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Canadians are safer and more prosperous when more of the world shares our values. It is important—and historic—that we have a prime minister and a government proud to proclaim themselves as feminists. This includes sexual and reproductive rights—and the right to access safe and legal abortions. These rights are at the core of our foreign policy. We are positioning Canada at the forefront of this global effort. This is a matter of basic justice and also basic economics. We know that empowering women, overseas and here at home, makes families and countries more prosperous.

Now is the time to rise to the great challenges of this century. To achieve this, we must address inequality. Specifically, we need to make sure that women and girls are empowered to reach their full potential so they can earn their own livelihoods, which will benefit families as well as the economic growth of their communities and countries. This policy responds to the recommendations made by stakeholders and reflects Canadian values.

It defines an approach based on human rights, one that takes into account all forms of discrimination based on sex, race, ethnicity, place of birth, colour, religion, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, ability or migrant or refugee status. It supports the Sustainable Development Goals, which aim to eradicate poverty by , and it is also aligned with the Paris Agreement on climate change, which seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment.

I want to highlight three issues that particularly captured my attention during the consultations. Canada firmly believes that promoting gender equality and empowering women and girls is the most effective approach to achieving this goal.

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As a result of this new policy we will focus on gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls in a manner that is both targeted and crosscutting. A targeted approach to gender equality allows us to focus on initiatives that fight poverty and inequality by supporting gender equality and defending the rights of women and girls, particularly their sexual health and reproductive rights. Going forward, these initiatives will receive special, focused attention.

A crosscutting approach to gender equality means that all of our international assistance initiatives, across all action areas, should be developed and implemented in ways that improve gender equality and empower women and girls. This approach also means that all our implementing partners must consult with women and involve them in needs assessments, decision making and planning of initiatives, as well as in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of projects.

Canada has adopted a feminist approach because we firmly believe that women and girls have the ability to achieve real change in terms of sustainable development and peace, even though they are often the most vulnerable to poverty, violence and climate change. The core action area for the new policy—which will be integrated across all areas—is:.


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In terms of its geographical distribution, Canada will no longer limit its international assistance strictly to a list of countries of focus, nor will it disperse its efforts in all directions. We will address conflicts and climate change in fragile states and contexts, while continuing to foster economic development and growth that works for everyone in the poorest countries and supporting middle-income countries that face particular challenges, notably with respect to governance.

For our assistance to have the greatest possible impact on the ground, we must be determined, but also creative, flexible and rigorous in our approach. We must be innovative and foster innovation in how we work—through our funding mechanisms and by forming new partnerships. We will make sound decisions based on evidence and closely track our progress, but in a manner adapted to the needs of different stakeholders in different contexts.

Today, Canada has the capacity to play a leading international role and will take the opportunity to implement its new vision for international assistance in support of the Agenda for Sustainable Development. I will speak up for the poorest and most vulnerable, especially women and girls, and they can count on the commitment and expertise of our team in Canada and in our missions around the world, as well as the support of our many Canadian partners, with whom we are strengthening our collaboration.

As we implement this new policy, I will continue to engage with Canadians and our stakeholders, because the launch of this policy is not the end of the process but rather a first step in a longer journey to achieving the best international assistance results. We commit to all of this because international solidarity is a shared Canadian value. Together with our international partners and allies, we have a collective responsibility to safeguard and promote global health and security, education, environmental protection and growth that works for everyone—and we will do so with conviction and pride.

The last three decades have seen dramatic reductions in global poverty, but not everyone has benefited equally. By eliminating barriers to equality and helping to create better opportunities, women and girls can be powerful agents of change and improve their own lives and those of their families, communities and countries. This is a powerful way to reduce poverty for everyone. Canada is part of a global community.

This is why we invest in international assistance: But it also works across other action areas that reflect the multi-dimensional nature of poverty, in support of the Sustainable Development Goals. Working in this way leads to better development results and benefits everyone, including men and boys.

This will help women and girls achieve more equitable access to and control over the resources they need to secure ongoing economic and social equality. Committing to a feminist approach to international assistance represents a significant shift in how we work. A feminist approach is much more than focusing on women and girls; rather, it is the most effective way to address the root causes of poverty.

Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women and Girls will be our core area of work. We also believe that gender equality can be advanced throughout our work by integrating this analysis across the other areas of action. A feminist approach does not limit the focus of our efforts to women and girls; rather, it is the most effective way to fight the root causes of poverty that can affect everyone: This will help women and girls achieve the economic independence they need to take control of their lives.

We will also encourage greater political participation by women and girls. We are also committed to improving the effectiveness of our international assistance, providing more integrated and responsive support, investing more in innovation and research, and becoming more transparent in our results and activities. And we will use our assistance to mobilize additional resources for sustainable development, including through building new multi-stakeholder partnerships. Over the past three decades, the world has made impressive gains in reducing poverty. At the same time, millions continue to struggle in the face of persistent poverty and inequality, exacerbated by violent conflict and the effects of climate change.

Women and girls—whose voices and interests are too often ignored—are particularly at risk. The good news is that when women and girls are given equal opportunities to succeed, they can be powerful agents of change—driving stronger economic growth, encouraging greater peace and cooperation, and improving the quality of life for their families and their communities.

Investing in women and girls is the right thing to do and the smart way to reduce poverty and inequality. For these reasons, Canada is committed to a new approach to international assistance: As powerful agents of change, women and girls have the ability to transform their households, their societies and their economies.

Increasing gender equality can:. Evidence shows that women tend to spend more of their incomes in ways that directly benefit their children, improving nutrition, health and educational opportunities for the next generation. Women and girls are not the only groups that face discrimination and inequality. By empowering women and girls as a means to achieve gender equality, we send the clear message that equality is for everyone. The potential of women and girls to help build a better world cannot be ignored—but neither can the harsh realities facing vulnerable populations.

Instability can lead to poverty. Poverty persists even in the absence of conflict. Footnote 9 The majority live in rural areas, have low levels of education and work in the agricultural sector. Women and girls face many gender-specific challenges that limit the economic and social opportunities available to them.

Diminished access to the resources and opportunities they need to survive and thrive. In many societies, women and girls often eat last—and least. They have more limited access to essential services such as education and health care, and fewer opportunities to work or earn a good wage. More family responsibilities and fewer opportunities. Footnote 11 Women with jobs typically work a greater number of hours in total than do men because of the double burden they face of paid work and unpaid domestic responsibilities.

Women who are less able to undertake paid economic activities are pushed further into poverty. Limited control over their own bodies and reproductive choices. Footnote 14 For girls in developing countries, this makes it harder to stay in school and harder to work—perpetuating the cycle of intergenerational poverty. A recent study in Nigeria estimated that the gender gap in education could be cut in half if child marriage and early pregnancies were eliminated.

The ongoing threat of sexual and gender-based violence. Limited access to the tools they need to be financially independent. Despite this strong contribution to local economies, women continue to have less access to resources and financial services than men. Legal barriers to work and other limits on economic freedom.

Women are legally discriminated against in more than countries around the world. Footnote 18 This includes countries in which women are prevented from pursuing careers because of their gender. Footnote 19 In some countries, women also face restrictions when it comes to registering a business, inheriting property and owning land. Nearly one third of developing countries do not guarantee the same inheritance rights for women as they do for men.

Fewer opportunities to attend school. Educated women and girls tend to marry later, have fewer children, and provide better health and nutrition for their families. Footnote 20 Evidence shows that when women and girls are educated and have control over their sexual and reproductive choices, maternal and child mortality rates decrease and families thrive. Unequal participation in governmental decision making.

In most countries, it is governments that shape the development process. To ensure that women and girls have equal rights and the ability to take equal advantage of economic opportunities, governments must include gender analysis in planning, budgeting and policy-making and ensure women and girls have equitable access to essential services such as health, education and justice.

In , world leaders agreed on the Agenda for Sustainable Development—a global action plan to eradicate poverty and build peace around the world. We believe that the best way to eradicate poverty and leave no one behind is through a feminist international assistance policy. We are committed to helping achieve the SDGs in Canada and in developing countries.

We believe that empowering women and girls is the best way to achieve positive economic and social outcomes. We believe that the inherent human dignity of all people should be respected and that everyone should have equal access to health care, proper nutrition, education and humanitarian assistance, irrespective of their gender. We believe in economic growth that benefits everyone—and believe that when women and girls are given equal opportunities to succeed, they can transform their local economies and generate growth that benefits their entire communities and countries.

We believe that women and girls are disproportionately at risk from the effects of climate change and need better support to mitigate and adapt to changes that threaten their health and economic well-being. We also believe in governance that effectively serves and includes all citizens, irrespective of gender or any other facet of personal identity. Finally, we believe that women and girls have a vital role to play in establishing and maintaining peace in their communities—a necessary precondition for stronger economic growth. A feminist approach to international assistance will help build a more peaceful, more inclusive and more prosperous world—a world where gender equality is achieved and women and girls are fully empowered.

A feminist approach to international assistance places gender equality at the centre of poverty eradication and peacebuilding efforts by challenging the discrimination faced by women and girls around the world and by recognizing that inequalities exist along intersectional lines.

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Our feminist approach is based on the conviction that all people should enjoy the same fundamental human rights and be given the same opportunities to succeed. A feminist approach to international assistance recognizes that the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls require the transformation of social norms and power relations. This objective is also essential for the achievement of all other development priorities. For decades, women around the world have led the struggle for gender equality.

Gender equality cannot be achieved by women and girls in isolation. Men and boys must also challenge the traditions and customs that support and maintain gender inequalities. Because social norms and gender stereotypes also limit men and boys in their societal and family roles, it is important that men and boys be engaged in the fight for greater gender equality, be given opportunities to advocate for equality, and be encouraged to lead by example in respecting and promoting the interests of women and girls.

It is particularly important to transform the attitudes of adolescent boys, as gender constructs are shaped during adolescence. Engaging with adolescent boys provides the best opportunity to promote positive gender norms and prevent the perpetuation of negative stereotypes throughout their lives. Human rights-based and inclusive. All people must enjoy the same fundamental human rights, regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, ability or any other aspect of identity. Assistance will be directed toward those initiatives that best support the empowerment of women and girls and have the greatest potential to reduce gender inequalities.

Unequal power relations and systemic discrimination, as well as harmful norms and practices, will be challenged, and a broad range of stakeholders—including men and boys—will be engaged. Our assistance will be informed by gender-based analysis and will rely on clear accountabilities for planning, achieving, tracking and reporting on gender equality results. Committing to a feminist approach to international assistance represents a significant shift in what we do and how we do it.

Our approach focuses on the goal of poverty eradication and on the empowerment of women and girls and promotion of gender equality as the most effective approach to achieving this goal. To most effectively champion gender equality and the global empowerment of women and girls, Canada will advocate for and support initiatives that:.

The new action areas demonstrate a shift toward a focus on the poorest and most vulnerable, and reflect areas in which we can have the greatest impact. An integrated approach across these six areas will allow us to deliver a transformational change to those most in need. Within each action area Canada recognizes the importance of gender equality and the role that empowered women and girls can play in building a better future for themselves and for their entire communities. Broader approaches are needed because preventing sexual and gender-based violence, supporting survivors and bringing perpetrators to justice involves a wide range of sectors, including health care, justice and policing, education, social protection, and economic development.

For example, when women are more financially secure, they are better able to leave violent relationships. It is essential that men and boys be engaged in this effort. To that end, Canada will—among other interventions—support the development of gender-responsive curricula in schools, work to address and transform harmful behaviours that can have negative consequences for all genders such as sexual risk-taking, substance abuse and violence and implement programming to better support fathers so that they gain the skills and confidence needed to care for their children—boys and girls—on an equal basis with their partners.

Canada will also raise the importance of these issues through diplomatic channels and advocacy efforts. These groups lead the way when it comes to pushing for gender equality but often lack the resources needed to provide the help women and girls need. Canada will support these organizations and movements, building their capacity so that they can better advocate for changes in policies, legislation and services and so that they can more effectively challenge harmful and discriminatory social beliefs and practices.

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Governments have an important role to play in ensuring that women and girls have equal rights and opportunities to participate in the sustainable development of their societies. Canada will work with the governments of developing countries to improve their ability to deliver programs that support gender equality at all levels of government and in all sectors. This will be accomplished, for example, through programming and technical assistance. For the work of civil society, governments and donors to be most effective, it must rely on evidence and learning. Canada will strengthen the evidence base by investing in policy research, better data collection and evaluation for gender equality.

In , Afghanistan enacted historic legislation on eliminating violence against women. But criminalizing violence is not enough to eliminate it. An estimated 87 percent of Afghan women will be assaulted in their lifetimes. Domestic and sexual violence are still widespread, as is child, early and forced marriage. Sexual harassment remains common in public places, workplaces and schools.

Cases are rarely reported to authorities. Canada wants to help Afghan women assert their rights in these situations. Together with the government and civil society, we are working to ensure they receive equal treatment from public institutions, including the justice system. We are working to raise awareness of the new law among stakeholders in the system. In addition to the many other difficulties they face, Afghan women who want to leave abusive relationships are often ostracized by their families and must become financially independent.

Canada is helping these women gain job skills, particularly in agriculture and entrepreneurship. Information sessions are offered to religious and community leaders to raise their awareness of the risks entailed by child, early and forced marriage. More and more Afghans recognize that violence-free families are healthier, better educated and more prosperous. With the support of society as a whole, women and girls will be empowered for the good of all.

Canada upholds human dignity in regions of the world where the poorest and most vulnerable populations have little or no access to essential services and where some populations have to deal with the devastating impact of armed conflict or natural catastrophe. Development initiatives and emergency humanitarian assistance provide health care, including sexual and reproductive care, as well as drinking water, nutritious food and quality education. Significant progress has been made in increasing life expectancy and in reducing infant and child mortality rates and the number of malnourished children in developing countries.

Footnote 22 The incidence of many infectious diseases has declined, thanks to better sanitation, better nutrition, drugs and vaccines. Not all parts of the world have witnessed this progress, however. In many countries, a mix of discriminatory laws and policies, coupled with inadequate services and harmful cultural practices, limits the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women and girls.

Adolescent girls are particularly at risk for poor health when they are going through puberty and start menstruating. Many have an inadequate understanding of their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and many face sexual and gender-based violence. Early pregnancy and motherhood present additional risks: Footnote 24 Exposure to sexually transmitted infections is another cause for concern. HIV is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age in lower- and middle-income countries.

Moreover, women living with HIV are four to five times more likely to develop cervical cancer.

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Gender inequality greatly influences survival rates, since women who do not have equal access to health care have a percent greater risk of dying from cervical cancer. Women are more prone to nutritional deficiencies, especially when they are pregnant, breastfeeding or experiencing their adolescent growth spurt. Footnote 25 Gender-based discrimination in some societies means that women and girls eat least and eat last.

As a result, they are twice as likely to suffer malnutrition as men and boys. Footnote 27 Children in sub-Saharan Africa are 14 times more likely to die before they reach the age of five than are children in developed countries. Footnote 28 Poor nutrition among pregnant women accounts for , newborn deaths annually. A plan to reduce the mortality of women and children must also include investments that support sexual and reproductive health and rights for women and girls. Over the next three years, initiatives such as Family Planning and the Ouagadougou Partnership will make it possible for million more women and girls in West and Central Africa to use family planning.

These include initiatives that help fight infectious diseases through equity-based approaches and a focus on diseases, such as HIV, that particularly affect women and girls, that empower community health care workers most of whom are women and that address the ongoing challenge of sexual and gender-based violence. To reduce the prevalence of anemia among women and adolescent girls and improve birth outcomes, Canada will leverage its investments to increase the provision of micronutrient supplements, including iron and folic acid. Canada will use its participation in international working groups such as the Scaling Up Nutrition movement to advocate for the importance of more gender-responsive nutrition policies.

Today, the world is home to more young people between the ages of 10 and 24 1. Evidence shows that when girls are given early access to education and are supported in their studies, they are more likely to graduate, improving their future earning potential. Benefits for the communities in which they live are also undeniable: In short, educated girls are empowered girls.

And empowered girls and women are key to making greater gains in sustainable development. Low levels of education among girls and boys are also associated with limited access to sexual and reproductive health information. This means that less-educated girls and boys are more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and other reproductive health issues. Giving women and girls more opportunities to complete training and education makes it easier for them to find decent work and reach their full potential.

To support these efforts, Canada will also actively promote awareness of the benefits of education for women and girls at every opportunity and of the need for curricula free of gender stereotypes, including at international forums, bilateral talks and informal meetings. Canada will ensure that investments in education include provisions for separate and appropriate washroom facilities, as well as systems to help manage menstrual hygiene, and that support is given to programs that help prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence.


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  • To improve opportunities for these young people, Canada will support programs and partners that provide life skills, and technical and vocational education and training, with an emphasis on assisting women and marginalized youth find work, including in non-traditional and better-paying fields. While conflicts between states have declined dramatically in the past 50 years, conflicts within states—frequently involving non-state actors—are on the rise. Footnote 42 The result is human displacement In conflict-affected countries, protracted displacement has left millions of people with few opportunities, limited access to services and an uncertain future.

    The average length of time people are displaced is now close to 20 years, up from nine years in the s. Rapid forced displacement—which can also occur as a result of natural disasters—puts a tremendous strain on those communities and countries that receive displaced citizens. Five of the top 10 refugee-hosting countries are located in sub-Saharan Africa, where the capacity to provide adequate public goods and services is already limited. At the first World Humanitarian Summit in , the international community committed to a change in how humanitarian assistance is provided.

    For its part, Canada committed to providing more flexible and predictable funding in response to humanitarian crises, including the use of unearmarked and multi-year funding for longer-term crises. When humanitarian crises hit, women and girls shoulder a heavier burden of care for both families and the community at large. Women and girls are also at higher risk for abuse, exploitation and violence—including sexual violence—with little protection and limited legal recourse.

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    It is estimated that one in five refugees or displaced women have experienced sexual violence, and given the barriers to reporting, this figure is likely to be an underestimation. Women and girls have the potential to be powerful agents of change in crisis situations. They are often uniquely positioned to take on leadership roles, determine priorities and influence more effective humanitarian responses. When women and girls are included in the planning and implementation of humanitarian responses, it improves humanitarian outcomes overall.

    These efforts also prepare women to lead post-crisis recovery and reconstruction. With support from Canada, women in the community worked closely with male carpenters to prioritize assistance to women and vulnerable groups and to ensure that recipients of assistance were included in repair and reconstruction decision making.

    Local women reported feeling especially empowered by information they were given on how to make their homes safer in the future. Canada is recognized as a leader in providing humanitarian assistance to those affected by conflicts and by natural disasters and will continue to support timely humanitarian action, based on humanitarian principles and on needs, to save lives, alleviate suffering and support the dignity of those affected.

    Building on the existing global frameworks and guidelines for humanitarian action, Canada will require its humanitarian partners to invest in and report on gender data and analysis. This will make it possible to deliver more effective responses to humanitarian crises, while taking into account—and responding to—the unique needs of women and girls. Canada will dedicate a portion of its humanitarian assistance funding to providing counselling and psychosocial support to those in need.

    Canada will also increase its leadership in the Global Call to Action on Protection from Gender-based Violence in Emergencies, to take stronger measures to keep people safe and help survivors rebuild their lives. To ensure that the needs of women and girls are better understood and responded to, and that humanitarian assistance reaches those who need it most, Canada will strongly promote the use of gender- and age-disaggregated data by humanitarian partners.

    Canada will also continue to defend unfettered and safe access for humanitarian workers. This is important, as the needs of women and girls are often overlooked during humanitarian crises, putting women and adolescent girls at a greater risk of life-threatening complications. Local actors play a critical role in responding quickly to emergencies and in supporting the ongoing recovery of communities. The hostilities in Iraq have led to the forced displacement of more than 4. The conflict has been marked by serious violations of international humanitarian law, including sexual violence. Thousands of women and girls—particularly from the Yazidi minority—have been abducted and have suffered unimaginable horrors at the hands of Daesh.

    Those who escape must overcome serious injuries and trauma. At the centres, survivors of sexual violence receive emergency care from gynecologists and mental health specialists. They get clothing and hygiene items. They have access to reserved areas, where therapeutic activities help them overcome their physical and psychological wounds. Their children can play in safe areas. The workers at these centres also help the women reintegrate into their families and communities.

    Their return is difficult, especially when they are pregnant or are bringing with them children born during captivity. But with the cooperation of Yazidi religious authorities, who encourage people to accept them, many survivors have been reintegrated in their communities. Cases of serious sexual abuse, 90 percent of which have been committed against Yazidi women, are referred to a new, specialized centre in the city of Duhok. There, enhanced services are available, including psychiatric care and legal assistance.

    Canada supports women and girls to ensure they develop their skills, accede to decision-making positions and fully take part in the economic growth of their communities, including by supporting technical and vocational training and entrepreneurship. Canada also promotes social inclusion, labour rights, the right to own property and access to financing for women. Inclusive growth is growth that works for everyone SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth.

    It cannot be achieved without the full and equal participation of women as economic actors. This means giving women more opportunities to succeed and greater control over household resources and decision making, as well as reducing their heavy burden of unpaid work, including child care. Empowering women to be full participants in the economic lives of their families and communities can lead to broader economic growth and lasting change. Over the last 25 years, economic growth has helped lift more than 1 billion people in the developing world out of extreme poverty.

    When women are able to develop their full economic potential—whether as agricultural producers, employees, entrepreneurs or business leaders—economies thrive and the benefits of growth reach more people. At the household level, economically empowered women gain economic independence and raise healthier and better-educated children. Footnote 51 Compared to men, they spend a greater portion of their incomes on their families.

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    An important part of making sure that women and girls are able to take full advantage of economic opportunities involves giving them control over their own sexual and reproductive health choices so that they can decide if, when and with whom to start a family, or grow their families. For women to participate equally in contributing to economic growth, they must also have greater access to and control over assets such as land, housing and capital, as well as labour rights and social protections from precarious work situations.

    Footnote 53 Limited access to financial services—such as banking, credit and insurance—makes it difficult for poor households to recover from events such as a poor harvest or a health crisis. This limited access to vital financial services also results in lost economic opportunities, particularly for small and medium-sized enterprises owned by women. Finally, gender equality can deliver benefits for the private sector, which is responsible for creating nine out of 10 jobs in developing and emerging countries.

    Footnote 55 When businesses address implicit bias and unsafe working conditions, when they ensure equal pay and provide family-friendly policies and flexible work options for women employees and when they allow increased participation of women in business decision making, productivity improves.

    Businesses also benefit when they integrate women and woman-owned enterprises into their supply chains. More than one in three private-sector leaders report increased profits following efforts to empower women in emerging markets. Canada recognizes the importance of the full participation of women in economic decision making and is committed to helping improve opportunities for women. In addition, Canada will work to support greater financial inclusion, better access to good, well-paying work, and enhanced labour and property rights for women.

    Canada is also prepared to help local governments develop the policy reforms needed to address issues such as unpaid work and care. Growth that works for everyone is impossible to achieve when half the population is excluded from economic decision making. Including women in the economic decisions that shape their households and their communities empowers them, sets a positive example for girls and boys and delivers better results for families and communities.

    We will help them to scale up their business activities and expand their impact on local economies. Women face various forms of financial discrimination that limit their ability to take advantage of market opportunities—limitations that can be overcome with targeted initiatives that improve access to and awareness of these services. This includes promoting labour, land, inheritance and property rights for women by supporting the reform of restrictive laws and regulations. Many women and girls find themselves relegated to education streams that lead to low-growth, low-status and low-paying employment.

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    Canada will support training that opens up new opportunities, encourages greater entrepreneurship and gives women the financial literacy they need to succeed. Women and girls continue to perform the vast majority of care-related work, which can lead to lower incomes and limited economic opportunities.

    To address these challenges, Canada will support policy reforms, improved social protection and shared responsibility for domestic and care work. Building upon his analysis in the first volume of the series, Canada in Crisis: Battram goes beyond explaining what will unify the nation to provide a working roadmap that can help ensure its continued success. Battram identifies problems in all areas of governance, from the simple to the complex, and offers a range of solutions to these problems.

    He examines why law enforcement agencies and immigration policies are failing, and also explores issues of infrastructure, such as how the placement of electrical transmission grids affects different areas of Canada. Take a deep look into how to improve all areas of government, including economic policies, transportation systems, security of communications, security of energy and power, measures taken to combat extremism Join the author as he examines the many changes threatening Canada.

    Discover how the nation can defend itself, find solutions to its problems, and maintain its heritage, so that it can survive and thrive in Canada in Crisis: An Agenda for Survival of the Nation. Read on your iOS and Android devices Get more info. Capabilities Text to speech. About the author Robert A.