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German Law and the German Legal System

Like that of any other asset, the price of every bond will reflect the likelihood of being paid back. If there is a greater chance of an investor not getting their money back - a longer time frame or a riskier issuer, for example - they should demand a higher return in order to take the risk. Elements in the economic environment - higher inflation, stronger growth - will also influence the price investors demand to lend money.

Considering these factors in turn: Each bond has a given time until maturity, but the most important measure is 'duration', a slightly different calculation. Nick Gartside, international chief investment officer of the global fixed income, currency and commodities group at JPMorgan Asset Management, says: The longer a bond, the more riskier it is, because you wait longer to get your cash back. Duration will usually be shorter than the maturity date because investors will have got some of their money back from the interest payments.

It is important because it measures the sensitivity of individual bonds to changes in interest rates. Adrian Hull, fixed income product specialist at Kames, says: The bond issuer is also important. Investors demand more to lend to less trustworthy borrowers where there is more chance they won't get their money back at the end of the term. There are two main types of bond issuer - governments and corporates. The price of a government bond is largely influenced by expectations of interest rates and inflation.

Note that 'expectations' are not the same as reality. Recently, the yield on the year UK government bond has moved from 0. Interest rates have remained at 0. In this type of economic environment central bankers are much more likely to raise interest rates. This is usually bad for bonds - if you can get higher returns on cash, why own a bond?

Corporate bonds will also include a 'spread' over government bonds to reflect the greater risk involved in investing in a company - which must rely on earnings and cash flow to repay the bond - over that of investing in a government, which uses tax receipts.

Courts and Judges

Apple will be very highly rated, so the credit spread will be low. A 'junk bond' issued by a company considered a riskier proposition , on the other hand, might have a coupon 4 per cent higher than that of a government bond,' says Gartside. Hull points out that the economic environment will also have an impact on credit spreads.


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That said, he adds that a buoyant economic environment may sow the seeds for problems later: This can be bad for credit spreads over the longer term. Emerging market bonds are a little different. Built into the bond will be some reflection of the higher risk inherent in emerging market economies. Their economic growth is not assured: While some bonds are issued in 'hard' currencies dollar, euro, yen , others are issued in local currencies, which introduces an added risk. Investors can lose on both the currency and the bond itself, so issuers tend to pay higher interest rates to compensate.

The coupon is the interest paid on a bond and it will reflect the relative risk of the institution that issues the bond. The UK government doesn't have to pay very much because it is considered likely to repay; smaller, highly indebted countries will have to pay a higher income to encourage people to lend to them.

The coupon will also reflect the prevailing interest rates. If interest rates and therefore rates on cash savings are high, coupons need to be higher to encourage people to invest. Coupons may also include some indexation - the interest payments from index-linked bonds will rise in line with inflation. As such, the price of the bond will vary in line with inflation expectations. The yield is the amount of return an investor earns on a bond; in essence, the coupon divided by the price of the bond. When a bond is bought, the yield will be equal to the interest rate, but it changes as the bond matures and its price varies.

There are different types of yield calculation. It also factors in any capital gain or loss at redemption. It simply gives the bond yield each year, similar to a dividend payment.

How to invest in bonds: a beginner's guide | Money Observer

Investors may also hear the term 'nominal yield' - effectively the same as the bond coupon. The secondary market versus the primary market is also a consideration. Many investors assume that fixed income managers simply buy the bond when it is issued the primary market and hold it to maturity, receiving their money back at the end.

In practice, managers of fixed income funds seldom do that; instead they buy and sell their investments in the secondary market. The fixed income market is very tradeable and we may want to move to, for example, shorter-dated bonds if the environment is changing. Yes, if the yield on a year gilt rises from 0.

They can simply keep receiving the same coupon rate until the bond matures. Rating agencies also play an important role in bond markets.

A beginner’s guide to bonds

A little like grading homework, ratings agencies assign a rating to a bond based on its creditworthiness. Different ratings providers have different systems - AAA to C, for example. However, most fund managers worth their salt do not rely solely on the rating given by the rating agency. We have teams of credit analysts who create an independent assessment.

Buying bonds, especially capital-guaranteed bonds issued by the government, means settling for low returns, such as a 2. Investing in the stock market can give a higher return. It is uniquely capital guaranteed — get back your full investment amount without capital losses. How long and how much: Interest rates While depositing money into a regular savings account gives you a starting interest rate of 0. Monetary Authority of Singapore. The three common types of bonds are: Bonds from stable governments, like the Singapore Savings Bond , are considered extremely safe.

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