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alize the expectations of the new self representation in his subsequent life. [ dreams, self-concepts, psychological anthropology, semiotics, sufism, Pakistan] . on a particular type of dream which I call a dream of "spiritual initiation. This example illustrates my point that the salience of a self representation and the sig-.
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Each represents a different point of view. It rather seems to this researcher that the commonalities outweigh the differences, and, moreover, it seems that there are even more commonalities among these three traditions in their view of enlightenment than Brown has mentioned. Exploring the Goal of the Spiritual Path White, , since the title of this recent work would ostensibly seem to be covering the same ground as this dissertation. As far as it goes, this is a very good work, with fine articles mainly from Western thinkers interpreting the wisdom of the Great Traditions.
The views of a few ostensibly genuine spiritual teachers are included in the book, such as Meher Baba, J. For instance, there are certain contaminating variables, such as mind-set and environmental setting, which are recommended by spiritual masters as actual prerequisites for occasioning that happening known as full spiritual realization. A description of the methodology for these two kinds of research is given in the following chapter.
Wilber identifies the causal level as the " Dharmakaya " level of Buddhism, but this is misleading, since in almost all circles of Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism Dharmakaya is the term utilized to denote the ultimate stage, which Wilber prefers to denote by the very obscure and quite infrequently used Vajrayana Buddhist term, Svabhavikakaya. However, in the Tantras and in sGam. Note also that each criterion is classified in terms of the aspect[s] of human functioning it represents:.
Or at least less sloth and torpor during these states compared to the usual person. In addition to all of the above, a number of emphasized or additional criteria can be posited , based on the spiritual literature especially of the nondual traditions of Advaita Vedanta, Mahayana Buddhism, and Sufism and on comments by certain of the respondents, such as radical spiritual freedom, going beyond the cycle of egocentric rebirths, and so on.
These are discussed in Chapter 4, pages These are presented in Chapter 4, pages The survey presented to the spiritual teachers yielded the following three factors as most important: These are discussed on pages Four statements concerning spiritual realization were posited, which are clearly supported by a lot of the spiritual literature, especially of the more nondual, mystical variety; these four statements pertain to the suddenness, irreversibility, and availability of enlightenment.
These are discussed in chapter 4, pages In a work of such vast scope as the present dissertation, a large number of issues are raised by the material which has been covered. To start with, there are three points to be made about the findings of this dissertation. This is, of course, actually a good point for debate, the basic question being: It is seeing the overall picture in terms of difference when it is probably more useful to see in terms of sameness.
Tripura Rahasya , a Hindu nondualist work from the early medieval period, makes this point very clear: Just as one master is, by temperament, a bit gruff while another is rather gentle, one is very active outwardly while another is not, so also, due to the conditioning as found within specific spiritual traditions, one Theravada Buddhist master may view arising events as discrete, while a Hindu Vedanta master sees them as nondual.
And why does he not mention the differences in functioning, temperament, etc. The present study, however, is more interested in the implications for actual human beings who undergo spiritual realization. Has her life become different? Are new traits manifesting traits which are conducive to the increased well-being of herself and those around her? Moreover, some of the most eminent among them e. The second major point to be discussed here is that, while there are, indeed, common criteria for spiritual realization among the various traditions, there are also some noteworthy differences among the traditions as ascertained by the survey and a study of the literature.
Non-mystical Christians, Jews, and Theravada Buddhists tend to hold out for the discontinuous, dualistic-multiplistic ontology on these subjects, whereas Advaita Vedantins, Mahayana Buddhists, Sufis, and highly mystical Christians and Jews tend to maintain a nondual perspective.
Whereas there is good reason, as mentioned above, to speak of two highly evolved masters as sharing more or less the same enlightenment though not identical , in that they share a large percentage of exalted features of human psychospiritual functioning, to ignore other areas of difference in functioning such as cognitive belief-systems, affective temperaments, behavioral predispositions, etc.
Katz, , it does need to be addressed and analyzed. Some have asserted that the pluralistic differences are, at least in part, due to the fact that there is a hierarchy of psycho-spiritual development. Ken Wilber asserts that there are differences in the development and hence profundity among traditions. He thereby comes up with ten levels of authenticity within the developmental spectrum of consciousness: One who has realized the level of the Absolute has subrated the other nine levels of development as posited by Wilber.
A third major point to be discussed in this conclusion section about the findings of this dissertation is that there are some serious discrepancies between what the spiritual literature of some of the traditions is affirming and what some modern representatives of a tradition are stating.
Either 1 the modern representatives are unfamiliar with this literature or with the sublime spiritual realization the high level of authenticity which yielded such teachings, or 2 for various reasons these representatives choose not to affirm such teachings, which are potentially dangerous for the immature aspirant, heard out of the proper context.
In either case, the researcher in this field needs to be aware that such discrepancies do arise and create difficulties when evaluating the data. Another researcher may wish to reject both, or accept only one or the other as valid. There are some points to be made in this conclusion section about the reliability and validity of this study, and some of the distorting factors inherent within it.
The reliability issue, of course, could be determined by presenting the survey via the mail and interviews to the same sample or to another sample of representatives from the Great Traditions, and comparing the results to those presented here. The study of spiritual literature could be done by another researcher to see if there were serious contraindications to, or qualifications of, those notions presented here.
Nevertheless, it is entirely legitimate to study and measure these attitudes about the criteria for spiritual realization, trusting that these criteria give a more or less veridical, accurate notional representation of spiritual realization, and that the attitudes about these criteria are also sound. On the latter issue, several points arise:. The question of spiritual authority also arises here as a second point to be considered in connection with the validity of this dissertation. Given that what is being measured here are the attitudes about spiritual realization it makes a difference whose attitudes are being surveyed.
Thus is highlighted again an issue mentioned in chapter 3: But then, of course, if one were a spiritual master, one could simply affirm what the nature of spiritual realization is, without needing others to talk about it! Hence, as several individuals whose responses to the survey have been reproduced in Appendix C indicated, the researcher interested in the nature of spiritual realization should simply undergo spiritual realization!
Which is to say that a participant observer methodology is being considered by these respondents to be the only valid method of studying this subject. Some traditions have official leaders, such as the Sankaracaryas for the Hindu Advaita Vedanta tradition, the Pope for Roman Catholic Christianity, the Patriarchs for certain lineages of Buddhism, and so forth whose views on the nature of spiritual realization might be solicited.
It might be possible to get them interested in responding to a few open-ended questions, and especially in the face-to-face situation not via the mail or telephone ; future research might wish to explore this avenue in attempts to make contact with the official leaders of the spiritual traditions. For future research in this area of ascertaining the nature of spiritual realization, it would probably be worthwhile to try to track down such appointed spokespersons and get them to participate in the survey or interview situation.
It is a weakness hard to overcome.
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There are also a number of participants who have been selected as unofficial spokespersons for their tradition by an alleged spiritual master from that tradition. At this juncture may be made some random comments concerning issues pertinent to this dissertation and future research, which will bring to a close this dissertation. Second, to demonstrate to scholars and adherents of various religions that the goal of all spiritual paths is, except for certain cognitive belief-system differences, fairly similar regardless of the different path taken, so one need not be prejudiced against other spiritual paths.
Such prejudice, in fact, seems to interfere with realization of the goal. An emphasis on Vedanta has occurred in certain places of discussion as a corrective to an apparent Buddhist bias among so many transpersonal psychologists who are featured in present-day transpersonal literature e. Another researcher, operating, say, from a contemplative Taoist or Sufi meta-perspective, would probably wish to use a different terminology for some of the issues discussed herein, and might wish to cover other sets of issues.
On the face of it, the functions of various alleged spiritual masters appear very different. For instance, from the outside one sees Mother Teresa doing her tireless service for the poor; one sees old Nisargadatta Maharaj teaching a relatively small group of students the way of highest wisdom while smoking cigarettes in a small loft in a slum area apartment; Son Buddhist master Seung Sahn cracking Dharma jokes and challenging his students with enigmatic koans; Nityananda of Kanhangad wandering about like a wild animal in a deep jungle hermitage of India; Mata Amritanandamayi benevolently hugging and caressing each and every one of the hundreds and thousands of people who come to see her.
On the face of it, these beings all seem very different in their functions not to mention appearance. Nevertheless, it seems possible to detect, upon close examination, that each of these and other allegedly realized beings are living a very similar inner life of tremendous freedom, peace, equanimity, bliss, unattachment to the extraordinary, outwardly noticed as selfless giving to, serving of, and positive influence on fellow sentient beings, and so forth.
They are indeed simply aspects of the Divine Reality. Other than this spiritual Reality, absolute Being-Awareness-Bliss, nothing else really exists. Who I really am is the omnipotent consciousness-energy which underlies the material universe-process, and which is thus its source and very substance. I am the true, essential, nondual nature of all apparently separate beings.
I transcendentally freely witness the three states of consciousness waking, dream, sleep , and all thoughts and emotions coming and going, entirely unaffected by them. I am always content, perfectly satisfied in a condition of glorious bliss and love.
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But for the spiritually realized individual who is truly an individual, i. In still more words: With regard to the latter point, it can be said that the politics and logistics of the dissemination of knowledge is a major reason why this optimal well-being is not more widely recognized in the West. Many easily available books concerning saints of the Western Judaic-Christian tradition are not given much if any emphasis in Western academic or religious institutions, either. Again, a majority of he people in this country tend to suppress religious phenomena which do not stem from or perfectly conform to the orthodox, institutional, non-mystical, mainstream Judaic-Christian tradition.
Problems of interpretation will again come up at this point. There seems to be no sure way of resolving this issue. This is a question which, due to time-space constraints for this dissertation, could not be addressed earlier. The developmental models of such modern transpersonal researchers as Wilber , Brown , et al. Conversely, there may be great adepts of the psychic or causal or subtle level who are still unawake at the level of the Absolute.
Spirituality and technology: Exploring the relationship | Bauwens | First Monday
Am Behav Sci ; The Vedic Personality Inventory: A study of the Gunas. J Indian Psychol ; A psychometric analysis of the three gunas.
Further exploration of the Vedic Personality Inventory: Validity, reliability, and generalizability. Friedman H, MacDonald D. Using transpersonal tests in humanistic psychological assessment. The Humanistic Psychologist ; Assessing and measuring spirituality: Confronting dilemmas of universal and particular evaluative criteria.
Journal of Adult Development ;9: The scientific study of spirituality: Construct validity in psychological tests. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas personality and Health in normal health volunteers. Int J Yoga ;1: Boundaries of the mind. Dimensions of meditative experience.
J Transpersonal Psychol ;5: Questionnaire to measure Eastern and Western thought. Peak experiences and ego permissiveness: An exploratory factor study of their dimensions in normal persons. The measurement of the dimensions of ego permissiveness. Cartwright D, Mori C. Scales for assessing aspects of the person. Person Centered Review ;3: Some scales for assessing personality based on Carl Rogers' theory: Further evidence of validity.
Pers Ind Dif ; Preliminary validation of the Immanence scale. J Res Pers ; Tobacyk J, Milford G. Belief in paranormal phenomena: Assessment instrument development and implications for personality functioning. J Pers Soc Psychol ; A revised Paranormal Belief Scale. Approximately half of these titles were first discovered on the IASD website.
Visions in the Night: Jungian and Ancient Dream Interpretation. Dreams and Dream Reports in the Writings of Josephus: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Text, Translation, and Commentary. Translated by Ernst Falzeder with the collaboration of Tony Woolfson. Princeton University Press, The American Oriental Society. The Oneirocriticon of Achmet: Texas Tech University Press. The Interpretation of Dreams in Ancient China. American Philosophical Society, Oxford University Press, Dreams and Nightmares in Ancient Egypt. Through a Glass Darkly: Magic, Dreams and Prophecy in Ancient Egypt. Classical Press of Wales.
The Universe of Dreams in Chinese Culture.
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- Die Hexen: Roman (German Edition).
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- Anastasia and the Russian Field (Anastasia Series II);
Dreamwork, Anthropology, and the Caring Professions: A Cultural Approach to Dreamwork. Dreaming, Religion and Society in Africa. Communing with the Gods: Consciousness, Culture, and the Dreaming Brain. Of Wonders Wild And New: Sleep Experiences and Culture in the Western Pacific. The African American Way with Dreams. Dreaming and Historical Consciousness in Island Greece. Sun Bear; Wind Wabun; Shawnodese. Dreaming with the Wheel: Anthropological and Psychological Interpretations.
Valencia, Heather; Kent, Rolly. The Story of a Yaqui Dreaming Woman.
Among All These Dreamers: Essays on Dreaming and Modern Society. The Third Reich of Dreams: The Nightmares of a Nation, Dreams in the Hebrew Bible. A Cross-Cultural and Historical Journey. Culture, Conflict, and Creativity. Rutgers University Press, The Wilderness of Dreams: Dreams and the Divine. Ed , Wallace, B. An Exploration of Consciousness. Unopened Letters from God: God, Dreams, and Revelation: A Christian Interpretation of Dreams. Augsburg Publishing House, An Anthology of Literary Dreams.
Dreams in Greek Tragedy: Stuff of Sleep and Dreams: