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A new way to rejuvenate old cells in the laboratory, making them not only look Most people by the age of 85 have experienced some kind of chronic illness, and as levels of the splicing factors, the cells regain some features of youth. Professor Faragher added: "Our discovery of cell rejuvenation using.
Table of contents
- 1. Introduction
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- The Fountain of Youth: A Tale of Parabiosis, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation
- Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
It profoundly depletes the deeper layers, leading to unmistakable signs that no makeup can disguise and only anti-aging supplements, foods and products that work at both the cellular and hormonal levels can repair. Not even cosmetic surgery can correct some of these consequences, like pallor due to the loss of capillaries or the loss of youthful lip, eye, complexion, and hair color due to the loss of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Although using natural anti-aging supplements and substances can make you look decades younger, please keep in mind that the exciting science that explains the mechanisms that underlie their actions is very young and fresh.
The bulk of our knowledge about what happens as we age comes from studies that have appeared in the last ten years and have only been available, for the most part, in scientific journals. To achieve true anti-aging effects, you must activate cellular mechanisms, plus biochemical and hormonal anti-aging pathways, and restore them to youthful functioning. When you improve cellular function, every one of your cells operates better, and this yields great results.
When you improve cellular function through natural anti-aging supplements, you reverse your age in a real, biological sense. Your cells are younger, and you look younger. Take the power of vitamin C. Applying this to your face as a serum will increase collagen levels there. Taking it internally will rejuvenate mitochondrial function in your skin and heart.
Cellular function acts on the level of every cell, improving energy production, repair, and clearing of cellular debris. All of these mechanisms become slower and less efficient as we age. Improved cellular function very effectively reverses this decline, making you biologically younger at the cellular level. This is visible on the outside! Because there are many changes that aging causes in your body, some are not corrected, or reversed, by only optimizing your cellular mechanisms and require special anti-aging supplements and foods.
Think of it this way: So to look truly young past thirty, and to continue doing so, you must rejuvenate at cellular and hormonal levels. And since vitamin C can only increase the muscle and fat atrophy that shrivels our skin as we get older, we have to add hormones to the picture for deep, and highly visible, anti-aging results. Varicose veins are a great example of an aging concern caused by cellular and hormonal factors and should be addressed that way, as well.
With age, your leg muscles atrophy, skin thins, and your blood vessel walls become weaker.
Hormonal factors play a part, since women, particularly during pregnancy, are more likely to develop this condition. So thickening the skin, strengthening the muscles, and increasing elastin in the blood vessel walls bring about great improvement. But how do we do this naturally with anti-aging supplements? Bioflavonoids such as lemon peel and bilberry are very helpful, as they work on a cellular level by strengthening the blood vessel walls. But many people do not experience varicose vein relief with bioflavonoids alone—you must cure this at the hormonal level by increasing elastin directly in the vein through the use of natural anti-aging foods dill seed essential oil.
Because dill is estrogenic, it produces the beneficial effects of this hormone in your body and is known to tighten saggy areas, too. Dill seed essential oil is just one natural anti-aging supplement that has a positive estrogenic effect on the body, which can also protect you from certain cancers and heart disease. As we age, more and more effects of declining estrogen appear, including the decline of elastin, collagen, muscle, and fat.
Even the sudden appearance of dry skin after age thirty is due to declining estrogen, which causes a decrease in ceramides and hyaluronic acid, substances responsible for keeping skin moist, supple, and hydrated. At the same time, raising your female hormones, particularly those in the estrogen family, will not lead to concerns about hormonally sensitive cancers. However, some of the most well-known hormonally active and oft-suggested anti-aging remedies can actually harm your hormone function.
One of these remedies is soy, which has been touted as a cure-all for women of a certain age. The problem is that soy has been shown to lower certain estrogens and can produce detrimental effects, particularly when a woman has reached menopause. In some women soy may lower thyroid function, leading to weight gain and a dramatic loss of energy.
Wild yam is another hormone-affecting anti-aging herb known for producing contradictory effects in women. Wild yam, or Dioscorea villosa , is not related to the yams, or sweet potatoes, that you buy at the grocery store.
The interesting thing is that any negative effects are entirely absent when other sources of diosgenin, such as fenugreek or sarsaparilla, are used instead of wild yam. Anti-aging creams that contain pharmaceutical doses of estrogens, such as estradiol, have been shown to produce visible anti-aging effects in as little as one week.
But most women are wary of using pharmaceutical estrogens, as some of the estrogen from the cream will be absorbed by the body, which may result in undesirable side effects like nausea, bloating, breast lumps, headaches, unusual vaginal bleeding, and increased blood clotting, which can lead to strokes.
How amazing, then, that these results can be obtained using certain fragrant essential oils that act in a very similar way, but without any of the health concerns. Finally, bio-identical hormones on the market also come with a degree of risk. Both the more commonly used hormonal replacement preparations and the newer, bio-identical hormones are manufactured in a laboratory and possess marked hormonal activity. Bio-identical hormones resemble the hormones found in your body more closely than the pharmaceutical ones regularly dispensed by doctors, but because they are equally powerful, they can also cause pronounced imbalances in the body that are negative.
Supplying your body with hormones leads to reduced glandular function and gland atrophy, and this applies to all hormone-producing glands, including the ovaries and the testes. That is why I only recommend using safe, natural anti-aging supplements, foods and herbs found in nature. All that said, when it comes to anti-aging treatments, natural substances are the way to go.
They stimulate the beneficial processes that help you look and feel young, while preventing DNA damage and disease. The results can even surprise you in the best way. The most remarkable example of this occurs in the treatment of blood pressure through natural means—and a stable blood pressure in many ways is essential to healthy aging. In other words, if you take Panax ginseng and your blood pressure is too high, it will lower it.
If your blood pressure is too low, ginseng will raise it. In each case, blood pressure will be normalized and brought into a normal, healthy range. This kind of effect can only be achieved if the mechanisms that led to the imbalance in blood pressure, whether high or low, are corrected. Drugs cannot do this, because their pharmaceutical actions are highly specific and unidirectional. Good natural anti-aging supplements, herbs and foods, however, have balancing effects like ginseng , which work no matter what end of the spectrum you find yourself on.
This is not the case with most pharmaceuticals. This plant is called hawthorn and has this effect, in part, by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE. This mechanism is the basis of drugs used to lower blood pressure, the ACE inhibitors. But one of the unfortunate side effects of ACE inhibitor drugs is kidney damage, a side effect completely absent when using natural hawthorn. Not bad for side effects, right? Researchers estimate that there are more than one hundred fifty anti-aging pathways active in the human body. It is then necessary to focus on the most effective mechanisms that deliver the most visible results.
It is important to remember that every natural substance has many actions, often influencing several anti-aging pathways at the same time, in various beneficial ways. Just as there are so many anti-aging pathways, so there are hundreds of natural anti-aging substances that affect them. Because nothing in your body occurs in isolation, activating life-enhancing, anti-aging sirtuins will produce beneficial effects on many other anti-aging pathways.
For example, in a model of breast cancer, resveratrol has been shown to activate SIRT1 and, at the same time, inhibit a protein called survivin, in this way preventing the growth of breast cancer cells. Inhibition or disruption of the survivin pathway suppresses tumor growth, so we see that stimulating SIRT1 produces a very beneficial effect on another pathway that plays a role in remaining youthful and disease-free. A part of that anti-aging effect includes anti-cancer effects, brain protection, and younger skin and hair. Adding sirtuin activators to your healthy diet and beauty regimen also gives you the type of expanded lifespan that researchers have seen with landmark concepts like calorie restriction CR , which was the first means ever found to prolong life across a variety of species, including rats, yeast, fish, mice, dogs, and even monkeys.
That being said, there have been no human studies on calorie restriction, and there are a few reasons for that. Second, there are obvious ethical problems with restricting calories from infancy or childhood, or during adulthood, under experimental conditions for a significant length of time. Good thing sirtuins mimic the effects of calorie restriction without producing any negative effects at all!
And luckily these can be activated with affordable, natural anti-aging supplements and foods. So far, seven sirtuin proteins have been identified in the human body, each one with a slightly different mode of action. An easy way to activate your sirtuins every day is to choose anti-aging foods from the following list. All of these contain compounds that will stimulate your sirtuin longevity pathways. Where to get it: As for the reversion of age-related cardiac hypertrophy [ 28 ], the treatment of aged mice with daily intraperitoneal injections of recombinant GDF11 for 4 weeks increased numbers of satellite cells with intact DNA, as compared with cells from aged mice receiving vehicle alone.
Moreover, in a model of muscle injury, GDF11 treatment of aged mice 28 days before injury and continued for 7 days thereafter restored more youthful profiles of myofiber caliber in regenerating muscle. Aged mice treated with GDF11 also showed increased average exercise endurance and grip strength. The results about the role of GDF11 in the rejuvenation of muscles were not without effect.
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The surprise came from the prior knowledge that myostatin, a close related protein to GDF11, was known to reduce myogenesis [ 31 ]. Indeed, a more recent paper has denied the results obtained by those investigations. A more specific assay for GDF11 showed a trend towards increased GDF11 levels in serum from older rats and humans compared to younger individuals.
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By using the same treatment protocol established by Sinha et al. Rather, higher systemic levels of GDF11 were associated with impaired regeneration in young mice, as indicated by a greater number of very small myofibers in the GDFtreated muscles. Finally, they also showed that treatment with GDF11 decreased the growth of adult and aged satellite cells cultures in a dose-dependent manner.
The implication of this study is that if old individuals are found with very high levels of GDF11, and this is coincident with muscle loss sarcopenia , they are candidates for either GDFspecific blockade or for a more general blockade of the GFD11, myostatin, and their receptors.
The fact is that the results published by Egerman and colleagues could help to explain the mechanism behind bimagrumab, an experimental Novartis treatment for muscle weakness and wasting [ 34 ]. The drug, which is currently in clinical trials, blocks myostatin — and perhaps GDF11 as well [ 35 ].
The Fountain of Youth: A Tale of Parabiosis, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation
Probably the truth stays in the middle, and maintaining GDF11 levels in an appropriate physiological range would be essential for muscle health. It is also important to recall what Amy Wagers said: Alternatively, other factors may act in this context. In , Irina and Michael Conboy identified [ 37 ] one of the anti-aging factors circulating in the blood: They observed that oxytocin levels declined in old mice months , and when injected subcutaneously into aged mice, oxytocin recovered the regenerating capacity of muscle cells upon cardiotoxin injury.
In the field of identification of specific rejuvenation factors, there are still many unresolved issues. Moreover, some observations are difficult to be reconciled one with the other. For example, the blood from aged individuals, which reduces GDF11 in the serum [ 28 ], negatively affects neurogenesis and cognitive function in young individuals [ 27 ]. This is in contradiction with the fact that the old serum is diluted in young serum, calling in question whether microRNAs miRNAs , or ther protein factors, could target the GDF11 pathway in order to increase or decrease its expression.
It is interesting to recall that in , two researchers at the University of California studied the lifespans of old—young rat pairs. Older partners lived for four to five months longer than controls, suggesting for the first time that circulation of young blood might affect longevity [ 38 ]. Results concerning the primary symptoms and adverse events as well as secondary outcomes MRI and blood biomarkers are awaited in this year. However, although this trial is designed over 4 weeks, concerns of this practice may arise: The advantage of giving young blood to an old person is that it may contain different rejuvenating factors that could have pleiotropic effects on many diseased organs at the same time.
Indeed, whole blood is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids. Each of these components can be separated from the others in order to obtain packed red blood cell PRBC concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate, used in different indications [ 39 ]. The transfusion of whole blood or its components is a safe clinical practice today and has many applications in regenerative medicine [ 40 ].
However, some of its components, such as plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and pathogens, may give rise to adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions [ 39 ]. For these reasons, the identification of specific factors helping specifically old organs and tissue to rejuvenate or heal may be a safer approach.
Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
Rando, Wagers and other would prefer to see testing for a specific blood factor or combination of known factors synthesized on the bench in the lab [ 36 ]. The disadvantage in this case is that the mechanism of action of identified factors CCL11, GDF11, or oxytocin is far to be fully understood. It can also be that these factors do not act directly, but they do depend on epigenetic mechanisms e.
Parabiosis has suggested over a long period of time that factors from young blood may help diseased or aged tissues to regenerate. Some would prefer to administer whole blood or its derivatives, such as plasma, while others are more akin to deliver specific factors or cocktails of factors. Some hints are coming out from animal studies, but the link to humans is still to be found. Conflict of interest statement: Authors state no conflict of interest.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Open Med Wars v. Published online Oct Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jul 25; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Transfusion or drinking of blood or of its components has been thought as a rejuvenation method since ancient times. A tale of parabiosis The claim that blood can rejuvenate our organs has been revitalized by one research group at the Stanford University School of Medicine in [ 10 ] and [ 11 ]. Open in a separate window.
A tale of surprise and new drugs The results about the role of GDF11 in the rejuvenation of muscles were not without effect. Pros and cons of whole blood versus specific factors The advantage of giving young blood to an old person is that it may contain different rejuvenating factors that could have pleiotropic effects on many diseased organs at the same time.
Footnotes Conflict of interest statement: References  de Escalante Fontaneda H. Translation by Buckingham Smith. Accessed July 18, How to live forever: The history of blood transfusion prior to the 20th century—part 1. Curr Stem Cell Rep. Treatment with platelet-rich plasma is more effective than placebo for knee osteoarthritis: Am J Sports Med. Autologous platelet-rich plasma mixed with purified fat graft in aesthetic plastic surgery.
The efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma and adipose-derived stem cells: Clinical application of adipose stem cells in plastic surgery. J Korean Med Sci. Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment.
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Physiological migration of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Cell intrinsic alterations underlie hematopoietic stem cell aging. Stems cells and the pathways to aging and cancer. The aging of hematopoietic stem cells. Effects of aging on the homing and engraftment of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
Localized Igf-1 transgene expression sustains hypertrophy and regeneration in senescent skeletal muscle. Increased Wnt signaling during aging alters muscle stem cell fate and increases fibrosis. The ageing systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function. Growth differentiation factor 11 is a circulating factor that reverses age-related cardiac hypertrophy. Vascular and neurogenic rejuvenation of the aging mouse brain by young systemic factors. Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle. Studies Conflict on Regenerative Molecule.
An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration. Mortality in syngeneic rat parabionts of different chronological age. Trans N Y Acad Sci. Overview of blood components and their preparation. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.