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A parallel universe is a hypothetical self-contained reality co-existing with one's own. A specific . for the girl who claims to have visited a parallel universe to have dreamed up such a different time flow - from their . as Journey to the Far Side of the Sun), in which a Counter-Earth is detected by astronomers and a manned.
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It's part of the reason it's useful to have two eyes: With binocular vision, your brain can judge distances without needing to evolve a ruler coming out of your forearm. It's easy enough to calculate the distance: The span between your eyes forms the base of a long, skinny triangle.

The amount of swing a distant object appears to travel as you switch eyes gives you one of the angles in the triangle. With a little bit of high-school geometry, you can know the distance to your desired target. OK, great, but that's not exactly useful for stars, which are vastly farther away than this screen. But that's fine; we can still play the same game — we just need a different set of cameras.

How about, say, Earth in the summer and Earth in the winter? That's a pretty big triangle. Because we know the distance from the Earth to the sun, we know how wide our binoculars are. And by carefully measuring the teensy-tiny wiggle in a star's position between the seasons, we can compute the distance. Well, to a point. I mean, most stars are so fantastically far away that we could never hope to measure their parallax, no matter how sophisticated — or big — our triangle gets. To carry us even farther into the reaches of the cosmos, we need to switch to a different measurement method.

This new method is again based on a very simple concept: If I know exactly how bright something is , then by measuring how bright something looks, I can figure out how far away it is. Farther things look dimmer. We just need to know exactly how bright stuff in space is. Fortunately, nature gives us a few of these "standard candles. That itself isn't all that special — stars do, after all, change brightness all the time — but what's peculiar about Cepheids is that the time between episodes is proportional to their true brightness.

The brighter a Cepheid is in real life as in, up-close-in-your-stellar-face real life , the longer it takes to cycle back and forth. Their name doesn't mean anything special. As usual in astronomy, they're named after the constellation where they were first discovered — in this case, Cepheus. As long as the ball remains near the top of the hill, rolling slowly, inflation continues, and the Universe expands exponentially. Once the ball rolls down into the valley, however, inflation ends, and that rolling behavior causes the energy to dissipate, converting the energy inherent to space itself into matter-and-radiation, taking us from an inflationary state into the hot Big Bang.

Where you chose the job overseas instead of the one that kept you in your country? Where you stood up to the bully instead of letting yourself be taken advantage of? Where you kissed the one-who-got-away at the end of the night, instead of letting them go? And where the life-or-death event that you or your loved one faced at some point in the past had a different outcome?

But there are an awful lot of ifs that are mandatory to get there. Why is that, you ask? And yet, there are numbers that are bigger that describe how many possible outcomes there are for particle interactions. The E7 series started off in the year , and the AO world, which takes place in the year , would be the home of the two main characters' son.

The anime and manga series Katekyo Hitman Reborn! The anime Neon Genesis Evangelion features a parallel world in one of the final episodes. This parallel world is a sharp contrast to the harsh, dark "reality" of the show and presents a world where all the characters enjoy a much happier life. This parallel world would become the basis for the new Evangelion manga series Angelic Days. The anime series Bakugan features a parallel universe called Vestroia and is the homeworld of fantastic creatures called Bakugan.

The series' hero Dan Kuso alongside his friends and teammates must save Earth and Vestroia from total destruction. They go to another dimension or universe through a pathway. The other universe has also other life forms and other types of technology. In another anime series, Digimon , there is parallel universe called "digital world".

The show's child protagonists meet digital monsters, or digimon, from this world and becomes partners and friends. In the third story arc of Digimon Fusion , the Clockmaker who is later revealed to be Bagramon and his partner Clockmon travel through space-time to recruit heroes from previous series so they can help the Fusion Fighters to defeat Quartzmon before DigiQuartz can absorb each human and digital world in the multiverse. In the anime series Umineko no Naku Koro ni the rounds of the battle between Battler and Beatrice take place in different dimensions, in order to show all kinds of possibilities much to Battler's dismay also the character Bernkastel is known for her ability to travel into different worlds by the usage of "fragments".

In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode " Parallels ", Lt. Worf traveled to several parallel universes when his shuttlecraft went through a time space fissure. The Community episode Remedial Chaos Theory , six different timelines and one "prime" timeline are explored, each having a different outcome based on which member of the study group goes to get the pizza. One timeline, dubbed the "Darkest Timeline", results in the greatest amount of terrible incidents and ends with Abed donning a felt goatee bearing resemblance to Spock's in "Mirror, Mirror".

In the anime series of Fullmetal Alchemist , there exists a gateway that can be conjured by alchemists that acts as a source of all knowledge and energy; towards the end of the series, it is revealed that this gateway connects the world of the anime with the real world, set during the first decades of the 20th century. It is revealed that the two worlds shared a common history until their histories diverged , apparently due to the success of alchemy in one world and that of modern physics in the other.

Sometimes a television series will use parallel universes as an ongoing subplot. Deep Space Nine , Star Trek: Enterprise and Star Trek: Discovery elaborated on the premise of the original series' "Mirror" universe and developed multi-episode story arcs based on the premise. The New Adventures of Superman. Following the precedent set by Star Trek , these story arcs show alternative universes that have turned out "worse" than the "original" universe: Clark eventually becomes Superman, with help from the "original" Lois Lane, but he is immediately revealed as Clark Kent and so has no life of his own.


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In addition to following Star Trek's lead, showing the "evil" variants of the main storyline gives the writers an opportunity to show what is at stake by portraying the worst that could happen and the consequences if the protagonists fail or the importance of a character's presence. Once Upon a Time often talks about alternative realms or universes in which all different forms of magic, and non-magic may occur, depending on the realm. According to the Mad Hatter Sebastian Stan , they "touch each other in a long line of lands, each just as real as the last. In the season 1 finale of The Flash , the Reverse-Flash opens a singularity that connects his world to a parallel universe called Earth In the second season, The Flash starts facing villains from that earth who also have doppelgangers on Prime Earth sent by Zoom.

Light ; all are sent by Zoom to kill The Flash with the assurance of being taken back home. However, they are not the only ones who arrive from the singularity; this also includes the Earth-2 Flash after a close death and loss of speed from a confrontation with Zoom. When The Flash starts having a hard time facing off against Sand Demon, he frees Jay so that he could help him as well as train him in his speed.

With a new trick taught by Jay, Barry defeats Sand Demon. When Jay confronts and sees Wells again, the argument gets heated between them before Barry intercedes. The "Alf Stewart Rape Dungeon" series, created by artist Mr Doodleburger, uses footage from the Australian TV drama show Home and Away , but through the use of clever overlaid audio tracks, casts one of the main characters of the show, long running character Alf Stewart as a vicious violent character in a parallel version of Home and Away.

Parallel universes in modern comics have become particularly rich and complex, in large part due to the continual problem of continuity faced by the major two publishers, Marvel Comics and DC Comics. The two publishers have used the multiverse concept to fix problems arising from integrating characters from other publishers into their own canon, and from having major serial protagonists having continuous histories lasting, as in the case of Superman , over 70 years. Additionally, both publishers have used new alternative universes to re-imagine their own characters.

DC Comics inaugurated its multiverse in the early s, with the reintroduction of Golden Age superheroes the Justice Society of America now located on Earth-Two , and devised a "mirror universe" scenario of inverted morality and supervillain domination of Earth-Three shortly afterward, several years before Star Trek devised its own darker alternative universe. There was a lull before DC inaugurated additional alternative universes in the seventies, such as Earth-X, where there was an Axis victory in World War II , Earth-S, home to the Fawcett Comics superheroes of the forties and fifties, such as Captain Marvel , and Earth-Prime, where superheroes only existed in fictional forms.

Therefore, comic books in general are one of the few entertainment mediums where the concept of parallel universes are a major and ongoing theme. DC in particular periodically revisits the idea in major crossover storylines, such as Crisis on Infinite Earths and Infinite Crisis , where Marvel has a series called What If DC's version of "What If DC Comics series 52 heralded the return of the Multiverse. The aim was to yet again address many of the problems and confusions brought on by the Multiverse in the DCU.

Countdown and Countdown Presents: Marvel has also had many large crossover events which depicted an alternative universe, many springing from events in the X-Men books, such as 's Days of Future Past , 's Age of Apocalypse , and 's House Of M. In addition the Squadron Supreme is a DC inspired Marvel Universe that has been used several times, often crossing over into the mainstream Universe in the Avengers comic. Exiles is an offshoot of the X-Men franchise that allows characters to hop from one alternative reality to another, leaving the original, main Marvel Universe intact.

The Marvel UK line has long had multiverse stories including the Jaspers' Warp storyline of Captain Britain 's first series it was here that the designation Earth was first applied to the mainstream Marvel Universe. Marvel Comics, as of , launched their most popular parallel universe, the Ultimate Universe. The graphic novel Watchmen is set in an alternative history, in a where superheroes exist, the Vietnam War was won by the United States, and Richard Nixon is in his fifth term as President of the United States.

The Soviet Union and the United States are still locked in an escalating "Cold War" as in our own world, but as the Soviet Union invades Afghanistan in this world and threatens Pakistan, nuclear war may be imminent. In , Tammy published The Clock and Cluny Jones , where a mysterious grandfather clock hurls bully Cluny Jones into a harsh alternative reality where she becomes the bullied. This story was reprinted in Misty annual as Grandfather's Clock. In , Misty published The Sentinels.

The Sentinels were two crumbling apartment blocks that connected the mainstream world with an alternative reality where Hitler conquered Britain in In , Jinty published Worlds Apart. Six girls experience alternative worlds ruled by greed, sports-mania, vanity, crime, intellectualism, and fear. These are in fact their dream worlds becoming real after they are knocked out by a mysterious gas from a chemical tanker that crashed into their school.

In Jinty also published Land of No Tears where a lame girl travels to a future world where people with things wrong with them are cruelly treated, and emotions are banned. The parallel universe concept has also appeared prominently in the Sonic the Hedgehog comic series from Archie Comics. The first and most oft-recurring case of this is another "mirror universe" where Sonic and his various allies are evil or anti-heroic while the counterpart of the evil Dr.

Another recurring universe featured in the series is a perpendicular dimension that runs through all others, known as the No Zone. The inhabitants of this universe monitor travel between the others, often stepping in with their Zone Cop police force to punish those who travel without authorization between worlds. In more recent years, the comic has adapted the alternative dimension from the video games Sonic Rush and Sonic Rush Adventure , home to Sonic's ally Blaze the Cat.

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The continuities seen in various other Sonic franchises also exist in the comic, most notably those based on the cartoon series Sonic Underground and Sonic X. For some years, a number of other universes were also featured that parodied various popular franchises, such as Sailor Moon , Godzilla , and various titles from Marvel Comics.

Archie has also used this concept as the basis for crossovers between Sonic and other titles that they publish, including Sabrina the Teenage Witch and Mega Man. The various Transformers comics also feature the parallel universe concept, and feature the various continuities from different branches of the franchise as parallel worlds that occasionally make contact with each other.

Quite notably, the annual Botcon fan convention introduced a comic storyline that featured Cliffjumper , an Autobot from the original Transformers series, entering an alternative universe where his fellow Autobots are evil and the Decepticons are good. This universe is known as the "Shattered Glass" universe, and continued on in comics and text based stories after its initial release. In The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time after the main protagonist, Link, defeats the dark lord, Ganon, he travels back in time to his childhood. This results in two alternative histories for Hyrule.

In the other Link is no longer present allowing Ganon to return to go on a rampage that forced the gods of Hyrule to flood the world in The Legend of Zelda: There is also a scenario in which Link is killed by Ganon in the final battle, resulting in an alternative history in which Hyrule is put in an era of decline, leading to the events of The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past.

In the psychological horror point-and-click adventure game Dark Seed , the main character Mike Dawson discovers a parallel universe by going through his living room mirror. The series also introduces the concepts of different "Realms" corresponding to Light, Darkness, Twilight, and Nothingness. In the role-playing game Outcast , a probe is sent to a parallel universe and is attacked by an "entity". Cutter Slade must escort a team of scientists across to the other world in order to retrieve and repair the damaged probe before the earth is consumed by a black hole.

The Half-Life series revolves heavily around alternate universes. Xen is a location in the first Half-Life game, accidentally discovered by scientists and described as a border world between dimensions, where the player must travel to stop an alien invasion. Half-Life 2 features a multidimensional empire called The Combine which has successfully conquered Earth and subdued humanity, among countless other universes and species.

In the survival horror video game series Silent Hill , the town of Silent Hill fluctuates between the real world, where Silent Hill is seemingly just an ordinary tourist town, the Fog World, which is like the real world, except the town is shrouded in thick fog and is nearly uninhabited except for monsters and a few people, and a dark and dilapidated version of the town called the "Other World".

In the adventure PC game Myst , the unnamed protagonist travels to multiple alternative worlds through the use of special books, which describe a world within and transport the user to that world when a window on the front page is touched. In the adventure PC game 9: The Last Resort , after resolving several mind-blowing and unique puzzles, the player gets past "The Tiki Guards"; and a door opens up to "The Void" - actually a room to another universe, which houses the entirety of space.

Both titles of the When They Cry visual novel series Higurashi and Umineko for short contain the concept of parallel worlds. These series both involve some kind of murder mystery. As soon as the main character has 'lost', another parallel world, called a Fragment, is chosen to be observed.

This continues until the entire mystery is solved. EarthBound features many areas of the game that can be considered alternative dimensions. The first is an illusion created by the Mani Mani Statue that transforms the metropolis of Fourside into a bizarre neon metropolis called Moonside, filled with unusual characters and enemies. The second is Magicant, the world of Ness's subconscious that is accessed after obtaining the Eight Melodies.

It starts with triangles

Finally, toward the end of the game, the protagonists arrive at the Cave to the Past, where they travel back in time to the haunting past dimension of the cave to face Giygas. After the completion of the Special World in Super Mario World , the overworld transforms from a green-colored springtime to an orange-colored autumnal setting. Many enemies encountered in the game are transformed into bizarre counterparts.

Super Mario 64 features a world called "Tiny Huge Island" which has two variants: The player can only access certain parts of the level to obtain certain stars depending on which variant they are into. The two variants can be switched between via portals in the world. Banjo-Kazooie features a world called "Click Clock Wood", which has spring, summer, autumn and winter variants.

Astronomically Far Away: How to Measure the Universe

The environment develops between the seasons making some areas accessible or inaccessible, and actions taken in one season affect the outcome in others. The Legend of Zelda: In those games, the player must switch between the parallel past and present worlds Ages and between spring, summer, autumn and winter Seasons to progress through the game. In the first half of The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess , areas of Hyrule are veiled by the Twilight Realm. These areas are dusky and brooding in appearance, Link cannot transform out of wolf form, characters only appear as spirits that cannot be communicated with, and enemies are twilight variations of their regular forms.

Otherwise, the Twilight Realm is identical to regular Hyrule. Fall of Man is set in alternative universe where Tsarist Russia never experienced the Russian Revolution but instead became the bridgehead for an aggressive alien invasion from a species known as the "Chimera", who then proceed to overrun Western Europe , Great Britain , Canada and much of the United States , and where there has been no Second World War as a result.

The events of the game and its sequels begin in its alternative Each Zone in Sonic CD has four variations: Past, Present, Bad Future and Good Future, each displaying some subtle and not-so subtle alterations. The series has also seen alternative dimensions in the case of the Sonic Rush series, in which Sonic encounters a hero from another world named Blaze the Cat whose nemesis is an alternative counterpart of his own foe, Dr.

The Sonic series also makes use of the concept of alternative timelines. The story of Chrono Cross centers around travel between two alternative timelines, the original or "Another World" and "Home World" which is a branch created by the actions of the heroes of the game's predecessor, Chrono Trigger.

When Your Science Project Opens a Wormhole

In Super Paper Mario , the town "Flipside" which acts as the game's central hub has an alternative mirrored version called "Flopside". While Flipside appears pristine and the residents there are typically cheerful, Flopside appears somewhat dilapidated and is populated by surly characters.

The series Legacy of Kain is played through several realms and timelines. Sudeki is set in a realm of light and a parallel realm of darkness. The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion features an alternative hellish world called "Oblivion", as well as a painting you can climb into and a quest where you enter a dream world. Majora's Mask takes place in Termina, a parallel world to Hyrule.

Almost all of the characters from The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time reappear in the game. The Darkness pivots around a world of darkness you travel to when you die, which is occupied by World War 1 soldiers. Echoes involves a world, "Aether", having an alternative self in the, "Dark" realm, universe, or dimension. The protagonist, Samus, finds out that she just dropped into a hopeless war for the Luminoth, the dominant species of Light Aether against the Ing, the dominant species of Dark Aether. Crash Twinsanity features Crash, Cortex, and Nina traveling to the "10th dimension," which could also be a parallel universe suggested by the theme and how everything seems to be opposite.

Minecraft features an alternative dimension called "The Nether", that includes a 'hell' like theme. It also contains a second alternative dimension called "The End", home world of the Endermen, a type of monster that spawns rarely in the main world. Eternal Punishment takes place in an alternative universe called "This Side" where in the events of Innocent Sin did not take place and the characters have never met in the past.


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The Fallout series takes place in a subtly different universe. For example, the ship that landed the first men on the moon in is called Valiant 11 , rather than Apollo It is an alternative future in a constant state of flux, as heroes and villains battle for the future of Earth. Virtue's Last Reward heavily uses the concept of multiple realities as the basis for its plot as well as its central gameplay mechanic of traversing through realities and altering history.

The first person shooter BioShock Infinite features the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. The crossover video game Heroes of the Storm features the iconic characters of Blizzard Entertainment. In the game, heroes and villains from Warcraft , Diablo , and StarCraft have been sucked into a trans-dimensional storm called "Nexus". Stranded in a strange limbo of clashing universes, these combatants are joined by the same fate to battle for dominance. In skyrim the dragonborn can use many means to travel between tamreal and oblivion during most quests involving deadra. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the scientific concepts, see Multiverse and Many-worlds interpretation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.