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Learn more about Amazon Prime. In this book, Bruce Percy covers all the major aspect ratios such as 3: But most importantly, he illustrates through his own photography, how the aspect ratio of your camera dictates how you lay your compositions out. He also illustrates how the 35mm aspect ratio of 3: Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. The Elemental Components of a Landscape.

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Simplifying Composition: The Elemental Components of a Landscape

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Product details File Size: Bruce Percy; 1 edition March 13, Publication Date: March 13, Sold by: Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video. Finally, this approach can be used to address crop-specific heterogeneity that is difficult to observe. Although some of the variation that differentiates these treatment rates could be due to observable factors, some causes of the variation that leads almonds to be sprayed more than alfalfa, even if they were grown on the identical plot with identical surrounding diversity, are due to crop-specific characteristics e.

Here, we use a combination of region, time, and crop fixed effects to identify if and to what extent diversity, cropland extent, and field size drive insecticides. A field is uniquely defined based on permit-location-crop-year, and, as such, fields change over time. Thus, we account for i all time constant effects that are shared by fields within a given Public Land Survey Township, a km 2 region; ii all time shocks shared among fields; and iii all time constant differences between crop types.

Crop-specific pesticide or crop prices may vary from year to year, which would not be covered in the year dummy variables and could confound our estimation. However, to do so, prices would need to be correlated with the diversification decision; otherwise, they only contribute to noise. We argue that this correlation is unlikely because the planting decision is made before crop prices are known. Nevertheless, we test models with crop-by-year dummy variables as well as individual crop models that account for crop-specific year shocks. If pests spill over between fields, the benefit of pest control decreases as fields become smaller because an individual farmer has less control over the pest population spilling over into her field Similarly, we would anticipate that the benefit of pest control would increase with the more fields that an owner held in proximity because she would retain more of the value of her pest control action.

Significance

To account for the possibility that this economic driver was confounding our estimation, we test models that include a covariate for the proportion of the surrounding area owned by the owner of the focal field. To assess spatial heterogeneity, five covariates were included for diversity one for each annulus and five were included for cropland extent, with the focal field size remaining unchanged. To assess heterogeneity by crop type, we also evaluated the relationship between diversity extent and field size for each of the top six insecticide use crops.

We again defined the surrounding area as a circle with a radius of 2, m and included year dummy variables. Thus, the individual crop models allow for crop-specific slopes and intercepts while accounting for year shocks shared by all fields of the specific crop type in question. Repeated observations over time or nearby fields are likely to have correlated disturbance terms. Although estimates from the fixed effects model would remain unbiased and consistent 32 , such autocorrelation in the error terms could result in artificially small standard errors SEs Here, we use cluster robust SEs clustered at the km 2 region township to allow for arbitrary spatial and temporal autocorrelation between fields within the same region All geospatial data manipulation was done in ArcGIS In this section, we describe the data processing details and provide the regression tables corresponding to the figures and results described in the main text, as well as additional robustness tests.

The use reports cover all pesticides used on all crops The CDPR oversees enforcement of state and national laws regarding reporting, licensing, product registrations, etc. Although the true error rate is unknown, the PUR data are widely considered highly accurate and the most accurate pesticide data in the world 34 , Doing so did not qualitatively change our main results, although it did improve model fit Table S4.

A small number of observations had data entry errors, and the following actions were taken. This combination should uniquely identify observations. For these observations, we kept the crop with the largest area. Crop diversity is calculated using proportion of agricultural land in a given crop type. If there was no agricultural land surrounding a field, diversity was missing, and thus singleton fields were not included in the analyses. In general, we find evidence that diversity reduces insecticide use, whereas field size increases insecticide use.

However, crop-specific characteristics are fundamentally important to the magnitude and existence of a relationship between different components of landscape simplification and insecticide use. Pooling all observations across years, regions, and crop types results in the largest magnitude of an effect for crop diversity calculated at the species level and field size, although model choice has little effect on the relationship between cropland extent and insecticide use Fig.

S1 and Table S1. Controlling for year heterogeneity alone via year dummy variables or fixed effects has little impact on the crop diversity or field size coefficients relative to the pooled OLS model Table S1. However, including crop-specific dummy variables reduces the magnitude of the diversity and field size coefficients, whether or not it is interacted with year effects Table S1. The effect of crop diversity and cropland extent on pesticide use varies with the distance to the focal field Table S2.

As before, the effect of diversity calculated at the species level is greater than for diversity calculated at the genus or family level, yet the overall patterns are very similar. Allowing different crops to have different slopes as well as different intercepts, demonstrates substantial variation by crop type in the effects of all components of landscape simplification on insecticide use Table S3. Finally, because the functional form of the relationship is unknown, we tested an additional model with logged dependent variables log insecticide use.

The patterns of the relationships between insecticide use and diversity, extent, and field size were largely similar regardless Fig.


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We thus chose to continue with the level-dependent variable insecticide use for interpretational ease. We also thank the editor and two reviewers for their thoughtful and thorough comments, and acknowledge the Kern CAC Office for collecting the unique data used in this paper. This article contains supporting information online at www. We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content.

Identifying the landscape drivers of agricultural insecticide use leveraging evidence from , fields Ashley E. Larsen and Frederik Noack. This article has a correction. Correction for Larsen and Noack, Identifying the landscape drivers of agricultural insecticide use leveraging evidence from , fields. Significance Ecological theory predicts simplified agricultural landscapes composed of large-scale, homogeneous cropland will have increased pest problems due to fewer natural enemies and concentrated host plants, which will result in increased pesticide use and associated environmental degradation.

Abstract Agricultural landscape intensification has enabled food production to meet growing demand. Results In general, we find that increasing crop diversity reduces insecticide use per hectare, whereas increasing field size increases insecticide use. View inline View popup. Summary statistics for the top 10 commodities ordered by area. Discussion Landscape complexity has long been shown to increase natural enemy abundance, and, as such, it has been considered a mechanism of ecological pest control 6 , SI Results In general, we find evidence that diversity reduces insecticide use, whereas field size increases insecticide use.

The authors declare no conflict of interest. Mineau P , Whiteside M Lethal risk to birds from insecticide use in the United States—a spatial and temporal analysis. Environ Toxicol Chem Proc Biol Sci Tscharntke T , et al. Philpott S , Armbrecht I Biodiversity in tropical agroforests and the ecological role of ants and ant diversity in predatory function. Gonthier DJ , et al.


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Proc R Soc B Chaplin-Kramer R , Kremen C Pest control experiments show benefits of complexity at landscape and local scales. Waterfield G , Zilberman D Pest management in food systems: Annu Rev Environ Resour Foley JA , et al. Pest Manag Sci Larsen AE Agricultural landscape simplification does not consistently drive insecticide use. J Agric Sci 7: Letourneau DK , et al.

Annu Rev Entomol Thies C , et al. Experimental tests across Europe. Root RB Organization of a plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: The fauna of collards Brassica oleracea. The hidden predators of the coffee berry borer in Chiapas, Mexico. Eur Econ Rev J Hum Resour California Department of Pesticide Regulation Pesticide use reports 1— Accessed March 10, Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. You are going to email the following Identifying the landscape drivers of agricultural insecticide use leveraging evidence from , fields.

Landscape drivers of insecticides. Larsen , Frederik Noack. Tweet Widget Facebook Like Mendeley. Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter. Genetic screen identifies adaptive aneuploidy as a key mediator of ER stress resistance in yeast.

Environmental Sciences Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter. Environmental DNA helps researchers track pythons and other stealthy creatures. Ocean currents and herbivory drive macroalgae-to-coral community shift under climate warming. Social Sciences Linking economic growth pathways and environmental sustainability by understanding development as alternate social—ecological regimes. Straight left lines create different moods and add affection to visual arts.

A line's angle and its relationship to the size of the frame influence the mood of the image. Horizontal lines, commonly found in landscape photography , can give the impression of calm, tranquility, and space. An image filled with strong vertical lines tends to have the impression of height and grandeur. Tightly angled convergent lines give a dynamic, lively, and active effect to the image.

Strongly angled, almost diagonal lines produce tension in the image. The viewpoint of visual art is very important because every different perspective views different angled lines. This change of perspective elicits a different response to the image. By changing the perspective only by some degrees or some centimetres lines in images can change tremendously and a totally different feeling can be transported.

Straight lines are also strongly influenced by tone, color, and repetition in relation to the rest of the image. Compared to straight lines, curves provide a greater dynamic influence in a picture. They are also generally more aesthetically pleasing, as the viewer associates them with softness. In photography, curved lines can give graduated shadows when paired with soft-directional lighting, which usually results in a very harmonious line structure within the image.

There are three properties of color. Hue, brightness, and value. Hue is simply the name of a color, red, yellow, and blue, etc. Brightness refers to the intensity and strength of the color. The lightness and darkness to a color is the value. Color also has the ability to work within our emotions. Given that, we can use color to create mood. It can also be used as tone, pattern, light, movement, symbol, form, harmony, and contrast. Texture refers to how an object feels or how it looks like it may feel if it were touched.

There are two ways we experience texture, physically and optically. Different techniques can be used to create physical texture, which allows qualities of visual art to be seen and felt. This can include surfaces such as metal, sand, and wood. Optical texture is when the illusion of physical texture is created. Photography, paintings, and drawings use visual texture to create a more realistic appearance. Lightness and darkness is what creates value in visual art.

Value deals with how light reflects off of objects and how we see it. The more light, the higher the value. White is the highest or lightest value while black is the lowest or darkest value. Colors also have value, for example, yellow has a high value while blue has a low value.

This is a very important element of design, especially in painting and drawing, to be able to create the illusion of light with contrast.

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Contrast is needed to understand two-dimensional artwork. The term form can be mean different things in visual art. Form suggests a three-dimensional object in space. It is also described as the physical nature of the artwork, such as sculptures. It can also be looked at as art form, which can be expressed through fine art. A form encloses volume, has length, width, and height, unlike a shape, which is only two-dimensional.

Forms that are mathematical, a sphere, pyramid, cube, cylinder, and cone, are known as geometric forms. Organic forms are typically irregular and asymmetrical. This form can be found in nature, such as flowers, rocks, trees, etc. Forms in drawing and painting convey the illusion of three-dimensional form through lighting, shadows, value, and tone.

The more contrast in value, the more pronounced the three-dimensional form is. Forms with little value appear flatter than those with greater variation and contrast. Space is the area around, above, and within an object.