Guide Systems: Theory and Practice (Advances in Computing Sciences)

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This SOFSEM proceedings volume covers foundations of computer science, on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Krems, Austria, of computer science; software engineering: advances methods, applications, and protocols, and mobile networks; mobile robots and server systems; automata.
Table of contents

Flood, Fritjof Capra, Michael C. Jackson, Edgar Morin and Werner Ulrich , among others. With the modern foundations for a general theory of systems following the World Wars, Ervin Laszlo, in the preface for Bertalanffy's book Perspectives on General System Theory , maintains that the translation of "general system theory" from German into English has "wrought a certain amount of havoc" [ 2 ].

With these ideas referring to an organized body of knowledge and "any systematically presented set of concepts, whether they are empirical, axiomatic, or philosophical", "Lehre" is associated with theory and science in the etymology of general systems, but also does not translate from the German very well; "teaching" is the "closest equivalent", but "sounds dogmatic and off the mark" [ 2 ]. While many of the root meanings for the idea of a "general systems theory" might have been lost in the translation and many were led to believe that the systems theorists had articulated nothing but a pseudoscience, systems theory became a nomenclature that early investigators used to describe the interdependence of relationships in organization by defining a new way of thinking about science and scientific paradigms.

Jackson, Edgar Morin and Werner Ulrich is composed of regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities. For example, in noting the influence in organizational psychology as the field evolved from "an individually oriented industrial psychology to a systems and developmentally oriented organizational psychology," it was recognized that organizations are complex social systems; reducing the parts from the whole reduces the overall effectiveness of organizations [ 3 ]. This is at difference to conventional models that center on individuals, structures, departments and units separate in part from the whole instead of recognizing the interdependence between groups of individuals, structures and processes that enable an organization to function.

Laszlo [ 4 ] explains that the new systems view of organized complexity went "one step beyond the Newtonian view of organized simplicity" in reducing the parts from the whole, or in understanding the whole without relation to the parts. The relationship between organizations and their environments became recognized as the foremost source of complexity and interdependence. In most cases the whole has properties that cannot be known from analysis of the constituent elements in isolation. Similar ideas are found in learning theories that developed from the same fundamental concepts, emphasizing that understanding results from knowing concepts both in part and as a whole.

The influential contemporary work of Peter Senge [ 8 ] provides detailed discussion of the commonplace critique of educational systems grounded in conventional assumptions about learning, including the problems with fragmented knowledge and lack of holistic learning from the "machine-age thinking" that became a "model of school separated from daily life.

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The theorists sought holistic methods by developing systems concepts that could be integrated with different areas. The contradiction of reductionism in conventional theory which has as its subject a single part is simply an example of changing assumptions. The emphasis with systems theory shifts from parts to the organization of parts, recognizing interactions of the parts are not "static" and constant but "dynamic" processes. Conventional closed systems were questioned with the development of open systems perspectives.

The shift was from absolute and universal authoritative principles and knowledge to relative and general conceptual and perceptual knowledge [ 10 ] , still in the tradition of theorists that sought to provide means in organizing human life. Meaning, the history of ideas that preceded were rethought not lost. Mechanistic thinking was particularly critiqued, especially the industrial-age mechanistic metaphor of the mind from interpretations of Newtonian mechanics by Enlightenment philosophers and later psychologists that laid the foundations of modern organizational theory and management by the late 19th century [ 11 ].

Classical science had not been overthrown, but questions arose over core assumptions that historically influenced organized systems, within both social and technical sciences. Whether considering the first systems of written communication with Sumerian cuneiform to Mayan numerals, or the feats of engineering with the Egyptian pyramids, systems thinking in essence dates back to antiquity.

Differentiated from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar to pre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclitus [ 12 ]. Von Bertalanffy traced systems concepts to the philosophy of G. While modern systems are considerably more complicated, today's systems are embedded in history.

Systems theory as an area of study specifically developed following the World Wars from the work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Anatol Rapoport, Kenneth E. West Churchman and others in the s, specifically catalyzed by the cooperation in the Society for General Systems Research. Cognizant of advances in science that questioned classical assumptions in the organizational sciences, Bertalanffy's idea to develop a theory of systems began as early as the interwar period, publishing "An Outline for General Systems Theory" in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Vol 1, No.

Where assumptions in Western science from Greek thought with Plato and Aristotle to Newton's Principia have historically influenced all areas from the hard to social sciences see David Easton's seminal development of the "political system" as an analytical construct , the original theorists explored the implications of twentieth century advances in terms of systems. Subjects like complexity, self-organization, connectionism and adaptive systems had already been studied in the s and s. John von Neumann discovered cellular automata and self-reproducing systems, again with only pencil and paper.

At the same time Howard T. Odum, the radiation ecologist, recognised that the study of general systems required a language that could depict energetics and kinetics at any system scale. Odum developed a general systems, or Universal language, based on the circuit language of electronics to fulfill this role, known as the Energy Systems Language.

Between , Robert Maynard Hutchins at the University of Chicago had undertaken efforts to encourage innovation and interdisciplinary research in the social sciences, aided by the Ford Foundation with the interdisciplinary Division of the Social Sciences established in [ 13 ]. Numerous scholars had been actively engaged in ideas before Tectology of Alexander Bogdanov published in is a remarkable example , but in von Bertalanffy presented the general theory of systems for a conference at the University of Chicago.

The systems view was based on several fundamental ideas. First, all phenomena can be viewed as a web of relationships among elements, or a system. Second, all systems, whether electrical, biological, or social, have common patterns, behaviors, and properties that can be understood and used to develop greater insight into the behavior of complex phenomena and to move closer toward a unity of science.

System philosophy, methodology and application are complementary to this science [ 2 ].

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The Cold War affected the research project for systems theory in ways that sorely disappointed many of the seminal theorists. Some began to recognize theories defined in association with systems theory had deviated from the initial General Systems Theory GST view [ 14 ]. The economist Kenneth Boulding, an early researcher in systems theory, had concerns over the manipulation of systems concepts. Boulding concluded from the effects of the Cold War that abuses of power always prove consequential and that systems theory might address such issues [ 15 ].

Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a renewed interest in systems theory with efforts to strengthen an ethical view. Many early systems theorists aimed at finding a general systems theory that could explain all systems in all fields of science. The term goes back to Bertalanffy's book titled " General System theory: Foundations, Development, Applications " from [ 6 ].

What is Systems Theory?

Von Bertalanffy tells that he developed the "allgemeine Systemtheorie" since in talks and since with publications. Von Bertalanffy's objective was to bring together under one heading the organismic science that he had observed in his work as a biologist.

His desire was to use the word "system" to describe those principles which are common to systems in general. In GST, he writes:. Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines systems inquiry into three major domains: Philosophy, Science, and Technology. These operate in a recursive relationship, he explained. The terms "systems theory" and "cybernetics" have been widely used as synonyms.

Some authors use the term cybernetic systems to denote a proper subset of the class of general systems, namely those systems that include feedback loops. However Gordon Pask's differences of eternal interacting actor loops that produce finite products makes general systems a proper subset of cybernetics. According to Jackson , von Bertalanffy promoted an embryonic form of general system theory GST as early as the s and s but it was not until the early s it became more widely known in scientific circles.

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Threads of cybernetics began in the late s that led toward the publishing of seminal works e. Cybernetics arose more from engineering fields and GST from biology. If anything it appears that although the two probably mutually influenced each other, cybernetics had the greater influence.

Von Bertalanffy specifically makes the point of distinguishing between the areas in noting the influence of cybernetics: This again is incorrect. Cybernetics as the theory of control mechanisms in technology and nature is founded on the concepts of information and feedback, but as part of a general theory of systems;" then reiterates: Jackson also claims von Bertalanffy was informed by Alexander Bogdanov's three volume Tectology that was published in Russia between and , and was translated into German in He also states it is clear to Gorelik that the "conceptual part" of general system theory GST had first been put in place by Bogdanov.

The similar position is held by Mattessich and Capra Ludwig von Bertalanffy never even mentioned Bogdanov in his works, which Capra finds "surprising". Cybernetics, catastrophe theory, chaos theory and complexity theory have the common goal to explain complex systems that consist of a large number of mutually interacting and interrelated parts in terms of those interactions. Cellular automata CA , neural networks NN , artificial intelligence AI , and artificial life ALife are related fields, but they do not try to describe general universal complex singular systems.

The best context to compare the different "C"-Theories about complex systems is historical, which emphasizes different tools and methodologies, from pure mathematics in the beginning to pure computer science now. Since the beginning of chaos theory when Edward Lorenz accidentally discovered a strange attractor with his computer, computers have become an indispensable source of information. One could not imagine the study of complex systems without the use of computers today.

CAS ideas and models are essentially evolutionary. Accordingly, the theory of complex adaptive systems bridges developments of the system theory with the ideas of 'generalized Darwinism', which suggests that Darwinian principles of evolution help explain a wide range of phenomena. James Grier Miller wrote a 1,page volume to present his living systems theory. He constructed a general theory of living systems by focusing on concrete systems—nonrandom accumulations of matter-energy in physical space-time organized into interacting, interrelated subsystems or components.

Slightly revising the original model a dozen years later, he distinguished eight "nested" hierarchical levels in such complex structures. Each level is "nested" in the sense that each higher level contains the next lower level in a nested fashion. Dedicated research labs, meanwhile, accommodate developments in computer architecture, computer security and parallel computing, among other areas. Here, researchers apply the central concept of core computing to matters of energy, health, the environment, defense and more.

Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland is known around the world for its pioneering contributions to research, and the Department of Computer Science aims to maintain this tradition. Part of the Whiting School of Engineering, the department leads the way in boundary-crossing areas such as medical operations using computers and computational biology. Paul, established that social media giant Twitter could precisely follow cases of influenza and determine how the infectious disease proliferates and adapts.

In , meanwhile, the department launched the Center for Encrypted Functionalities , which explores issues surrounding protected masking software. The school accommodates various research clusters covering topics that range from robotics, computer vision and graphics to information software systems and architecture, while additional groups include the Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval. Faculty members, meanwhile, have produced a range of oft-cited documents, and a number have secured lifetime achievement awards and instruction prizes.

The most recent of these honors came the way of professor W. It was in the last of these labs that in researchers launched CAVE2 , a next-gen virtual reality interface utilizing both 2D and 3D technology. The faculty is recognized for its contributions to topics including distributed programming systems, compilers and programming languages, while work in parallel computing is conducted in tandem with the Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computational and Applied Mathematics departments.

This allows the school to explore the many differing branches of the field, focusing on novel technologies through cutting-edge multiparty research. Accommodating an esteemed faculty, the school conducts investigations into computation areas like databases and information systems, biomedical informatics, and computer architecture and embedded systems.

Elsewhere, the Center for Machine Learning and Intelligent Systems looks into the compelling capabilities of algorithms, while the Institute for Virtual Environments and Computer Games is committed to embracing and producing technologies that change the way people teach, interrelate and observe the planet digitally. Research facilities include the Human-Computer Interaction Lab, which explores new technologies based on individual requirements, and the Institute for Advanced Computer Studies , which looks at applying computer science to technological problems.

The Center for Computational Molecular Biology , for example, uses innovative processing methods in the realm of life sciences, while the Center for Vision Research explores machine vision. Adding to this, research facilities at the Chicago school include the Futures Laboratory and Distributed Systems Laboratory, the latter of which pays special attention to creating, utilizing and assessing related applications, protocols and systems.

Its research areas embrace graphics, software principles, systems, theory and artificial intelligence, with its program in the latter covering advanced fields such as computational linguistics, robotics, vision and learning. The university moreover has a long history of innovation in the arena of computer science.

The department boasts a faculty of some 50 individuals, who play key roles in areas of expertise that include bioinformatics, high-performance computing and software engineering. These staff members have been honored with numerous awards for their contributions to the field of computer science and engineering, while previous graduates have taken positions at major tech companies and research colleges.

50. Department of Computer Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock – Little Rock, Arkansas

Elsewhere, computer science research professor Paul Debevec was in honored with a Scientific and Technical Academy Award for co-developing groundbreaking cinematic digital lighting systems. Numbering among the notable former students are Scientific Games Corporation co-founder and genetic engineering pioneer John R. It is also particularly passionate about the development of cloud computing, which the department highlights as facilitating everything from medicinal research to social media. Indeed, the Madison, Wisconsin-based university was recently chosen to host one of three CloudLabs funded by the National Science Foundation.

The department in addition boasts highly accomplished faculty members like emeritus professor James R. Goodman, who is acknowledged for his pioneering work in snooping cache coherence protocols. In Goodman received the eminent Eckert-Mauchly Award for contributions to computer architecture. The majority of faculty members are accommodated in the glass-fronted Annenberg Center , a LEED Gold-certified building whose use of natural air and light creates an uplifting ambiance. The Applied Geometry Lab, meanwhile, centers on discrete differential modeling from a geometric perspective.

The department hosts teaching staff together researching just about every area of the discipline, including the likes of artificial intelligence and database and information systems. Nowadays, its innovation comes courtesy of a number of interdisciplinary research centers, which include the Advanced Digital Sciences Center, the Institute for Advanced Computing Applications and Technologies, and the Institute for Genomic Biology.

State-of-the-art facilities are one thing; capable people are another — but the department also boasts its fair share of award-winning teachers and notable alumni. Research areas include bioinformatics and computational biology, computer architecture, theoretical computer science, and artificial intelligence. Moreover, the faculty features Turing Award winner E. It also houses labs with particular focus in the fields of human-computer interaction, robotics, cybersecurity, computational sustainability and computer vision.

Among the teaching staff are Turing Award winners John Hopcroft , who specializes in formal language theory, and professor emeritus Juris Hartmanis , whose interests lie in the complex quantitative laws that surround computing. It was here, in , that professor Leonard Kleinrock and his research team sent the first electronic message from one computer to another via the ARPANET network, an early version of the internet. This tradition of industry-defining innovation continues today, with faculty members undertaking important research in the fields of artificial intelligence, computational systems biology, graphics and vision, and information and data management.

Princeton University boasts an eminent computer science department notable for its specialties in systems, programming language and theory. As well as excelling on the innovation front, Princeton can name some highly accomplished people among its computer science graduates, including former NASA astronaut Daniel Barry, Amazon.

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Because such research transcends various disciplines, students can specialize in multi-focused study areas including computational and data science, computational neuroscience, economics and computation, and information and society. Interestingly, SCS professor Scott Fahlman is credited with having co-invented the smiley face emoticon in For example, in U.

Given airtime on The Today Show , the technology produces a sequence of images from one childhood photograph, revealing the appearance the child will take as he or she ages. For example, one computer science professor, Peter Allen, is currently collaboratively working on a project that allows seriously disabled people to take advantage of a groundbreaking arm and hand device. The system incorporates a brain muscle computer interface, and it is hoped that patients will be able to execute complicated grasping actions by way of robotics.

Elsewhere, the department covers contemporary computing issues such as social networking algorithms and how online electronic devices collect personal data. Moreover, behind such work is a highly decorated faculty, including programming languages expert Alfred V.