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Table of contents
- ICT in Education/The Uses of ICTs in Education
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- The role of technology and ICT in Primary and Secondary education | Education Business
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In open and distance learning, teleconferencing is a useful tool for providing direct instruction and learner support, minimizing learner isolation. For instance, an audiographic teleconferencing network between Tianjin Medical University in China and four outlying Tianjin municipalities was piloted in as part of a multi-year collaboration between Tianjin Medical University and the University of Ottawa School of Nursing funded by the Canadian International Development Agency.
The audio-graphic teleconferencing network aims to provide continuing education and academic upgrading to nurses in parts of Tianjin municipality where access to nursing education has been extremely limited. There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and the Internet, namely:.
ICT in Education/The Uses of ICTs in Education
Learning about computers and the Internet focuses on developing technological literacy. Learning with the technology means focusing on how the technology can be the means to learning ends across the curriculum. Technological literacy is required for learning with technologies to be possible, implying a two-step process in which students learn about the technologies before they can actually use them to learn.
However, there have been attempts to integrate the two approaches. Learning through computers and the Internet combines learning about them with learning with them. For example, secondary school students who must present a report on the impact on their community of an increase in the price of oil for an Economics class may start doing research online, using spreadsheet and database programs to help organize and analyze the data they have collected, as well using word processing application to prepare their written report.
The Virtual University of the Monterrey Institute of Technology in Mexico uses a combination of print, live and recorded broadcasts, and the Internet to deliver courses to students throughout Mexico and in several Latin American countries. Similarly, the African Virtual University, initiated in with funding support from the World Bank, uses satellite and Internet technologies to provide distance learning opportunities to individuals in various English-speaking and French-speaking countries throughout Africa.
But even in Korea, where infrastructure is among the best in the world, and government has put considerable financial and other resources behind an ambitious ICT-based re-tooling of its educational system, challenges to online education persist. Internet- and Web-based initiatives have also been developed at the secondary education level. The Virtual High School is a result of efforts of a nationwide consortium of school districts in the United States to promote the development and sharing of Web-based courses.
In Canada, Open School offers a wide range of courses and resources to grades K teachers and students that meet the requirements of the British Columbia curriculum. Course delivery is done through a mix of broadcast and video, while some courses are delivered totally online. The biggest movers in e-learning, however, are not found within academe but in the private sector. John Chambers, CEO of Cisco, famously predicted that e-learning would be the next big killer application, and corporations are moving aggressively to fulfill this prediction.
Corporate universities are primarily in-house organizations in large multinational companies that make use of videoconferencing and the Internet for employee training. Online learning involving students logging in to formal courses online is perhaps the most commonly thought of application of the Internet in education. However, it is by no means the only application.
Web-based collaboration tools, such as email, listservs, message boards, real-time chat, and Web-based conferencing, connect learners to other learners, teachers, educators, scholars and researchers, scientists and artists, industry leaders and politicians—in short, to any individual with access to the Internet who can enrich the learning process. The organized use of Web resources and collaboration tools for curriculum appropriate purposes is called telecollaboration. Much educational telecollaboration is curriculum-based, teacher-designed, and teacher-coordinated.
Most use e-mail to help participants communicate with each other. Many telecollaborative activities and projects have Web sites to support them. There are currently hundreds of telecollaborative projects being implemented worldwide and many more that have either been completed or are in development. The Voices of Youth website also provides background information on the different discussion topics as well as resource materials to help teachers integrate the Voice of Youth discussions in their other classroom activities.
The role of technology and ICT in Primary and Secondary education | Education Business
The International Telementor Program ITP [ 43 ] links students with mentor-experts through email and discussion forums. Founded in with support from Hewlett Packard, ITP provides project-based online mentoring support to 5th to 12th grade and university students, especially from at-risk communities. The ITP telementor typically meets online with the student at least once every two weeks to answer questions, discuss key issues, recommend useful resources, and comment on student output.
Government-sponsored programme launched in that links primary and secondary students and teachers from over 10, schools in more than 95 countries to the scientific research community. GLOBE gives students the opportunity to collaborate with scientists in conducting earth science research. Participating students periodically take measurements of the atmosphere, water, soils, and land cover at or near their schools, following strict protocols designed by GLOBE scientists.
They then enter this data to a central Web-based database. The database may be accessed by scientists, researchers and the general public. Just as devices are now ubiquitous, with the connectivity they offer, so too is access to knowledge. It is now commonplace to use technology socially to communicate, collaborate, elicit and offer opinion, share ideas and to use Web 2. These are the skills our young people are developing, and according to Microsoft research presented at Bett , these are the very same skills that employers are seeking from potential employees.
This must surely be the context in which education operates?
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Many schools understand this and exploit technology effectively and in context, but many are still attempting to deliver success in the context of education structured in a bygone age. What should we be endeavouring to deliver in the 21st century?
We can now assume that via technology, much of knowledge is free and readily available. These are all skills that are associated with proactive development and change and have clear links with how business and society have developed in recent years with ICT embedded throughout their operations. The importance of ICT to education as a sector is far greater than the consideration of ICT as a discrete knowledge based subject, and it should be seen as such. How are schools embracing technology into their activities? Naace sees two types of school — those where technology is thoroughly embedded, and those where technology is available, but for various reasons is not being exploited fully.
Schools that demonstrate effective and embedded use of ICT do transcend the knowledge based learning agenda. When staff and pupils are confident with skills and use, the ICT becomes much less important; it unobtrusively delivers effectiveness and efficiency so that for example, in teaching English the focus becomes the quality of creative writing, rather than the ability to word process. Schools have said that the use of good online teaching and revision resources can lift grades, for example in Mathematics by 0. Schools that are confident with technology are moving away from knowledge based curricula.
This is key to delivering what society and business want to see from our education system in the 21st century. It is not about excessive concentration on ICT skills per se, but allowing those skills to support the delivery of a much wider and more relevant curriculum. Those who already had a culture of supporting students with anywhere, anytime learning kept students and parents fully informed of school closures or openings, and could operate almost as normal with learning materials and activities available from anywhere, ongoing student teacher communications and on-line submission of completed work.
How common is it now for people in business to be able to continue with their mental, creative and communication related aspects of their business activities from home or elsewhere? How many schools do we know that simply closed when the snow came? All schools should now have access to a learning platform and the functionality associated with it, and with the success of the Home Access project many more students have access to the internet, thus enabling greater levels of remote learning to take place.
Let us not forget that in this connected world we must do everything we can to ensure the safety of all learners. E-safety and Internet Literacy are essential subjects that we as a society ignore at our peril. What does the future hold? In terms of technology we are starting to see individuals using multiple devices in a variety of ways.
The days of the ICT suite are starting to look numbered, other than perhaps for basic skills training and use in assessment. The technology is needed when and where the learning process takes place. Devices will become cheaper.
Applications will also become free or, because of higher volumes, will be available at lower cost. All this relies heavily on suitable infrastructure being available, but as we move to Digital TV, relatively high digital capacity will be available from the bandwidth released by analogue transmissions. By this we mean the online connectivity of systems, machines and sensors. Empowering our educators and encouraging co-operation and collaboration across agencies should be fundamental.
The technology exists to allow safe and secure sharing of information at local level and across agencies without the need to structure national sized data repositories. Information can be shared by local professionals and their clients with integrity and information security devolved to the professionals. Students are engaging with new technology and the tools technology offers. They are forging their own relationships outside of the school environment — something educators should not ignore.