count Mary as the thirteenth generation, and they point to the 4 generations between Manasseh, the 14th from David, and Salathiel son of Jechoniah, as omitted: Amon son of Manasseh 1, Josiah 2, Jehoiakim 3, Jechoniah 4. A letterist count of these generations according to the literal letter of the text as among the number of the generations from David to Jechoniah father of Salathiel gives a total of 18 generations, not Also, a letterist count including these 4 unlisted generations in the lineage from Manasseh the 14th from David to Christ and excluding Mary gives a total of 17 generations, not However, the number of generations from David unto the carrying away of Manasseh son of Hezekiah into Babylon, as the first of Judah's generation to be "carried away to Babylon", is 14 generations: Then about that period of time in Israel's history, after the beginning of the "carrying away into Babylon", after Manasseh repented and returned to Jerusalem Manasseh begot Amon who begot Josiah who begot Johanan, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah and Jechoniah Shallum , brothers, and Jehoiakim begot Jechoniah who begot Zedekiah and his brothers and sons "about the time they were carried away to Babylon".
All these are "brothers" of Jechoniah in Israel of the house of David and clan of Jesse, and these are the whole generation of the "carrying away into Babylon", as represented by his name, from Amon through Jechoniah to his sons. Jechoniah is thus representative of the Exile. That entire generation from Manasseh through Jechoniah is not counted as one of the preceding or succeeding generations "from the carrying away into Babylon to the Christ. The critics who fault Matthew's count of the generations after Jechoniah claim that Matthew lists only 13 generations from after the time of the carrying away into Babylon to the Christ.
Apparently Mary is excluded from their reckoning of the generations because Joseph is " the husband of Mary ", not her father, so they make her an uncounted member of Joseph's 12th generation from Jechoniah, and make Jesus the 13th generation to prove the text of every extant manuscript of the Gospel According to Matthew is defective. For example, the footnote to Matthew 1: The Order of the Gospels, translated C. Matthew does not count from Manasseh the 14th generation from David to the Christ.
He counts from the time of Jechoniah "when they were brought to Babylon", and he includes Mary as a whole generation younger than Joseph: The numbers do add up. Mark Kidger, The Star of Bethlehem: Halley's Comet and Other Red Herrings. Is the Answer Written in Chinese? A Commentary on the Greek Text, by I. The Birth of Jesus, page November 14, Wm B.
History of Chronology historyworld. Juan Antonio Revilla and John D. See also Astronomer John Mosley astronomyoutreach. See five distinct points of view sharing similar common ground on the time of the hour of darkness: Anthropology of the Night: Sleep Drive and Your Body Clock sleepfoundation.
The Time of the Crucifixion, Johnny V. Thiele using Historical-grammatical and Historical-critical methods which legitimately support the historical veracity of a literalist biblical chronology: Louis, Missouri, Overview of the Work of Thiele. Andrews University Seminary Studies, Vol. See especially the following: The Clarity of Scripture. Fitzmeyer; Subsidia Biblica 18; Rome: Editrice Pontificio Institutio Biblico, House, Grand Rapids, Mich. Stein, Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary , pp. Historical-critical method of biblical interpretation: See especially An Evaluation of historical-critical methods: Sc Hons , January 20, a conservative Evangelical evaluation —hermeneutics.
See the Evangelical point of view: Scandal, see Offense First Things: Catechism of the Catholic Church: Respect for the Dignity of Persons. Respect for the souls of others: The definition of scandal when this page comes up, scroll down to see full article. Mysteries of the Bible Season One: Brief informal definition and discussion of eisegesis: Because the text of Deuteronomy Their community has remained small withered according to the words of Jesus John On the basis of this interpretation the Protestant Reformers accused the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church of having added books to the Bible in the 4th century , and Catholic and Orthodox leaders accused Protestants of taking away whole books and parts of other books from the Bible of the Apostles and the Ancient Christian Church.
In response to the controversy, in the Catholic Council of Trent , the Catholic Church declared an end to all debate in the Church regarding the canonical status of particular books of Scripture, by dogmatically listing the canon of the Bible "as read in the Church". Retrieved from " https: Navigation menu Personal tools Create account Log in. Namespaces Page talk page. Views Read View source View history. This page was last modified on 29 October , at This page has been accessed 18, times.
The year Jared was born. Mahalalel was 65, Kenan , Enosh , Seth , Adam years old. The year Enoch was born. The year Methuselah was born. Disastrous floods in Mesopotamian region near end of — to — period. The year Lamech was born. The year Adam died. He was years old — From crossing the Red Sea to climbing Mount Sinai to touching the burning bush, Bruce Feiler's inspiring journey will forever change your view of some of history's most storied events. A pure joy to read. From the barren land, Feiler emerges, like those whose paths he traces, renewed and transformed. He is a columnist for the New York Times , a popular lecturer, and a frequent commentator on radio and television.
He lives in Brooklyn with his wife and twin daughters. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Read more Read less. Add all three to Cart Add all three to List. These items are shipped from and sold by different sellers. Buy the selected items together This item: Sold by Lazy Bug and ships from Amazon Fulfillment. Where God Was Born: Ships from and sold by Amazon. Customers who viewed this item also viewed.
Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. A Journey to the Heart of Three Faiths. Harper Perennial; 1st edition August 2, Language: I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Read reviews that mention walking the bible middle east bruce feiler old testament holy land books of moses books of the bible reading this book avner goren along the way highly recommend burning bush come alive christians and muslims garden of eden mount sinai promised land places mentioned well worth biblical stories.
Showing of reviews. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. This author was not particularly 'religious,' at least at the beginning of his quest to search out the places mentioned in the Old Testament.
That fact should make his book less intimidating to those who seem to fear all things biblical. He writes in a non-biased, and definitely non-preachy way. This work is non-fiction, for those who need to know, and in its pages you meet fascinating people who wander into the path of the author's quest, and help him, sometimes without meaning to. I bought this because I am a student of the Bible and do believe what it says, but also because this work describes not only the places mentioned in the Pentateuch the 5 books of Moses , but also introduces the people who live in these places now.
Their opinions and beliefs concerning their homeland reflect a greater sense of the importance of this region than we can ever begin to understand here so many thousands of miles away in our brash, much younger culture. I also get a sense of why middle eastern peoples find our culture so puzzling and even ridiculous, in many respects. I had hoped to come away with a better understanding of our differences, and I believe I have.
On some points I'd have to agree to disagree, but in many cases I understand better why we will probably always have points upon which we passionately disagree, to the point of bloodshed. I highly recommend this book. It will show you a land and culture you may never get to see firsthand on your own. This is very cheap armchair travel, well worth your time, very thoughtful and engaging. And the people you will learn about will stick in your mind a while.
After traveling to Jerusalem two years ago, I was inspired to learn more about the people and events that inspired Biblical writings. This outstanding DVD certainly provided me with greater insight into how three of the major religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were born. Bruce Feiler takes the viewer on a in-depth journey in a precise presentation of the people, culture, and events of antiquity. I was absolutely riveted as Feiler took me on a profoundly meaningful journey.
I recommend this DVD to anyone who is interested in a religious journey grounded in history, archeology, and ancient cultures. I was not sure quite what to expect when choosing this book but I gained far more than I thought from taking the journey through the geography and history of the Jewish Bible's first 5 books. It was gripping; the style was easy to read although dealing with complex historical, theological and political dimensions of the Middle East through its geography. I am a Christian and I have to say looking at what is, to me, the Old Testament through Jewish eyes has helped me understand the Biblical stories in greater depth.
He does not, however, push a Jewish political view but manages to keep an objectivity which makes it accessible to all readers of any or no faith. There is no heavy religious "sell" it is a fascinating journey all can travel. I would recommend it to anyone who wants to get a perspective of where the Bible fits into history of the middle east. He has such a lightness of touch that it doesn't feel you are reading a text book, it is indeed a gripping journey through Bible lands but more importantly a journey of a man trying to find where he comes from in terms of culture.