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Forschungsmethoden in der Fremdsprachendidaktik: Ein Handbuch (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Daniela Caspari, Friederike Klippel, Michael K.
Table of contents

Older adults who require 14 seconds or longer to complete the task have a high risk for falls [ 17 ]. The participants performed the test while sitting comfortably with shoulder adducted and neutrally rotated, the elbow flexed to 90 degrees, forearm and wrist in neutral position [ 18 ].

The participants were instructed to perform a maximal isometric contraction. The test was repeated after 10 seconds and the higher value kg was recorded for data analysis [ 19 ]. Reference values for hand grip strength are commonly presented according to age, gender, and side specificity. The average normal value for females aged 70—74 years has been reported to be This self-report questionnaire assesses levels of basic physical activity e.

Significant test-retest reliability was reported for the summed physical activity level , in people between the ages of 18 and 78 years. Cross-correlation with maximum oxygen uptake revealed a significant correlation coefficient of [ 21 ]. For the present study the short version of the questionnaire was used [ 22 ] and the parameter of interest was the overall activity total time in hours per week. Self-perceived physical function was assessed using the validated item Short-Form Health Survey SF version 1 [ 23 ].

The questionnaire consists of 36 questions, is self-administered, and assesses quality of life and well-being in eight multi-item scales regarding physical functioning and perception of physical role, vitality, general and mental health, perception of emotional role, social functioning, and bodily pain. For the present study only the physical function domain SF PF , which consists of 10 items, was assessed.

Each item is scaled between 0 and with higher scores reflecting higher self-perceived function. Clinical assessment included the demographic and health data as well as a physical examination. The following data was used for the present study: Characteristics of baseline assessment, functional measurements, and questionnaires were summarized descriptively using either means and standard deviations or frequencies and percentages, as appropriate. Correlation was performed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.

A correlation value greater than 0.

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Probability values less than 0. Ceiling and floor effects of the CS-PFP 10 and its subscores were determined by reaching the minimum or maximum score. Analyses were conducted using the SPSS version The translation and backtranslation of the instructions proceeded without difficulties. All participants understood the test and task instructions. No alterations were necessary. Table 2 provides the characteristics of the participants included in this substudy.

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The mean age of the community-dwelling participants was years with an age range of 64—89, and 91 No participants fell or were injured during testing. Reasons stated were problems with herniated disc and concerns about their ability to kneel ; osteoarthritis in knees , subjective inability after knee or hip surgery.

For those who declined or were unable to perform this function, a score of zero was entered for this task. All other tasks were carried out by the participants. In total, 87 participants No ceiling or floor effects were observed because no participants obtained the highest points or lowest 0 points score. The CS-PFP 10 total score as well as the subscores correlated significantly with each of the concurrent validation measures.

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  4. Scatter plots of the correlations are presented in Figure 1. The total score showed moderate-to-small correlations with the hand grip strength and the Freiburger Physical Activity Questionnaire results and 0. For the subscores, the coefficient ranged between and 0. Although physical function is a component of many functional performance assessments e. It is particularly advantageous to have one standardized, validated, reliable assessment that can be used in frail, vulnerable, and vigorous older adults. In everyday life, physical performance involves more than, for example, rising from a chair, turning around a pylon, and sitting down again, as tested in the TUG [ 16 ].

    The CS-PFP 10 was developed to assess a broad range of physical functional performance of common, everyday tasks important to functional independence in older adults [ 7 ].

    This test has been developed for English-speaking people living in the USA, yet there is a need for such functional, objective assessments that can be used in non-English-speaking countries, are well-translated, are adapted to the culture, and are validated to allow comparability of data [ 9 ]. The high correlations between the CS-PFP 10 total score and the gait velocity and with TUG times confirm the concurrent construct validity of the CS-PFP 10 for evaluating elements of walking ability and general mobility in older adults.

    The third performance-based measure, hand grip strength, showed low-to-moderate correlations with the CS-PFP 10 values range between and 0. This result seems plausible since the hand grip strength test measures a specific construct which targets most closely the construct of upper body strength. To our knowledge, there are no validity studies that compare the CS-PFP 10 with these measures of physical function.

    The lower correlation coefficient in our study could be explained by two possible factors that affect the size of correlations. It is known from statistics that the value of is affected by the amount of variability in the data [ 29 ]. In other words, the greater the range of scores in both variables, the greater the correlation between these variables.

    This factor is likely to be overlapped by the characteristics of the sample that can affect the size of. The following paper is based on the field of web science. It aims to show, that culture is reflected in the use of the web, particularly employing Google, to develop various methods, in regard to gather the relevant data.

    With these different appraoches of the method, data representative for 20 European countries are generated, explored and evaluted. Benjamin Nagengast Nagengast, Benjamin, Prof. Vocational interests assessed at the end of high school predict life outcomes assessed 10 years later over and above IQ and Big Five Personality traits.

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, , Using propensity score matching to construct experimental stimuli. Social cognitive constructs are just as stable as the Big Five between grades five and eight. AERA Open , 3 , Using an interpersonal approach to predict achievement by academic self-concept and peer ratings of competence. Effects of obligatory coursework in math on gender differences in STEM. Is doing your homework associated with becoming more conscientious?

    Journal of Research on Personality, 71 , Short intervention, lasting effects: Family interest moderates the effects of relevance interventions.

    "Forschungsmethode" English translation

    Psychometrika, 82 , Frame-of-reference effects on values in mathematics - Evidence from German secondary school students. Skalierung Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsmethoden German Edition. Measurement structure and mean level differences across grade level, gender, and academic subject.

    Probing the unique contributions of self-concept, task values and their interactions using multiple value facets and multiple academic outcomes.

    German-English translation for "Forschungsmethode"

    Side effects of motivational interventions? Effects of a motivational intervention in math classrooms on motivation in verbal domains. Commonalities and differences in IRT-based methods for nonignorable item-nonresponses. Using latent profile analyses to predict academic achievement over a school year.