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The Last Supper is a late 15th-century mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci housed by the One story goes that a prior from the monastery complained to Leonardo about In common with other depictions of the Last Supper from this period.
Table of contents
- Other Teachings at the Last Supper
- Navigation menu
- Mark 14:12-25
- The Last Supper
- 15 Things You Should Know About 'The Last Supper' | Mental Floss
What is the Passover? These are actually the same things. The Jews celebrated the Passover ever since the time of Moses, when the Lord saved all the Israelite babies. This was when the Lord 'passed over' their houses, and they were kept safe. This is another big story your teacher will have to tell you another time. During the time of the Passover celebrations, the people didn't eat or have any bread in their homes with yeast in it.
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Yeast is what makes the bread all big and puffy. Without yeast, the bread is flat and that is called unleavened bread. Now back to the story. The evening came, and Jesus and the twelve disciples sat to eat the meal. The disciples were eating quietly because they had a lot on their minds. Some people wanted to kill Jesus since he was getting so popular. Jesus could see the disciples were worried. He said to them quietly, "I tell you the truth, one of you here will betray me.
The disciples looked at each other in shock, and some of them asked Jesus, "It isn't me, is it Lord? Jesus replied, "The one who dips his bread into the bowl with me will betray me. I will die, just as it is written, but the man who betrays me will feel sorry forever. Judas' head went down even lower; he had hoped that the other disciples had not heard what Jesus said.
Other Teachings at the Last Supper
Luckily, they were paying more attention to Jesus breaking apart some bread. He thanked God for the bread and shared it with the disciples and said, "Take this and eat it.
This is my body which is given for you". Then He took a full cup, thanked God for it and said, "This is my blood, which will be poured out for many people so their sins may be forgiven. The meal continued after this; it was a long celebration. The disciples took their time because they enjoyed talking with Jesus and asking Him questions. The Last Supper Italian: It is one of the world's most recognizable paintings.
The work is presumed to have been started around —96 and was commissioned as part of a plan of renovations to the church and its convent buildings by Leonardo's patron Ludovico Sforza , Duke of Milan. The painting represents the scene of the Last Supper of Jesus with his apostles, as it is told in the Gospel of John , Due to the methods used, a variety of environmental factors, and intentional damage, very little of the original painting remains today despite numerous restoration attempts, the last being completed in The theme was a traditional one for refectories , although the room was not a refectory at the time that Leonardo painted it.
The main church building had only recently been completed in , but was remodeled by Bramante , hired by Ludovico Sforza to build a Sforza family mausoleum. The painting was commissioned by Sforza to be the centerpiece of the mausoleum. The opposite wall of the refectory is covered by the Crucifixion fresco by Giovanni Donato da Montorfano , to which Leonardo added figures of the Sforza family in tempera. These figures have deteriorated in much the same way as has The Last Supper. Leonardo began work on The Last Supper in and completed it in —he did not work on the painting continuously.
The beginning date is not certain, as the archives of the convent for the period have been destroyed, and a document dated indicates that the painting was nearly completed at that date. One story goes that a prior from the monastery complained to Leonardo about the delay, enraging him. He wrote to the head of the monastery, explaining he had been struggling to find the perfect villainous face for Judas, and that if he could not find a face corresponding with what he had in mind, he would use the features of the prior who complained.
The Last Supper specifically portrays the reaction given by each apostle when Jesus said one of them would betray him. All twelve apostles have different reactions to the news, with various degrees of anger and shock. The apostles are identified from a manuscript  The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci p. Before this, only Judas, Peter, John and Jesus were positively identified. From left to right, according to the apostles' heads:. Judas is wearing green and blue and is in shadow, looking rather withdrawn and taken aback by the sudden revelation of his plan.
He is clutching a small bag, perhaps signifying the silver given to him as payment to betray Jesus, or perhaps a reference to his role within the 12 disciples as treasurer. This may be related to the near-Eastern expression to "betray the salt" meaning to betray one's Master.
He is the only person to have his elbow on the table and his head is also horizontally the lowest of anyone in the painting. Peter looks angry and is holding a knife pointed away from Christ, perhaps foreshadowing his violent reaction in Gethsemane during Jesus' arrest. Thomas is clearly upset; the raised index finger foreshadows his incredulity of the Resurrection. James the Greater looks stunned, with his arms in the air. Meanwhile, Philip appears to be requesting some explanation. Both Jude Thaddeus and Matthew are turned toward Simon, perhaps to find out if he has any answer to their initial questions.
In common with other depictions of the Last Supper from this period, Leonardo seats the diners on one side of the table, so that none of them has his back to the viewer. Most previous depictions excluded Judas by placing him alone on the opposite side of the table from the other eleven disciples and Jesus, or placing halos around all the disciples except Judas. Leonardo instead has Judas lean back into shadow. Jesus is predicting that his betrayer will take the bread at the same time he does to Saints Thomas and James to his left, who react in horror as Jesus points with his left hand to a piece of bread before them.
Distracted by the conversation between John and Peter, Judas reaches for a different piece of bread not noticing Jesus too stretching out with his right hand towards it Matthew The angles and lighting draw attention to Jesus, whose turned right cheek is located at the vanishing point for all perspective lines; his hands are located at the golden ratio of half the height of the composition. The painting contains several references to the number 3, which represents the Christian belief in the Holy Trinity.
The Apostles are seated in groupings of three; there are three windows behind Jesus; and the shape of Jesus' figure resembles a triangle. The painting can also be interpreted using the Fibonacci series: Two early copies of The Last Supper are known to exist, presumed to be work by Leonardo's assistants. The copies are almost the size of the original, and have survived with a wealth of original detail still intact. Ambrogio in Ponte Capriasca , Switzerland.
The Last Supper
A third copy oil on canvas is painted by Andrea Solari c. For this work, Leonardo sought a greater detail and luminosity than could be achieved with traditional fresco. Because a fresco cannot be modified as the artist works, Leonardo instead chose to seal the stone wall with a double layer of dried plaster. This was a method that had been described previously, by Cennino Cennini in the 14th century. However, Cennini had recommended the use of secco for the final touches alone.
Because the painting was on a thin exterior wall, the effects of humidity were felt more keenly, and the paint failed to properly adhere to the wall. Because of the method used, soon after the painting was completed on February 9, it began to deteriorate. By the second half of the sixteenth century Gian Paolo Lomazzo stated that "the painting is all ruined". It is believed, through early copies, that Jesus' feet were in a position symbolizing the forthcoming crucifixion.
In , a curtain was hung over the painting for the purpose of protection; it instead trapped moisture on the surface, and whenever the curtain was pulled back, it scratched the flaking paint. A first restoration was attempted in by Michelangelo Bellotti, who filled in missing sections with oil paint then varnished the whole mural. This repair did not last well and another restoration was attempted in by an otherwise unknown artist named Giuseppe Mazza.
Mazza stripped off Bellotti's work then largely repainted the painting; he had redone all but three faces when he was halted due to public outrage. In , French revolutionary anti-clerical troops used the refectory as an armory ; they threw stones at the painting and climbed ladders to scratch out the Apostles' eyes. The refectory was then later used as a prison; it is not known if any of the prisoners may have damaged the painting.
In , Stefano Barezzi, an expert in removing whole frescoes from their walls intact, was called in to remove the painting to a safer location; he badly damaged the center section before realizing that Leonardo's work was not a fresco.
15 Things You Should Know About 'The Last Supper' | Mental Floss
Barezzi then attempted to reattach damaged sections with glue. From to , Luigi Cavenaghi first completed a careful study of the structure of the painting, then began cleaning it. In , Oreste Silvestri did further cleaning, and stabilised some parts with stucco.
During World War II , on August 15, , the refectory was struck by Allied bombing; protective sandbagging prevented the painting from being struck by bomb splinters, but it may have been damaged further by the vibration. From to , another clean-and-stabilise restoration was undertaken by Mauro Pelliccioli. The painting's appearance by the late s had become badly deteriorated. From to , Pinin Brambilla Barcilon guided a major restoration project which undertook to stabilize the painting, and reverse the damage caused by dirt and pollution.
The 18th- and 19th-century restoration attempts were also reverted. Since it had proved impractical to move the painting to a more controlled environment, the refectory was instead converted to a sealed, climate-controlled environment, which meant bricking up the windows. Then, detailed study was undertaken to determine the painting's original form, using scientific tests especially infrared reflectoscopy and microscopic core-samples , and original cartoons preserved in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle. Some areas were deemed unrestorable. These were re-painted using watercolor in subdued colors intended to indicate they were not original work, while not being too distracting.
This restoration took 21 years and, on 28 May , the painting was returned to display. Intending visitors were required to book ahead and could only stay for 15 minutes. When it was unveiled, considerable controversy was aroused by the dramatic changes in colors, tones, and even some facial shapes. James Beck , professor of art history at Columbia University and founder of ArtWatch International , had been a particularly strong critic.
He has been critical of Christ's right arm in the image which has been altered from a draped sleeve to what Daley calls "muff-like drapery". The Last Supper has frequently been referenced, reproduced, or parodied in Western culture.