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In the simulation shown in Supporting Information—Fig. The effect of maximum daily temperature T max and minimum daily temperature T min ; which occurs during the night on the performance of wheat and rice in the field has been examined using data across multiple environments. Such studies have revealed greater and more frequent negative impacts of warming during the night than warming during the day Peng et al. Our findings offer a potential explanation for these differential effects of day and night temperature on crop productivity in the field.

While temperature changes in the non-stressing range can perturb photosynthesis and respiration in the short-term, the rates of these two processes can eventually recover completely, due to acclimation Atkin et al. Acclimation might make net CO 2 assimilation insensitive to any long-term temperature change Atkin et al. By contrast, development rate was found to be stably dependent on temperature, and did not acclimate Parent and Tardieu Therefore, it is possible that long term responses of biomass accumulation to rising temperature, such as those experienced across the seasons, may only depend on the temperature responses of development, resulting in a greater reduction in biomass mass per unit of development than is predicted from the presented model.

The model may apply better to day to day fluctuations, such as brief heat waves of several days duration, which commonly occur in the southern Australian wheat belt during the flowering and grain filling period and correlate with significant grain yield losses Wardlaw and Wrigley The temperature response of CO 2 assimilation per unit of plant development can present a large diversity.

Firstly, there is a large diversity between plant species for the temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration rates Loveys et al. In addition, there is a large genetic variability for development rate per se Borras-Gelonch et al. The temperature response of development, while highly conserved in each species presented also a large variability between species Parent and Tardieu It follows that the overall response of the net assimilation per unit of plant development could present a large diversity between genotypes or species.

Grain biomass and yield in a broad sense do not depend only on the total assimilated carbon. A large genetic variability can be found in the ability of plants to mobilize and allocate carbon to the grains Reynolds et al. It probably explains why the model over-estimated the effects of temperature on grain size in Fig. These processes have their own response to temperature Poorter et al. In wheat, improving photosynthesis efficiency and partitioning to the grain are the central targets of the International Wheat Consortium IWC, Reynolds et al.

The presented model was intentionally simple, used only to test the presented hypothesis, that the discrepancy between CO 2 assimilation and development responses were responsible for the response of biomass accumulation in tissues. However, the diversity of underlying physiological processes presented above would result in a wide diversity of carbon assimilation per unit of plant development.

Experimenters need to be aware of these factors, and this model should be built on or adjusted to account for them, to suit any particular experimental system. Models based on data collected under controlled conditions were developed to predict net CO 2 assimilation rate per unit of plant development under various temperature scenarios.

This unit for expressing biomass accumulation rate i summarized the effect of the temperature responses of development, respiration and photosynthesis, ii provided a means of comparing rates of biomass accumulation obtained under different growth conditions, independent of the effects of temperature on development, and iii represents a potential approach for quantifying irreversible versus reversible responses that may occur in the extremely high temperature range. The model is likely to require modification under certain circumstances, e.

Iman Lohraseb carried out most experiments; Nicholas C. Collins contributed to interpretation of the data and preparation of the manuscript; Boris Parent performed most analyses and prepared the manuscript. The authors thank Dr. Everard Edwards for precious advice on gas exchange measurements, and Dr. Pierre Martre and Dr. Denis Vile for useful comments on the manuscript.

Simulation of the effect of night temperature on time courses of grain dry weight. Fitting procedures and parameters obtained for leaf senescence or growth of individual grain weight. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation.

Contributions by the Authors. Conflict of Interest Statement.

Introduction

Diverging temperature responses of CO 2 assimilation and plant development explain the overall effect of temperature on biomass accumulation in wheat leaves and grains Iman Lohraseb. Place Viala, F Montpellier, France. Abstract There is a growing consensus in the literature that rising temperatures influence the rates of biomass accumulation by shortening the development of plant organs and the whole plant and by altering the rates of respiration and photosynthesis. Biomass , development , grain growth , photosynthesis , respiration , specific leaf area , temperature , thermal time , wheat.

Temperature responses were described by the equation of Johnson et al. Curves of biomass accumulation in the grain can be described with a 3 parameter logistic equation Morita et al. The grain growth rate GGR t , was obtained by derivation of Eq. The grain growth rate is maximal GGR max at the inflection point, namely t 0. The equation of Johnson et al. The temperature response curves of net day photosynthesis P N and dark respiration R were also both adequately described by this equation Fig.

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View large Download slide. Overall, these thermal treatments resulted in contrasting CO 2 assimilation rates per unit of developmental time Fig. Plants at anthesis were introduced to several temperature scenarios, and then leaf senescence and biomass accumulation in the grain were measured over time Fig. Chlorophyll content in the three last developed leaves, defined in SPAD units, was at first stable, and then decreased linearly.

Fitting a bilinear model enabled the calculation of the time at which the chlorophyll level started to decrease t s. This parameter was closely correlated with the average daily temperatures from When time and model parameters were expressed in developmental time units Fig.

GGR max varied between thermal treatments, especially where day temperature differed Figs 4c and 5a. Because temperature accelerated leaf senescence and progress towards grain maturity similarly, effects of temperature on rates of grain dry weight accumulation could not be attributed to one or the other of these factors. High thermal acclimation potential of both photosynthesis and respiration in two lowland Plantago species in contrast to an alpine congeneric.

Respiration as a percentage of daily photosynthesis in whole plants is homeostatic at moderate, but not high, growth temperatures. Thermal acclimation and the dynamic response of plant respiration to temperature. Genetic control of pre-heading phases and other traits related to development in a double-haploid barley Hordeum vulgare L. Acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration is asynchronous in response to changes in temperature regardless of plant functional group.

Interception of photosynthetically active radiation and radiation-use efficiency of wheat, field pea and mustard in a semi-arid environment. Effects of increased day and night temperature with supplemental infrared heating on winter wheat growth in North China. Differential physiological responses of different rice Oryza sativa cultivars to elevated night temperature during vegetative growth.

The nature of enzyme inhibitions in bacterial luminescence: Sulfanilamide, urethane, temperature and pressure. Increased grain yield and biomass allocation in rice under cool night temperature. Intercomparison of Functions for Developmental Response to Temperature. Impacts of day versus night temperatures on spring wheat yields: A size-mediated effect can compensate for transient chilling stress affecting maize Zea mays leaf extension. Growth temperature influences the underlying components of relative growth rate: A statistical analysis of three ensembles of crop model responses to temperature and CO 2 concentration.

Grain growth and endosperm cell size under high night temperatures in rice Oryza sativa L.

Rice leaf growth and water potential are resilient to evaporative demand and soil water deficit once the effects of root system are neutralized. Temperature responses of developmental processes have not been affected by breeding in different ecological areas for 17 crop species.

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Can current crop models be used in the phenotyping era for predicting the genetic variability of yield of plants subjected to drought or high temperature? Modelling temperature-compensated physiological rates, based on the co-ordination of responses to temperature of developmental processes. Increase in night temperature in rice enhances respiration rate without significant impact on biomass accumulation. Diel time-courses of leaf growth in monocot and dicot species: Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area LMA: Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: R Development Core Team.

Raising yield potential of wheat. Overview of a consortium approach and breeding strategies. Protocols and pilot studies. Modelling leaf expansion in a fluctuating environment: Growth in elevated CO 2 protects photosynthesis against high-temperature damage. Changes in light intensity reveal a major role for carbon balance in Arabidopsis responses to high temperature. Arabidopsis growth under prolonged high temperature and water deficit: The effect of high temperature on kernel development in wheat: Variability related to pre-heading and postanthesis conditions.

Contrasting effects of chronic heat stress and heat shock on kernel weight and flour quality in wheat.

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The tolerance of wheat to high temperatures during reproductive growth. Survey procedures and general response patterns. The duration and rate of grain growth, and harvest index, of wheat Triticum aestivum L in response to temperature and CO 2. A quantitative approach to characterize sink-source relationships during grain filling in contrasting wheat genotypes.

Effects of high temperature on grain growth and on the metabolites and enzymes in the starch-synthesis pathway in the grains of two wheat cultivars differing in their responses to temperature. Leaf senescence and grain filling affected by post-anthesis high temperatures in two different wheat cultivars.

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To surface what learners know or think they know about the topic. To find out learners feelings and opinions about what they will be learning and provide the facilitator with important information to build on and work with. To help learners see the relevance and significance of the learning to them - the need and desire to learn and invest time in mastering the content and processes.

To create and emotional connection to what is being "taught". Gallery Walk allow people to walk around, look at thought-provoking posters on the wall and talk about stands out in terms of the topic and its relevance Guided Imagery A leader who inspired me, my vision for the future, a typical day at work Simulations various simulations create an awareness of reality that is not always obvious - people can have ah-hah moments around the topic of concern Analogies and Metaphors Ask learners to find a symbol or picture card that demonstrates change, creativity; one that they associate with nursing or leadership, etc Think about the best and worst customer service situation, leader, etc and share they qualities and characteristics of both.

The Discovery Phase uses creative presentations or discovery activities to introduce new content to the learner. To make certain that learners have all the information they need to begin to practice and apply it on their road to mastery. To engage learners optimally by either presenting in a way that is engaging and memorable or by providing focused discovery activities that encourage learners to research, experiment, explore, analyze and present their learning back to the group.

To develop the skills and mastery of the learners through a series of guided practice activities. Provides an opportunity to test recall of what was done in the Discovery Phase. Gives learners an opportunity to practice the basic skills and make certain they understand key concepts. Provides an opportunity to apply their learning in guided situations, receive feedback, refine their knowledge and skills, apply again, receive feedback, etc - Implementation: