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of Viking invasions, Alfred battled fiercely and suffered heroically in leading his . 5 S. Keynes, 'King Alfred the Great and Shaftesbury Abbey', Studies in the . him, originated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: notably, his expedition to Rome in and the story of Alfred and the cakes was first told in the Vitaprima S. Neoti
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One ship escaped, because Alfred's heavy ships became grounded when the tide went out. The Danes were heavily outnumbered, but as the tide rose they returned to their boats which, with shallower drafts, were freed first. The English watched as the Vikings rowed past them. All were too damaged to row around Sussex and two were driven against the Sussex coast possibly at Selsey Bill. In the late s or early s Alfred issued a long domboc or law code consisting of his "own" laws, followed by a code issued by his late seventh-century predecessor King Ine of Wessex. In his introduction Alfred explains that he gathered together the laws he found in many " synod -books" and "ordered to be written many of the ones that our forefathers observed—those that pleased me; and many of the ones that did not please me, I rejected with the advice of my councillors, and commanded them to be observed in a different way".
Offa is not known to have issued a law code leading historian Patrick Wormald to speculate that Alfred had in mind the legatine capitulary of that was presented to Offa by two papal legates. About a fifth of the law code is taken up by Alfred's introduction which includes translations into English of the Ten Commandments , a few chapters from the Book of Exodus , and the "Apostolic Letter" from the Acts of the Apostles The Introduction may best be understood as Alfred's meditation upon the meaning of Christian law.
By doing so, it linked the holy past to the historical present and represented Alfred's law-giving as a type of divine legislation. Similarly Alfred divided his code into chapters because was the age at which Moses died and, in the number-symbolism of early medieval biblical exegetes, stood for law. The only crime that could not be compensated with a payment of money was treachery to a lord "since Almighty God adjudged none for those who despised Him, nor did Christ, the Son of God, adjudge any for the one who betrayed Him to death; and He commanded everyone to love his lord as Himself".
When one turns from the domboc's introduction to the laws themselves it is difficult to uncover any logical arrangement. The impression one receives is of a hodgepodge of miscellaneous laws. The law code, as it has been preserved, is singularly unsuitable for use in lawsuits. In fact several of Alfred's laws contradicted the laws of Ine that form an integral part of the code. Patrick Wormald's explanation is that Alfred's law code should be understood not as a legal manual but as an ideological manifesto of kingship "designed more for symbolic impact than for practical direction".
Alfred devoted considerable attention and thought to judicial matters. Asser underscores his concern for judicial fairness.
Birth of England: The Wessex Kings
Alfred, according to Asser, insisted upon reviewing contested judgments made by his ealdormen and reeves and "would carefully look into nearly all the judgements which were passed [issued] in his absence anywhere in the realm to see whether they were just or unjust". Asser represents Alfred as a Solomonic judge, painstaking in his own judicial investigations and critical of royal officials who rendered unjust or unwise judgments. Although Asser never mentions Alfred's law code he does say that Alfred insisted that his judges be literate so that they could apply themselves "to the pursuit of wisdom".
The failure to comply with this royal order was to be punished by loss of office. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , commissioned at the time of Alfred, was probably written to promote unification of England,  whereas Asser's The Life of King Alfred promoted Alfred's achievements and personal qualities. It was possible that the document was designed this way so that it could be disseminated in Wales, as Alfred had recently acquired overlordship of that country.
Asser speaks grandiosely of Alfred's relations with foreign powers but little definite information is available. Alfred personally collected details of this trip. Alfred's relations with the Celtic princes in the western half of Britain are clearer. Comparatively early in his reign, according to Asser, the southern Welsh princes, owing to the pressure on them from North Wales and Mercia , commended themselves to Alfred.
Later in his reign the North Welsh followed their example and the latter cooperated with the English in the campaign of or That Alfred sent alms to Irish and Continental monasteries may be taken on Asser's authority. The visit of the three pilgrim "Scots" i. Irish to Alfred in is undoubtedly authentic. The story that he himself in his childhood was sent to Ireland to be healed by Saint Modwenna , though mythical, may show Alfred's interest in that island. In the s, at the same time that he was "cajoling and threatening" his nobles to build and man the burhs , Alfred, perhaps inspired by the example of Charlemagne almost a century before, undertook an equally ambitious effort to revive learning.
This revival entailed the recruitment of clerical scholars from Mercia, Wales and abroad to enhance the tenor of the court and of the episcopacy ; the establishment of a court school to educate his own children, the sons of his nobles, and intellectually promising boys of lesser birth; an attempt to require literacy in those who held offices of authority; a series of translations into the vernacular of Latin works the king deemed "most necessary for all men to know";  the compilation of a chronicle detailing the rise of Alfred's kingdom and house, with a genealogy that stretched back to Adam, thus giving the West Saxon kings a biblical ancestry.
Very little is known of the church under Alfred. The Danish attacks had been particularly damaging to the monasteries. Although Alfred founded monasteries at Athelney and Shaftesbury, these were the first new monastic houses in Wessex since the beginning of the eighth century. Alfred undertook no systematic reform of ecclesiastical institutions or religious practices in Wessex. For him the key to the kingdom's spiritual revival was to appoint pious, learned, and trustworthy bishops and abbots. As king he saw himself as responsible for both the temporal and spiritual welfare of his subjects.
Secular and spiritual authority were not distinct categories for Alfred. He was equally comfortable distributing his translation of Gregory the Great 's Pastoral Care to his bishops so that they might better train and supervise priests and using those same bishops as royal officials and judges. Nor did his piety prevent him from expropriating strategically sited church lands, especially estates along the border with the Danelaw, and transferring them to royal thegns and officials who could better defend them against Viking attacks.
The Danish raids had a devastating effect on learning in England. Alfred lamented in the preface to his translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care that "learning had declined so thoroughly in England that there were very few men on this side of the Humber who could understand their divine services in English or even translate a single letter from Latin into English: Manuscript production in England dropped off precipitously around the s when the Viking invasions began in earnest, not to be revived until the end of the century.
And a solemn diploma from Christ Church, Canterbury , dated , is so poorly constructed and written that historian Nicholas Brooks posited a scribe who was either so blind he could not read what he wrote or who knew little or no Latin. Following the example of Charlemagne , Alfred established a court school for the education of his own children, those of the nobility, and "a good many of lesser birth".
Alfred's educational ambitions seem to have extended beyond the establishment of a court school. Believing that without Christian wisdom there can be neither prosperity nor success in war, Alfred aimed "to set to learning as long as they are not useful for some other employment all the free-born young men now in England who have the means to apply themselves to it". There were few "books of wisdom" written in English.
Alfred sought to remedy this through an ambitious court-centred programme of translating into English the books he deemed "most necessary for all men to know". Alfred was, until recently, often considered to have been the author of many of the translations but this is now considered doubtful in almost all cases. Scholars more often refer to translations as "Alfredian" indicating that they probably had something to do with his patronage but are unlikely to be his own work. Apart from the lost Handboc or Encheiridio , which seems to have been a commonplace book kept by the king, the earliest work to be translated was the Dialogues of Gregory the Great , a book greatly popular in the Middle Ages.
The translation was undertaken at Alfred's command by Werferth , Bishop of Worcester , with the king merely furnishing a preface. Augustine 's Soliloquies and the first fifty psalms of the Psalter. One might add to this list the translation, in Alfred's law code, of excerpts from the Vulgate Book of Exodus.
The Old English versions of Orosius 's Histories against the Pagans and Bede 's Ecclesiastical History of the English People are no longer accepted by scholars as Alfred's own translations because of lexical and stylistic differences. The preface of Alfred's translation of Pope Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care explained why he thought it necessary to translate works such as this from Latin into English. Although he described his method as translating "sometimes word for word, sometimes sense for sense", the translation actually keeps very close to the original although, through his choice of language, he blurred throughout the distinction between spiritual and secular authority.
Alfred meant the translation to be used, and circulated it to all his bishops. Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy was the most popular philosophical handbook of the Middle Ages. Unlike the translation of the Pastoral Care the Alfredian text deals very freely with the original and, though the late Dr. Schepss showed that many of the additions to the text are to be traced not to the translator himself  but to the glosses and commentaries which he used, still there is much in the work which is distinctive to the translation and has been taken to reflect philosophies of kingship in Alfred's milieu.
It is in the Boethius that the oft-quoted sentence occurs: I desired to live worthily as long as I lived, and after my life to leave to them that should come after, my memory in good works. In one of these  the writing is prose, in the other  a combination of prose and alliterating verse. The latter manuscript was severely damaged in the 18th and 19th centuries. The last of the Alfredian works is one which bears the name Blostman , i.
The first half is based mainly on the Soliloquies of St Augustine of Hippo , the remainder is drawn from various sources. The material has traditionally been thought to contain much that is Alfred's own and highly characteristic of him. The last words of it may be quoted; they form a fitting epitaph for the noblest of English kings.
The Proverbs of Alfred , a thirteenth-century work, contains sayings that are not likely to have originated with Alfred but attest to his posthumous medieval reputation for wisdom. It was at one time attached to a thin rod or stick based on the hollow socket at its base. The jewel certainly dates from Alfred's reign. Historian Richard Abels sees Alfred's educational and military reforms as complementary.
Restoring religion and learning in Wessex, Abels contends, was to Alfred's mind as essential to the defence of his realm as the building of the burhs. The portrayal of the West-Saxon resistance to the Vikings by Asser and the chronicler as a Christian holy war was more than mere rhetoric or 'propaganda'. It reflected Alfred's own belief in a doctrine of divine rewards and punishments rooted in a vision of a hierarchical Christian world order in which God is the Lord to whom kings owe obedience and through whom they derive their authority over their followers.
The need to persuade his nobles to undertake work for the 'common good' led Alfred and his court scholars to strengthen and deepen the conception of Christian kingship that he had inherited by building upon the legacy of earlier kings such as Offa as well as clerical writers such as Bede, Alcuin and the other luminaries of the Carolingian renaissance.
This was not a cynical use of religion to manipulate his subjects into obedience but an intrinsic element in Alfred's worldview. He believed, as did other kings in ninth-century England and Francia, that God had entrusted him with the spiritual as well as physical welfare of his people. If the Christian faith fell into ruin in his kingdom, if the clergy were too ignorant to understand the Latin words they butchered in their offices and liturgies, if the ancient monasteries and collegiate churches lay deserted out of indifference, he was answerable before God, as Josiah had been.
Alfred's ultimate responsibility was the pastoral care of his people. Asser wrote of Alfred in his Life of King Alfred:. Now, he was greatly loved, more than all his brothers, by his father and mother—indeed, by everybody—with a universal and profound love, and he was always brought up in the royal court and nowhere else.
It is also written by Asser that Alfred did not learn to read until he was twelve years old or later, which is described as "shameful negligence" of his parents and tutors. Alfred was an excellent listener and had an incredible memory and he retained poetry and psalms very well. A story is told by Asser about how his mother held up a book of Saxon poetry to him and his brothers, and said; "I shall give this book to whichever one of you can learn it the fastest.
Alfred is also noted as carrying around a small book, probably a medieval version of a small pocket notebook, which contained psalms and many prayers that he often collected. Although he was the youngest of his brothers, he was probably the most open-minded. He was an early advocate for education. His desire for learning could have come from his early love of English poetry and inability to read or physically record it until later in life.
Asser writes that Alfred "could not satisfy his craving for what he desired the most, namely the liberal arts; for, as he used to say, there were no good scholars in the entire kingdom of the West Saxons at that time". The Gaini were probably one of the tribal groups of the Mercians. Ealhswith's mother, Eadburh, was a member of the Mercian royal family. They had five or six children together including: It was confirmed in that these remains belong to her—one of the earliest members of the English royal family. Osferth was described as a relative in King Alfred's will and he attested charters in a high position until A charter of King Edward's reign described him as the king's brother, "mistakenly" according to Keynes and Lapidge, but in the view of Janet Nelson he probably was an illegitimate son of King Alfred.
Alfred died on 26 October His biographer Asser gave a detailed description of Alfred's symptoms and this has allowed modern doctors to provide a possible diagnosis. It is thought that he had either Crohn's disease or haemorrhoidal disease. Alfred was originally buried temporarily in the Old Minster in Winchester. Four years after his death he was moved to the New Minster perhaps built especially to receive his body. When the New Minster moved to Hyde, a little north of the city, in , the monks were transferred to Hyde Abbey along with Alfred's body and those of his wife and children, which were presumably interred before the high altar.
Soon after the dissolution of the abbey in , during the reign of Henry VIII , the church was demolished, leaving the graves intact. The royal graves and many others were probably rediscovered by chance in when a prison was being constructed by convicts on the site. Prisoners dug across the width of the altar area in order to dispose of rubble left at the dissolution. Coffins were stripped of lead, and bones were scattered and lost. The prison was demolished between and These later came into the possession of the vicar of nearby St Bartholomew's Church who reburied them in an unmarked grave in the church graveyard.
Excavations conducted by the Winchester Museums Service of the Hyde Abbey site in located a second pit dug in front of where the high altar would have been located, which was identified as probably dating to Mellor's excavation. Bones suggested at the time to be those of Alfred proved instead to belong to an elderly woman. In March , the Diocese of Winchester exhumed the bones from the unmarked grave at St Bartholomew's and placed them in secure storage. The diocese made no claim they were the bones of Alfred, but intended to secure them for later analysis, and from the attentions of people whose interest may have been sparked by the recent identification of the remains of King Richard III.
In January , a fragment of pelvis unearthed in the excavation of the Hyde site, which had subsequently lain in a Winchester museum store room, was radiocarbon-dated to the correct period. It has been suggested that this bone may belong to either Alfred or his son Edward , but this remains unproven.
Alfred is venerated as a saint by some Christian traditions,  but an attempt by Henry VI of England in to have him canonized by the pope was unsuccessful. Alfred commissioned Bishop Asser to write his biography, which inevitably emphasised Alfred's positive aspects. Later medieval historians, such as Geoffrey of Monmouth , also reinforced Alfred's favourable image. By the time of the Reformation Alfred was seen as being a pious Christian ruler who promoted the use of English rather than Latin, and so the translations that he commissioned were viewed as untainted by the later Roman Catholic influences of the Normans.
Consequently, it was writers of the sixteenth century who gave Alfred his epithet as 'the Great' rather than any of Alfred's contemporaries. One of the first items visible when entering the campus of Alfred University is a bronze statue of the king, created in by William Underhill. It features the king as a young man, holding a shield in his left hand and an open book in his right. A prominent statue of King Alfred the Great stands in the middle of Pewsey. It was unveiled in June to commemorate the coronation of King George V. After the arm and axe were replaced the statue was again vandalised on Christmas Eve , losing its axe.
The statue was designed by Hamo Thornycroft , and erected in to mark one thousand years since Alfred's death. It was sculpted by Isidore Konti in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Alfred the Great disambiguation and King Alfred disambiguation. Statue of Alfred the Great by Hamo Thornycroft in Winchester , unveiled during the millenary commemoration of Alfred's death. House of Wessex family tree. Londinium and Anglo-Saxon London. Ancestors of Alfred the Great 8. Ealhmund of Kent 4. Egbert of Wessex 2. Alfred the Great 6.
Cultural depictions of Alfred the Great. Anglo-Saxon England portal Saints portal. The Complete Genealogy , p. Originally the purpose of the chrisom-cloth was to keep the "chrism", a consecrated oil, from accidentally rubbing off. Abels , pp. See Case for and Case against. Retrieved 5 September Codicology of the court school of Charlemagne: Gospel book production, illumination, and emphasised script European university studies. Brill, , pp. Retrieved 13 January Statue of King Alfred, Alfred University, www. Retrieved 3 October Alfred the Great - Sculpture by Sir W. Find more about Alfred the Great at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Retrieved from " https: Alfred the Great births deaths 9th-century English monarchs 9th-century Christians Christian monarchs English Christians Medieval legislators Patrons of literature People from Wantage West Saxon monarchs House of Wessex 9th-century translators Translators of philosophy Translators from Latin Boat and ship designers. Views Read Edit View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. See also Jones , S. Jnl 1 , 68 — 75 ; Langford , P. For Blackmore's life and works, see the DNB. For Queen Caroline and the arts, see Millar , O. The terracotta bust of Alfred known from a photograph, reproduced in Eustace, Rysbrack , fig. There is an engraving, dated , of a portrait of King Alfred as one of a series of royal portraits at Kensington Palace.
Memoirs of King George II , ed. Brooke , I, The inscription on the pedestal of the statue of Alfred read as follows: This map can be compared with maps in Carlton House: Political Writings , ed. For pertinent comment, see Smith , , The Gothic Bequest , pp. Politics, Poetry, and National Myth, — Oxford , , pp. Stevenson , , pp.
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Stowe , , pp. Life of Johnson , ed. Keynes , , p. London , — , esp. II, navy , —6 trade , slavery , view of Frankpledge and learning. See Uglow , J. See also Langford , , England — , pp. London , — , originally published in weekly parts Wiles , , Serial Publication in England , pp. The plates are in the form of engraved portraits, for rulers from William I onwards.
Boyle is Included , 10 vols. London , — I, — on Alfred ; Biographia Britannica: See also Ryland , J. London , — , republished in weekly parts as 2nd ed. On the popularity of this work, see Wiles , , Serial Publication in England , pp. London , — , new ed. London , , reset in 6 vols.
An abridged edition of Hume's , History Chicago , , which does not include coverage of the Anglo-Saxon period, has an Introduction by R. Hume , , History of England [ ] 1 , —9 and London , I, —87, at —3, for an almanac issued by one of the Anti-Gallicans in —1, featuring a print which listed the pre-Conquest rulers of England.
See also Miles , , King Alfredin Literature , pp. For a synopsis of the plot, see Miles , , KingAlfred in Literature, pp. With Six Sonnets Oxford , Medallions of Alfred and Ethelred were among the items sold at the sale of the effects of a sculptor called Bridges in Gunnis , , Dictionary of British Sculptors , p.
See Whinney , M. The portrait of Alfred was based on the image devised by Vertue. For the inscription on his tomb in the parish church of Leeds, see Whitaker , T. See also Taylor , R. Bath , , pp. For an account of her writings, see Hill , B. Paris , I. See Dawson , R. Life and Prose Fiction , 2 vols. For his use of Alfred, see Jones , W. Washington, DC , — I, A Tragedy London , , 2nd ed. The tale of Alfred and Ethelwitha was derived from Baculard d'Arnaud above, n. London , IV, — The Universal History mentioned by Langford had first appeared part by part in 7 folio volumes —44 , ranging widely across the ancient world though including an account of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain in VII.
An edition ranging across the modern world first appeared in 44 octavo volumes —66 , but did not cover Great Britain. See Abbattista , G. The portraits include King Egbert opp. The headpieces include Vortigern and Rowena p. Publication of the portraits began in December , and was not completed until the summer of ; see Wiles , , Serial Publication in England , pp.
See also Haskell , F. They comprise the decorative headpieces, Vertue's symbolic portraits, drawings of particular monuments, and some additional portraits in vol. A Poet's Interpretation of the History of his own Times , 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ , , p. London , — I, 34 —5. For Baziliologia , see above, n. New Haven, CT , , pp. English Culture in the Eighteenth Century London , , esp.
London , XIV, —9. Haskell , , History and its Images , is concerned mainly with the use of art as historical evidence; but for the depiction of historical events in art, see esp. British History Painting, — , ed. Woodbridge , ; and Allen , B. Today 45 06 , 12 — See also Rochelle , M. For other important aspects of the subject, see Lippincott , L. Cannon-Brookes , , pp. It contains much useful information, which has to be used with caution. For Edwards, see further below, p.
London , , and Brewer , , Pleasures of the Imagination , pp. For the Knaptons, see Pope's Literary Legacy: See further below, n. The banner was used again by Samuel Wale in the s see further below. It should be noted that quite apart from the remarkable armour the composition displays no influence from the Bayeux Tapestry of which engravings were first published in —30, though not published in England until , and is to be compared in this respect with later representations of King Harold's death at the battle of Hastings, of which there are several.
Bennett, dated 12 Oct. See also Graves , A. A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their Work from the Foundation of the Societies to London , , with appendixes on the history of these organisations. London , — III , —2.
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The painting was engraved by Casali, c. An engraving by S. Ravenet was published by John Boydell in , entitled: London , — II , , and is now untraced; it does not appear to have been engraved. Mynors , et al. Its popularity may, however, reflect that of the various dramatic works on the same theme, e. Thomas Rymer's Edgar , ; above, n. William Mason's Elfrida onwards. The subject was depicted again by Wale c.
A preliminary sketch for this composition was sold at Christie's, 15 Feb. The finished painting was acquired by the Constable family, of Burton Constable Hall, East Yorkshire, where it remains; photograph in the Mellon Centre. The painting was engraved by Casali c. It was engraved again by S. The subject had been depicted by Wale in below, p. The subject had featured in the lower part of Vertue's portrait of Cnut, made in for the second folio edition of Rapin's History above, p.
The subject was depicted again by Edwards in below, p. The original painting appeared at auction in ibid. The picture seems not to have been engraved. The story is told by Rapin , , History of England [2nd ed. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for The mezzotint may have been first published some years earlier, and republished in Gesta regum Anglorum , ed. London , —6.
The subject had featured in one of the head-pieces in Rapin's History above, nn. See also Abrams , A. West is generally treated with studied contempt by art historians, not without reason: General Wolfe was killed at Quebec in Oxford , — VIII, 58 ; 2nd ed. Oxford , — VIII , 25 ; 3rd ed. Toulmin , 5 vols. London , — V , It is possible that the book in question survives at Belvok Casde, though it is not immediately identifiable in the reports made by the Historical Manuscripts Commission.
The original painting was recorded at Belvoir Casde in ibid. It is known from an engraving by J. Michel, published by Boydell in below, p. A small outline drawing of the picture is in Hamilton , G. London , — IV , no. For the subject, see above, n. Boydell became Alderman for Cheapside in For a reproduction in colour, see Hibbert , C.
New Haven, CT , I, no. Complete Writings Oxford , , pp. For Wale's earlier drawing of the same subject, see below, p. For discussion, see Erdman , , Blake: Prophet Against Empire , pp. The drawing is obviously a study for no. London , , Letter VII, pp. DCCXC , new ed.
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Bath , ; etc. For the success of serial publication of history in the first half of the eighteenth century, see Wiles , , Serial Publication in England , esp. London , — , published in parts by Wilson , J. The list of over subscribers shows that it reached deep into the professional middle classes throughout the country. London , — , published by J. Cooke, of Paternoster Row , London. Cooke, of Paternoster Row, London , with a list of over subscribers. It would appear that one or two of the plates were issued with each part, in an order which bore no relation to the progress of the narrative.
Instructions to the binder indicated where the plates were to be placed. Cooke], of Paternoster Row , London. Stratford , with a list of over subscribers; reissued in It would appear that one engraved plate was issued with each part, in an order which bore no relation to the progress of the narrative. London , — , published in multiple parts by J. Stratford , with a list of nearly 2, subscribers. Newbery ; Baxter , J. One hardly dares think how many more there may have been. New Haven , , pp. The fifth edition was seemingly not illustrated.
The original engravings were subsequently replaced by some inferior or even worse engravings based on the same drawings, found already in the fifteenth edition Grignion's engraving recurs in Mountague and Sydney , but was re-engraved by Debroche for Russel The same theme was depicted in one of the head-pieces in Rapin's History above, nn. Campbell , , pp. The drawing was re-engraved by Taylor for Sydney , and the act reattributed to Odun, Earl of Devon; used again in Russel Rapin , , History of England [2nd ed.
For Blake's drawing of the same subject, see above, p. For the source, see Rapin , , History of England [2nd ed. See also Clayton , , The English Print , pp. The subject had been incorporated in Vertue's symbolic portrait of Alfred above, pp. The constituent parts are numbered, but not dated. A second copy in the BL RB. For the activities of the Paternoster Row publishers, and their ilk, in a different field, see Adams , B.
London , — , with numerous plates, in a rude and uncorrected state. Followed by Strutt , J. London , , with numerous plates, with improvements. Kearsly, 46 Fleet Street, London. Preliminary sketches for all of these compositions are to be found in the album of Smirke's drawings sold at Christie's, 11 July , Lot 5. I am grateful to Dr Jane Cunningham for drawing this album to my attention. The series includes 22 engravings of drawings of Anglo-Saxon subjects. User's Guide London , , p.
There are copies of this catalogue in the BL See also Bruntjen , , John Boydell , pp. The copy was engraved by W. Sharp, and the engraving was published by John Boydell in The engraving is reproduced in The Painted Word , ed. Cannon-Brookes , , p. The subject Rapin , , History of England [2nd ed.
Thompson, and published on 1 Jan. London , , printed by T. See Jessop , , Bibliography of Hume , p. The fact that Bowyer's edition was published only by subscription means that copies may have found their way more easily into the private libraries of the well-to-do than into the public domain. The paintings were sold by Peter Coxe on 29—30 May The Hague , — I [—], no. It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by Delatre, and published in Smith, and published in Agnew and Sons in ; photograph in the Mellon Centre.
It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by J. Stow, and published in It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by W. Bromley, and published in See also Webster , M. Skelton, and published in Walker, and may in fact have been based on an engraving of the portrait in the Bodleian Library. It was engraved for the Historic Gallery by I.
Taylor, and published in ; reproduced in Hammelmann , , Book Illustrators , fig. Wale's earlier drawing of the same subject above, p. Noble, and published in See also Binyon , L. Smith, The Business of Watercolour: There is an excellent picture on the subject by Westall. The Diary of Joseph Farington , ed. Garlick , et al. Martin is known to have presented a picture of Alfred to the Bodleian Library in Oxford , , For the publisher, see Ford , J. The full set, first published by J. In iconographic terms, Stothard was following Wale above, p.
For a reproduction in colour, see Yorke , B. It was engraved again by G. Versions of the same composition, based on one or other of the engravings, were made by the American artists J. Hall in and Thomas Sully in For the latter, see Biddle , E. Aspects of English Culture at Stourhead to Oxford , , pp. Sotheby's, 6 July , Lot One of the roundels on the base carries the inscription in Latin: In its final abbre viated form, the inscription reads as follows: To him we owe the origin of juries, the establishment of a militia, the creation of a naval force. Alfred, the light of a benighted age, was a philosopher and a Christian; the father of his people, the founder of the English monarchy and liberty.
His Life and Campaigns Bath , , pp. See also Remarks and Collections , ed. A preliminary drawing for the composition is in the Ashmolean Museum: Catalogue of the Collection of Drawings , IV: For Wale's later work, see above, pp. It seems not to be clear whether the portrait which now hangs in the library is the orig inal, or Pine's copy. Newdigate was an undergraduate at Univ in the late s, and from to politically active as MP for the University.
He was the founder of the Newdigate Prize for poetry, first awarded in There is a very similar painting, without the inscription naming Skeffington, in the Master's Dining Room. It was removed to the Library in , where it remains looking down the library towards the enormous statue of Lord Eldon, on whom see below ; for a reproduction of it, see Lees , , Alfred the Great , opp. In Jacob Bouverie, who had succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Radnor in , proposed the foundation of a University College Dining Club, established in , and gave it a strong sense of Alfredian identity; see Mitchell , L.
I am most grateful to Christine Ritchie for her assistance in connection with the various items of Alfrediana at University College. For the story of his Oxford examination, see Petterson , D. I owe this reference to the kindness of Dr John Pickles.
It is next recorded in the hands of the Revd George North —72 , who remarked on its importance in a letter to the Revd William Cole, 25 Sept. See Liber Vitae , ed. For further details, see Liber Vitae , ed. Keynes , , pp. Hibbert , , p. Winchester , — , 2nd ed. I, , and II, For an illustration, see Bogan , P. A plaster cast of the stone was preserved in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries in the early nine teenth century Way , A. For further investi gations into the burial-place of King Alfred, see below, pp.
He soon after regained pos session of the throne; and in grateful remembrance of the protection he had received, under the favour of Heaven, he erected a monastery on this spot, and endowed it with all the lands contained in the Isle of Athelney. To perpetuate the memory of so remarkable an incident in the life of that illustrious prince, this edifice was founded by John Slade, Esq.
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Myths and Mysteries , pp. Francis Wise had suggested in that the White Horse at Uffington marked the site of the English victory at Ashdown in ; see above, n. London , , esp. I, — , and II, 1 — See also Burrow , J. Victorian Historians and the English Past Cambridge , , pp. Research 71 , — See further Dunkling , L.
Enfield , , pp. For an impression of Coleridge's views on Alfred, see Coleridge , S. New York , ; see also Cotttle , J. For discussion of the poem, see Miles , , King Alfred in Literature , pp. London , II , London , — It would appear from Roscoe's preface I, viii that a few copies of the first volume were privately printed, in , only to be recalled afterwards by the author.
I owe my knowl edge of this letter to the kindness of Stewart Lyon. Oxford , , 91 —2. Darbishire Oxford, , Newnham , Alfred the Great: The friezes are just visible in Harris , J. An Historical Play London , For a synopsis of the plot, see Miles , , King Alfred in Literature , pp. Royalty, Politics, War and Sport Woodbridge , , p. London , I , 46 — 55 , with a woodcut of the young Alfred at his mother's knee p. Mangnall's , Richmal Historical and Miscellaneous Questions for the Use of Young People was also influential at the same level throughout the first half of the nineteenth century.
London , I. See also The Houses of Parliament , ed. For a review of the exhibition, see The Art-Union 5 , —12 ; and for a depiction of the scene, see Strong , R. Reproduced from the lithograph in Temple , A. A lithograph of the cartoon, engraved by H. For a description of the composition, identifying the figures including Grimbald, Asser, and others , see The Book of Art , ed.
Hunt , , p. Hunt , , pp. For a scathing review of the exhibition, see The Art-Union 6 , —19 ; see also ibid. For his painting of Cnut and the waves, see above, n. For a review of the exhibition, see The Art-Union 7 , —4 sculpture and —9 cartoons. See Gunnis , , Dictionary of British Sculptors , pp.
To judge from further sections of the same report, the commissioners had it in mind to accord Alfred a special place in the central Hall at Westminster. See Ormond , R. The cartoon is at Stamford High School. London , ; cf. For the wider context of this and other Art-Union competitions, see King , L. Oxford , ; Clarke , O.
Cambridge, MA , — , and Haydon , F. Correspondence and Table-Talk , 2 vols. See also George , , Haydon , pp. Haydon's study for the head of Alfred, dated , was sold at Sotheby's, 19 Nov. See also Hayter , A. Scenes of London Literary Life in London , , pp. Hervey, in which Alfred exhorts the children to good deeds. Other statuettes of Alfred were exhibited at the Academy in by H.
Armstead and by D. Punch 5 , 22 , etc. For comment on the predictability of subjects exhibited at the Royal Academy, see Punch 34 , For the treatment of the art exhibitions in Punch , see also Altick , R. Punch 14 , parody of Cnut and the waves ; ibid. Memoirs of a Most Respectable Family , ed.
The Christmas Books of Mr. Titmarsh London , , at pp. London , — 1 , — Pauli , , Life of Alfred , pp.