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Messiah, HWV 56, Pt. 3, Scene 4: No. 53, Chorus. "Worthy Is the Lamb... Amen"

Handel uses a cantus firmus on long repeated notes especially to illustrate God's speech and majesty, such as "King of Kings" in the Hallelujah chorus. The following table is organized by movement numbers. There are two major systems of numbering the movements of Messiah: Not counting some short recitatives as separate movements, there are therefore 47 movements.

To emphasise the movements in which the oboes ob and the rarely used trumpets tr and timpani ti play, the summary below does not mention the regular basso continuo and the strings in movements. Details on the development of keys , different tempo markings times within a movement are given in notes on the individual movements. Movements originally in Italian It are indicated in the Source column, however the exact origin is supplied in the notes on the movement. Scene 1 tells in an aria and a chorus of the resurrection, based on the Messianic anticipation in the Book of Job Job It begins with the "ascending fourth ", a signal observed by musicologist Rudolf Steglich as a unifying motif of the oratorio, [5] on the words "I know", repeated almost every time these words appear again.

The text for the chorus "Since by man came death" continues Paul's thoughts, juxtaposing death and resurrection twice. Consequently, Handel twice uses a Grave a cappella setting in A minor with chromatic lines, opposed to an Allegro with orchestra in C major in most simple harmony, switching back and forth between these extremes. Scene 2 deals with Paul's teachings on the Resurrection of the body on the Day of Judgement , as written in his First Epistle to the Corinthians.

Accompagnato and Air share three verses, 1 Corinthians Handel breaks the text in the middle of the second verse, to open the aria with the musical idea "the trumpet shall sound". The image, first found in Exodus 19, pictures a courtly herald who blew the trumpet as a signal that the king was about to enter the throne room, a signal to stand in his honour. Towards the end, motifs like trumpet signals appear in the strings even before the last words "at the last trumpet". The Air for bass "The trumpet shall sound", marked "Pomposo, ma non allegro", is a da capo aria.

In the work's only instrumental solo, the trumpet provides motifs which the bass picks up. In "and we shall be changed", the word "changed" is treated in inventive ever-changing melismas of up to six measures.

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In the middle section, the word "immortality" is expressed in a lively melisma of first eight, then nine measures. Scene 3 first continues the text of Scene 2 1 Corinthians An alto recitative delivers "Then shall be brought to pass", ending on "death is swallow'd up in victory". The movement is based on the duet for soprano and alto "Se tu non lasci amore" HWV , The scene closes with the assurance "If God be for us, who can be against us". As a contrast to the following choral conclusion of the oratorio, it is sung by the soprano. Towards the end, Handel quotes the characteristic intervals beginning Martin Luther 's chorale Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir several times, leading into the final chorus.

Scene 4 closes the work by visionary verses from the Book of Revelation, The creatures in heaven give praise Revelation 5: The chorus, with the full orchestra including trumpets and timpani, proclaims in a solemn Largo "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain", and continues Andante "to receive power — and riches, — and wisdom, — and strength, — and honour, — and glory, — and blessing".

The sequence of Largo and Andante is repeated, but not exactly the same music. A fugue carries the words "Blessing and honour, glory and pow'r be unto him". The men's voices and the continuo begin in unison , the simple theme rises to a note which is repeated nine times and falls back, reminiscent of the repeated notes in " For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it " and " King of Kings ".

Several countersubjects add life and texture, gradually more instruments take part in the development on "for ever — and ever". These words are rendered in short downward runs, but then also in the same rhythm as in the Hallelujah chorus , and finally broadened to Adagio. The "Amen" begins again simply in the bass and continuo. An intricate melody rises in four measures and one octave. Every other voice, tenor, alto, soprano, also sings the theme once.

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  4. Rather unexpectedly, a solo violin plays the theme, first unsupported, then assisted by a continuo entrance of the theme, interrupted by a choral four-part setting with the theme in the bass. After two more instrumental measures, a four-part-setting develops to imitation and counterpoint of more and more independent voices, ending on a rest of a full measure. Finally, Amen is repeated two more times, Adagio. A contemporary critic, conditioned by John Brown who objected to operatic features in oratorios such as recitatives, long ritornellos, and ornamented vocal lines, commented on Handel's display of musical inventiveness and "contrapuntal skill" [8]: Block summarized in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Structure of Handel's Messiah. I know that my redeemer liveth. Since by man came death. Behold, I tell you a mystery. The trumpet shall sound. Then shall be brought to pass. O death, where is thy sting? But thanks be to God. If God be for us, who can be against us. Jennens commented that the Sinfony contains "passages far unworthy of Handel, but much more unworthy of the Messiah"; [] Handel's early biographer Charles Burney merely found it "dry and uninteresting". The pastoral interlude that follows begins with the short instrumental movement, the Pifa , which takes its name from the shepherd-bagpipers, or pifferari , who played their pipes in the streets of Rome at Christmas time.

    The remainder of Part I is largely carried by the soprano in B flat, in what Burrows terms a rare instance of tonal stability.

    Messiah Part III - Wikipedia

    The second Part begins in G minor, a key which, in Hogwood's phrase, brings a mood of "tragic presentiment" to the long sequence of Passion numbers which follows. The sense of desolation returns, in what Hogwood calls the "remote and barbarous" key of B flat minor, for the tenor recitative "All they that see him". This, as Young points out, is not the climactic chorus of the work, although one cannot escape its "contagious enthusiasm". Commentators have noted that the musical line for this third subject is based on Wachet auf , Philipp Nicolai 's popular Lutheran chorale.

    The opening soprano solo in E major, "I know that my Redeemer liveth" is one of the few numbers in the oratorio that has remained unrevised from its original form. Handel's awkward, repeated stressing of the fourth syllable of "incorruptible" may have been the source of the 18th-century poet William Shenstone 's comment that he "could observe some parts in Messiah wherein Handel's judgements failed him; where the music was not equal, or was even opposite , to what the words required".

    The reflective soprano solo "If God be for us" originally written for alto quotes Luther 's chorale Aus tiefer Not. It ushers in the D major choral finale: Many early recordings of individual choruses and arias from Messiah reflect the performance styles then fashionable—large forces, slow tempi and liberal reorchestration. The first near-complete recording of the whole work with the cuts then customary [n 10] was conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham in It represented an effort by Beecham to "provide an interpretation which, in his opinion, was nearer the composer's intentions", with smaller forces and faster tempi than had become traditional.

    In the first recording based on Handel's original scoring was conducted by Hermann Scherchen for Nixa , [n 11] quickly followed by a version, judged scholarly at the time, under Sir Adrian Boult for Decca. They inaugurated a new tradition of brisk, small scale performances, with vocal embellishments by the solo singers. By the end of the s the quest for authenticity had extended to the use of period instruments and historically correct styles of playing them. The first of such versions were conducted by the early music specialists Christopher Hogwood and John Eliot Gardiner The latter employs a chorus of 24 singers and an orchestra of 31 players; Handel is known to have used a chorus of 19 and an orchestra of Several reconstructions of early performances have been recorded: The first published score of , together with Handel's documented adaptations and recompositions of various movements, has been the basis for many performing versions since the composer's lifetime.

    Modern performances which seek authenticity tend to be based on one of three 20th-century performing editions.

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    5. In addition to Mozart's well-known reorchestration, arrangements for larger orchestral forces exist by Goossens and Andrew Davis ; both have been recorded at least once, on the RCA [] and Chandos [] labels respectively. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Structure of Handel's Messiah.

      Part I Scene 1: Isaiah's prophecy of salvation 1. Comfort ye my people tenor 3. Ev'ry valley shall be exalted air for tenor 4. And the glory of the Lord anthem chorus Scene 2: The coming judgment 5. Thus saith the Lord of hosts accompanied recitative for bass 6. But who may abide the day of His coming soprano, alto or bass 7. And he shall purify the sons of Levi chorus Scene 3: The prophecy of Christ's birth 8.

      Behold, a virgin shall conceive alto 9. O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion air for alto and chorus For behold, darkness shall cover the earth bass The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light bass For unto us a child is born duet chorus Scene 4: The annunciation to the shepherds There were shepherds abiding in the fields secco recitative for soprano 14b. And lo, the angel of the Lord accompanied recitative for soprano And the angel said unto them secco recitative for soprano And suddenly there was with the angel accompanied recitative for soprano Glory to God in the highest chorus Scene 5: Christ's healing and redemption Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion soprano Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened secco recitative for soprano or alto His yoke is easy duet chorus Part II Scene 1: Behold the Lamb of God chorus He was despised and rejected of men alto Surely he hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows chorus And with his stripes we are healed fugue chorus All we like sheep have gone astray duet chorus All they that see him laugh him to scorn secco recitative for tenor He trusted in God that he would deliver him fugue chorus Thy rebuke hath broken his heart tenor or soprano Behold and see if there be any sorrow tenor or soprano Scene 2: Christ's Death and Resurrection He was cut off tenor or soprano But thou didst not leave his soul in hell tenor or soprano Scene 3: Lift up your heads, O ye gates chorus Scene 4: Christ's reception in Heaven Unto which of the angels tenor Let all the angels of God worship Him chorus Scene 5: The beginnings of Gospel preaching Thou art gone up on high soprano, alto, or bass The Lord gave the word chorus How beautiful are the feet soprano, alto, or chorus Their sound is gone out tenor or chorus Scene 6: The world's rejection of the Gospel Why do the nations so furiously rage together bass Let us break their bonds asunder chorus He that dwelleth in heaven tenor Scene 7: God's ultimate victory Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron tenor The promise of eternal life I know that my Redeemer liveth soprano Since by man came death chorus Scene 2: The Day of Judgment Behold, I tell you a mystery bass The trumpet shall sound bass Scene 3: The final conquest of sin Then shall be brought to pass alto O death, where is thy sting alto and tenor But thanks be to God chorus If God be for us, who can be against us soprano Scene 4: The acclamation of the Messiah Worthy is the Lamb chorus Amen chorus.

      Comfort ye my people. The article is absent from the proper title. Ebenezer Prout pointed out that the edition was published as "F. Mozarts Bearbeitung" — "nach" meaning after rather than in Mozart's arrangement. Prout noted that a Mozart edition of another Handel work, Alexander's Feast published in accordance with Mozart's manuscript, was printed as "mit neuer Bearbeitung von W.

      Mozart" "with new arrangement by W. Both recordings have appeared on other labels in both LP and CD formats. A copyright-free transfer of the version digitized from original vinyl discs by Nixa Records is available on YouTube: Sadie, Stanley ; Tyrrell, John , eds. Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 18 May Irish Arts Review — Gloucester, Three Choirs Festival, 30 July Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 13 February The Daily Universal Register.

      Journal of the Royal Musical Association. Preface to the New Edition, I". Retrieved 11 June Proceedings of the Musical Association, 30th Session — The New York Times. The Register Adelaide, S. Retrieved 22 May A Theater's Big Experiment". The Really Big Chorus. Retrieved 24 May Richard Hickox, Collegium Music Archived from the original PDF on 21 March Messiah arranged by Mozart ". Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 19 May A History of Jerusalem. Beecham, Sir Thomas Messiah — An Essay.


      CD Burrows, Donald Grout, Donald ; Palisca, Claude V. A History of Western Music 3rd ed. The Decca Recording Company Ltd. The story of Handel's "Messiah". The Lives and Times of the Great Composers. The Indebtedness of Handel to Works by other Composers. A Study in Interpretation. Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks. Retrieved from " https: