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Michael Symonds is the author of Apoc-Z Season 1 Bundle ( avg rating, 2 ratings, 0 reviews, published ), Max Weber's Theory of Modernity ( avg.
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- Postgame: Uprising III
- wesatimunogo.cf: Michael Symonds: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle
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- Michael Symonds
By August the war moved from a fluid one to garrisoning the territory that had been gained. Consequently, the Field Post Offices were converted into Stationary Army Post Offices and were issued with a new series of date stamps, which included the name of the town where the office was based. The TPO vans were improvised from large box trucks fitted out with sorting frames, tables etc. It occurred at about 3. Immediately the train was at a standstill, it was riddled from end to end with bullets.
By the time I got to the counter everything was removed.
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- History of the British Army postal service - Wikipedia.
Two Boers were filling their pockets with registered letters. I was ordered out of the coach By the end of the war the Army Post Office Corps was providing the mail service to both military and civilians alike in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony. To ensure the continuity of this postal service to the civilian population, personnel of the Army Post Office Corps were transferred to the colonial Post Office and remained in South Africa.
When the war began all ranks of the Army Post Office Corps were deployed. At the end of the war there were Army Post Office Corps soldiers deployed. During the war about , letters and newspapers and 12, parcels were delivered to the troops each week. They also assisted in the handling of mails for the troops from Australia, Canada, India and New Zealand. They kept up their military skills by participating in army manoeuvers every September from — This was in addition to the four other army units already recruited from the GPO.
These, with their commitments to the Royal Naval Reserve , had obvious staffing implications, which if not correctly managed could adversely impact on the civilian postal services. To address this situation the GPO called a meeting with War Office "to consider and report as to the relations between the postal and telegraph services and the Army; and as to the organisations already in existence or proposed for giving effect to those relations.
An interim report was submitted to the War Office and Postmaster General in April and the final report was issued, two years later, on Wednesday, 5 April In the final report, the Committee expressed the opinion that it was important that "the Postal Corps and the Army Signal Service should co-operate" and that they should be "placed on a common basis". The report went on to say that because the "Army Signal Service was a branch of the Corps of Royal Engineers " it therefore follows that the Postal Service should also serve under the aegis of the same Corps.
Their reasons for this conjugation were:. That in the field, economy and efficiency in dealing with correspondence would be increased, because of the synergies created through mutual assistance and co- operation between the two services. The movement of messages is not the exclusion of the Army Signal Service. That in both war and peace administration would be simplified. It would also facilitate an easier transfer of personnel from one branch to another, as well as helping the GPO to control and maintain enlistment to the services.
That it would allow personnel of both services to have the same conditions of enlistment, service and rates of pay. This would assist in recruitment as well as preventing jealously and friction between the services.
In the past the difference in pay between the telegraph reservists and the Army Post Office Corps had caused dissatisfaction. An affiliation between the Royal Engineers and GPO had been formed in as a means of training members of the Corps in telegraphic skills. The RE PS operated in all theatres of war and where expedient their service was dovetailed into the services of the Dominion troops principally Australian, Canadian, Indian and New Zealand army postal services.
Staffing - Members of the RE PS were almost exclusively recruited from the General Post Office GPO and at the start of the war had an establishment of 10 officers and other ranks, by the end of the war the establishment was approx. It was then despatched to embarkation ports and loaded on vessels for transportation to the theatre's BAPO.
At the BAPO the mail was sorted and loaded onto supply trains for transportation to the railhead. Homeward bound mail was sent in the reverse direction back to the BAPO, which would be responsible for loading it onto vessels bound for the UK. BAPOs were deployed  as follows:. Army Post Offices APO were stationary offices usually located on the lines of communications and rear areas. They also encashed postal orders and handled registered mail.
In May he took over responsibility for the mail services to the theatres outside the BEF. Volumes of letter mails continued to grow see Fig 1 so in it was deemed appropriate to outsource some of the work to provincial offices Birmingham, Bristol, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester and Sheffield. These offices sent despatches direct to the BAPOs.
In the same year the German U-boat campaign against the British merchant marine was successfully limiting supply of goods and materials to the UK and this was reflected in the decline in the number of parcels being sent to troops overseas see Fig 2 , which reached a peak of over 1 million in April but dropped to , by April rationing was introduced in January The transport requirements of the Depot were met at first by the London Postal Service through the existing Civil Post Office contract but owing to labour shortages in the autumn of the contractor could no longer carry on.
Such was the demand that at one time the company had an establishment of men and three-ton lorries. It remained in Le Havre for the rest of the war. The upheaval to the postal lines of communication caused by the retreat and re-deployment highlighted the inadequacies of dependency on the supply system for the movement of mail therefore in November the APS obtained lorries to transport mail between the railheads and set in motion what was to become a very efficient cross-post service.
Although there was a lack of experience on which to base a traffic forecast for Christmas the APS prudently temporarily increased the staff by and obtained use of a further 50 lorries, as well as, getting agreement that all available trains could be used for despatches to the front. In the event Christmas passed without major incident with the APS delivering two million letters and half a million parcels.
The APS continued to re-organise itself to meet the challenges of the changing tactical situation and an increase in troop levels on the Western Front.
Postgame: Uprising III
Packet boat connections were introduced between Folkestone and Boulogne where a BAPO was established in January, which improved the transit times for mails from 4 days to 2 days. In his dispatch of 5 April the CinC, Sir John French , put the high quality of the postal service on official record when he reported that:. The Army Postal Service has continued to work well and at the present time a letter posted in London is delivered at GHQ or at Headquarters of Army or Corps on the following evening and reaches an addressee in the trenches on the second day of posting. The delivery of parcels has also been accelerated and is carried out with regularity and dispatch.
The Depot, whose primary responsibility was to collect, sort and despatch military mail to its final destination, also acted as a recruitment, training and reinforcement depot, as well as, a Records Office for the RE PS and a supply centre for Postal units worldwide. It remained in Nottingham until The HPC RE was organised into several departments and branches, each responsible for their own part of the postal operation. It is a sad fact that during war battlefield casualties invariably produce large quantities of undeliverable mail.
In the field, such mail that comes to hand in the units was checked against unit records and disposed of appropriately. These detachments checked the mail against the Field Records. If that proved unsuccessful the letter was eventually returned to the sender. In the cases where the addressee had been 'killed in action' or was reported 'missing' extreme care was taken to ensure that returned mail did not arrive at the sender's address before the official notification had been issued.
The defensive scheme required that the Army Postal Service APS form a nationwide postal distribution network for military units. Units were responsible for collecting from, and delivering their mail to their allocated APDC, this system remained in place until the end of the war. As part of this system the concept of the "Closed" address e.
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The closed address concept was the forerunner of today's BFPO address system. The APS provided mail collection and distribution facilities, sold stamps, postal orders and postal stationary, as well as, providing a Telegram service. The APS handled an average of 9, mailbags a day. This improved the transit time to 2—3 days. Postal personnel and their mails were evacuated from Dunkirk during 23 May - 6 June Sapper later Lieutenant Colonel John Turver described his first sight of the beaches and the process of evacuation:. What a sight met our eyes, as far as could be seen the sand was covered by a winding column of men who were patiently waiting their turn to go to the mole and on to the jetty.
The system which was in operation was that groups of fifty men had to be formed under a chosen leader, and then only would they take their place in the waiting column. All this time we carried with us our cumbersome cash box which was our stock of several hundred pounds worth of stamps and Postal Orders Cheerfully we attached ourselves to a crowd of RE's who were forming their own company into several parties of fifty.
Sapper Turver was successfully evacuated, as was Colonel Roberts and his Postal Directorate, but on his arrival in Dover Roberts was immediately ordered back to Cherbourg to organise the evacuation of the rear area Postal units and any outstanding mails. His entries for 9—10 June give some insight into the confusion that reigned immediately after the fall of Dunkirk, he recorded:. Trucks of inward UK mails bags received at station [Lisieux] and dealt with.
HQ Rouen Sub area, Signals and other small units obtained mail but in general unit mail remained on hand as unit locations were not available. Moreover "G" staff Capt Harper informed me that the Postal Unit must be kept mobile ready to make another move at short notice. ADST seen and a lorry requisitioned for transport of mail. Beauman Div called and collected mail, A Div did not call. Party left at Mezidon on Colonel Robert's instructions for requisition trucks. Telephonic communication with Le Havre not possible after 12 noon.
Information received that Beauman Div already moved to Le Mans area at about 9. The entries after this date become sparser and terser as the situation became more desperate, however, the unit was eventually evacuated intact from St Malo. At the time that war was declared peace-time garrison troops stationed in North Africa and the Middle East were using the civilian postal services, as they had done since , but by July , under a special arrangement with the Egyptian government, a Base APO was established in Cairo and the Royal Engineers Postal Section were allowed to run their own post offices and collect the resulting revenue.
Postal units were deployed with their formations throughout North Africa and the Middle East. Surface mail routes through the Mediterranean became extremely vulnerable once Italy entered the war in June and by mid, after Germany had conquered the Balkan regions, the direct air service to Cairo was cut. This meant that new routes for mail had to be found. Surface mail was sent via the Cape of Good Hope and an air route was forged across the southern edge of the Sahara desert from Takoradi, West Africa to Khartoum, Sudan.
From there it was carried north by rail. These new routes were slower than the old routes and in a very short time they began to have an adverse effect on the morale of both the troops and their families. The situation was aggravated by the uncertainty and casualties caused by the German bombing of the major cities of Britain and the enemy U-boat action against the convoy ships carrying mails and supplies. The mail, if it got through at all, could take 4—8 weeks to do so. To improve the service it was necessary to find a way to lighten the mail so that more of it could be carried by air.
The airgraph was invented in the s by the Eastman Kodak Company inconjuction with Imperial Airways now British Airways and Pan-American Airways as a means of reducing the weight and bulk of mail carried by air. The airgraph forms, upon which the letter was written, were photographed and then sent as negatives on rolls of microfilm. At their destination the negatives were printed on photographic paper and delivered as airgraph letters through the normal APS or GPO systems.
This eventually lead to a service being instituted between England and Egypt in when 70, airgraphs were sent in the first batch and took three weeks to reach their destination. Kodak had offices in Cairo that were capable of processing airgraph negatives, but it was not until the appropriate equipment arrived from America that their Cairo office That the APS was able to provide a return service to the UK.here
wesatimunogo.cf: Michael Symonds: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle
In the theatres of war the whole airgraph operation was coordinated by the APS. The use of the airgraph was not rationed and its postage was also set at three pence 3d. Although the airgraph proved to be immediately popular its use was limited because of its size approx; 2ins x 3ins and lack of privacy, so when sufficient aircraft capacity became available its use declined in favour of the air letter. The airgraph service was later extended to: Use British stamps from all countries, including Egypt.
On 1 March , the service between the Middle East and the UK was started, using a combination of Imperial Airways seaplanes and military transport.
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The postage on each air letter was three pence 3d and, due to limited air capacity, they were initially rationed at one per man per month but towards the end of the war, as more capacity became available, the ration was lifted. The private nature of the air letter ensured its popularity among its users and that popularity, with its lightness, brought about its continued use as today's civilian air letter aerogrammes and the military "bluey".
This was worsened by the fact that a convoy carrying the Christmas mails was sunk. After consultation between the military authorities and the APS air links with the UK were established and both air letter and airgraph services were made available. Kodak established an airgraph processing station in Algiers, which was later to process the airgraphs sent by troops engaged in the Italian Campaign. In theatre the mails were carried along the North African coast to the front lines by sea, rail and vehicles. The road service that operated over miles from Algiers to the front was described as having "the regularity of a town collection in peacetime Britain".
A staff officer with the 6th Armoured Division commented that "As soon as the tanks pulled out of battle, there was the mail wanting for them — incredible. These invasions were the first major amphibious operations of the war. FPOs were established on the beachheads during the landings at Salerno and Anzio. On two occasions mails leaving the Anizo beaches onboard LST were lost to enemy action. Mails were distributed within the VIII Army operational areas by truck that were augmented by rail and air, which were developed to provide an internal mail service to troops as they moved north.
Surface mails entered and exited via Naples, Bari, and Taranto. Until the liberation of Paris on 25 August airmail was staged through Gibraltar on its way between the UK and Naples, but after that date a more direct air route over France was established, which reduced the transit time for airmails to the Italian and Far East theatres. The mail services for troops serving in the Far East was administered and provided by three agencies: There was a limited airmail service in operation between India and Britain that followed the Empire air post service routes across the Middle East.
After the fall of Singapore and the retreat from Burma in the military postal services in India came to a virtual standstill because a serious backlog of undeliverable mail had built up at the IAPS Postal Clearing Section, Bombay now Mumbai. A situation that prompted complaints to be heard in the Houses of Parliament.
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