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Table of contents

In the case of the Ist conjugation the a of the termination -are changes to e: In addition to its ordinary meanings the Italian future tense can be employed to express probability without any idea of future time: Noi, " us ", is what is known as a disjunctive pronoun, that is to say, it can be used apart from a verb see No. A preposition is always followed by a disjunctive, not conjunc- tive, pronoun: The form noi is the same whether used as the sub- ject of a verb or after a preposition: Amici, " friends ", is the plural of the masculine noun amico. The rule is that nouns ending in -CO form their plural in -chi if the stress is on the penultimate, syllable, otherwise in -ci: There are, however, a number of exceptions to this rule and amico is one of them.

Come siete puntuali, " how punctual you are! Note that the greater part of the conversation is carried on in this " familiar " form, which is sometimes used when addressing inferiors i. It is also the form found in business communications, in advertisements and speeches, etc. The same form voi is employed for both singular and plural. In exclamations of this type the adjective or adverb qualified by come remains in the place it would occupy in the positive sentence siete puntuali, " you are punctual " , whereas in English the order is reversed and the adverb or adjective precedes the verb: As an adverb molto is, of course, invariable: Lo siamo anche noi, " so are we ", lit.

Vi ringraziamo, " we thank you ". Personal pronouns are divided into two classes, conjunctive and disjunctive ; the former are those used as direct object of a verb or as indirect object without a preposition ; the latter are those used as subject of a verb or after a preposition. It will be seen that conjunctive pronouns usually precede the verb, the exceptions being as follows: When the verb is an infinitive, positive imperative, present participle or a past participle used apart from an auxiliary, the pronoun follows the verb and is joined to it to form one word: The above rules do not apply to loro, which always follows the verb, but it is never joined to it: Verbs in -ciare and -giare drop the i before e or i: Di cuore, " heartily'', lit.

Signori, used in this sense, includes all those present, whether ladies or gentlemen. Andiamo might mean " we are going " or " let us go ", but the context tells us that the latter phrase is intended. Questo e il suo, " this is yours ". When the possessive pronoun is used predicatively and itself bears the stress, the definite article is omitted, but when the stress falls on the noun or pronoun to which the possessive refers, the article must be added. In other words, if the clause containing the possessive answers a question beginning with " whose?

Yours Questo posto k 11 suo. This place is yours Which place? Versate del vino al signore, " pour the gentleman out some wine ", " pour out some wine for the gentleman ". Note the construction of the Italian sentence. Fdmino pure, " do smoke! Note the change to the polite imperative, which is formed from the 3rd person of the present subjunctive. Fumei6 is the 1st person singular, future tense, of the verb fumdre.

Vi, " to you ", has the same form as the direct object: See also lesson 6, No. Serata, " evening ", " evening party ". Seratd' has the idea of duration: In casa vostia, " in your home ", " at your house ". The definite article is omitted in a few standing phrases like the above and then the possessive usually follows the noun.

Da parte mia, " from me " ;. Non la dimenticheremo, " we shall not forget it ". La is the object-pronoun of essa: It is feminine because it refers to la serata. Dimenticheremo, " we shall forget ", is the Ist person plurab future tense, of the verb dimenticire, " to forget ". Verbs whose infinitives end in -care or -gare insert h after or g wherever these letters precede eor i. This is to keep the hard sound of the consonant: Noi, " we ", is here used for emphasis. The English construction " come and.

The conjunction '' and " is omitted and the verb of motion governs a dependent infinitive: Ci may be direct or indirect object ; e. This is a frequent construction in Italian. The definite article before the infinitive is sometimes omitted see No. Note that any part of speech other than a noun is always masculine when used substantivally. It may mean " congenial ", " attractive ", " likeable ", " pleasant ", etc. Irregular verb found in Lesson 5.

La sera, " in the evening ". In adverbial expressions of time of this kind the preposition " in " is not used in Italian. Nella mia camera, " into my bedroom ". The preposition in may express a state of rest or motion, as in the following examples: When the meaning is clear, the reflexive pronoun is not inserted in English, but it must not be omitted in Italian.

As regards position, the reflexive pronouns follow the same rules as the conjunctive see No. Vado a letto, ''I go to bed ". Note the construction, which is here the same as the English. In Italian -some of these phrases omit the article where it is inserted in English, e. Prima, " at first ", is here an adverb. As a preposition it must be followed by di: Insieme ad, " together with ", lit.

Note the addition of d to a before a vowel. Some writers prefer to use con after insieme. Prima di addormentdrmi, " before going to sleep". In such locutions a preposition must be followed by the infinitive and not by the gerund as in English: The reflexive pronoun attached to the infinitive varies with the subject of the sentence. Note how the reflexive pronoun varies in the following sentences: Prima di addormentdrCI, noi leggiamo. Before going to sleep, we read. Non ho sonno, " I am not sleepy ", lit.

Non is always put before the verb, what- ever the position of " not " in English. La mattina, " in the morning ". See No, 1 above. Pennello per la barba,' " shaving-brush ". It would be equally correct to say pennello da barba, both per and da indicating the purpose for which the pennello is used. Mi rado, " I shave myself ", is another instance of a reflexive verb.

Bli pulisco i denti, "I clean my teeth". We have already noted that the possessive adjective is not generally used before parts of the body see Lesson 3, No. Instead of the literal rendering of " I clean my teeth " the Italian says "to me I clean the teeth ". PaUsco is the 1st person singular, present indicative, of the verb pulire, "to clean", which is conjugated like finire and preferire see Lesson 3, No.

Apro il rubinetto, " I turn on the tap ". Apro is the 1st person singular, present indicative, of the verb aprire, " to open ". Note how this verb is translated in the following phrases: Quello deU'acqua fredda, "the cold water one", lit. Prendo un bagno, " I have a bath ", lit. One can also say faccio un bagno, lit. Dopo, " afterwards ", here an adverb, may also be a preposition see No. Asciugamani, " towels ", is a compound noun formed from asciuga 3rd.

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Porta-asciugamani, " towel-rail ", is another compound noun, derived from porta 3rd. Unless definitely referring to members of the female sex, they are all masculine: Naturally, such words are invariable. Mi vesto, " I dress myself ". Vestirsi, " to dress oneself ", is conjugated like sentire with the addition of the reflexive pronouns. Piesi nel guardaroba, " taken from lit. Presi is the past participle masc. With certain verbs Italian asks "where? Like compound nouns beginning with porta, words formed with guarda are masculine, unless definitely referring to members of the female sex: This verb is generally reflexive in Italian, though not in English.

Sopra di essa, " above it ". When governing a personal pronoun sopra is followed by di see also Lesson 20, No. Un capello is " a single hair " ; i capelli is " hair " collectively. Do not confuse this word with cappelli, " hats ". The difference is heard in the pronunciation, because double consonants are always sounded as such in Italian, that is, the two consonants are pronounced separately, not together as in English.

Note that the 1st person singular, present indicative, of all verbs ends in -o. Faccio, " I make ", " I do ", is the 1st person singular, present indicative, of the irregular verb lire. Pronto per nsdre, " ready to go out ". The preposition pet indicates purpose. Prendo 11 cappello ed il bastone, " I take my hat and stick ". The definite article is used instead of the possessive adjective as explained in No. Note also the repetition of the article.

Ho viaggiato may mean " I have travelled " or " I have been travelling ". Stanchissimo, " very tired ", is formed from stanco, "tired ", and the suffix -isshno, the h being added to keep the C hard see Lesson 5, No. Un mio amico, "a friend of mine ", lit. Che conosce bene il suo albergo, " who knows your hotel well ". With the exception of non, " not ", adverbs are generally placed immediately after the verb. An adverb may, however, come at the beginning of a clause and is then generally emphatic. The former means to know a thing or a fact by means of one's reason, through experience or through having learnt it ; it also expresses the English " can " in the sense of " to know how to do something ".

The latter means to know with the idea of " to be acquainted with ". For forms of sapere see end of Lesson 8. Me lo ha laccomandato, " has recommehded it to me ". When- two conjunctive pronouns come together, the indirect object precedes the direct. Loro, however, always comes last. Mi, ti, ci, vi, si become me, te, ce, ve, se before lo, la, li, le, ne, and if the two words follow.

La ringrazio di aver accettato, "I thank you for having accepted" " The preposition is followed by the in- finitive in accordance with the rule set forth in No. The perfect infinitive is used here because the action of the in- finitive precedes that of the main verb ; the " accepting " took place before the " thanking ". In cases like this Italian uses the perfect instead of the present infinitive. The final -e of the infinitive may be dropped before any word except one that begins with impure s: Dar6, " I will give ", is the 1st person singular, future tense of dire, " to give ".

Note that verbs of only two syllables with the infinitive in -are do not change the a to e in the future. This method, however, is rare: The superlative of others is quite irregular: Manca I'aria, " it's stuffy ", lit. The verb mancdre may be used either personally or impersonally and can be translated in different ways: Ben caldo, " very warm ". When the adverb ben e , lit. Fra mezz'ora for mezza ora , " in half an hour ". With ex- pressions of time in the future " in " is usually rendered by fra.

Appena fnori, " just outside ". Appena, with the literal meaning of " hardly ", " scarcely ", is also used to express the English " just " in the following sense: I'ho appena finito, " I have just -finished it" ; appena pnbblicato, " just out i. Non ho fame, " I'm not hungry ", lit.

Non ho aff ari urgenti, " I haven't any urgent pressing business. Viaggia per affari, " he travels on business " ; h affar mio, "that is my business " ; im affare da nulla, " a trifling matter " ; un affare d'oro, " a profitable speculation ". According to rule the pronoun follows and is joined to the imperative. If, however, the latter had been in the negative, the pronoun would have preceded it: Si, signore, " yes, Sir ", is sometimes written as one word with an additional s after si, viz. Madam ", Lesson 19, Part 2. Baon bagno, " I hope you have a good bath ". This kind of wish is very common in Italian.

On going to bed one will be left with the words buona notte e buon riposo! On going to work the wish is buon lavoro! On beginning a meal one often says buon appetito lit. The correct reply is altrettanto, appr. Inegalar verbs found in Lesson 6.

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Condscere, " to know ". Like S0sp6ndere, Lesson 4. Like sorridere, Lesson 2. Vol6re, " to wish ". The definite article is omitted before the ordinal numeral when the latter follows the noun: This lesson demonstrates the use of the present perfect or " conversational " tense, which is employed when the events described belong to a past not far distant.

As already indicated in Lesson 2, No. Stamattina or questa mattina, " this morning " ; domattina or domani mattina, " to-morrow morning ". Ho incontrato, " I met ". The past participle of Ist conjugation verbs is formed by adding -ato to the stem of the verb: Che non vedevo da lungo tempo, " whom I had not seen for a long time ", lit. In speaking of past time, " for ", meaning " since ", is translated da, not per. In the sense of " during ", durante must be used: If the action of the verb is considered as having taken place and still continuing, English uses the present perfect or past perfect tense, Italian the present or imperfect.

Thus vedevo imperfect is rendered " I had seen " past perfect. For the formation of the imperfect tense introduced here see Lesson 9, No. In adverbial phrases with tempo, the indefinite article is omitted: Mi ha invitato a firgli visita, " he invited me to pay to him a visit ". Several classes of verb, among them verbs of in- 47 viting, are followed by the preposition a before a dependent infinitive.

Note that " to pay someone a visit " is fdre una visita A qualcuno. Sono andato, " I went ". Da lui, " to his house ". This construction has already been referred to in Lesson 4, No. Quattro da letto, " four bed -room8 ". The word for " rooms " is understood from the previous phrase.

Entrando, " on entering ". The English gerund preceded by a preposition is often rendered by an infinitive with or without the definite article: Vediamo una scala di legno che tK nduce al. Attaccapanni, " hall-stand ", is of masculine gender and in- variable. It is formed from attacca 3rd person singular, present tense of attacc4re, " to attach ", " to hang up " and panni, " clothes ".

Per i cappelli, per i sopribiti e per gli ombrelli, " for hats, coats and umbrellas ". Note the repetition of both preposition and definite article. The definite article must be used before a noun employed in a general sense, to denote the whole of its kind or a whole class. The definite article so used must not be confused with the partitive article see Lesson 3, No.

After a verb of thinking the subjunctive must be 48 used. Remember that the relative che can rarely be omitted in Italian though its equivalent often is in English. Cf, coltivando delle piante in previous paragraph. Fmtti, " fruit s ", is the plural of the masculine noun frutto. There is another word for " fruit ", frutta, which is feminine and invariable: If, however, the meaning is figurative, frutto, not frutta, should be used: Albert di pere, " pear-trees ". The word peri also means " pear- trees ". As a rule, the names of fruits are feminine and the corresponding words for the trees masculine: But dittero, "date ", fico, '' fig ", lixnone, " lemon " and porno, " apple ", are always masculine whether denoting the tree or the fruit.

Abito a Roma, " I live in Rome ". Before names of cities " in " is generally rendered by a in Italian. Via Dante, 43, " 43, Dante Street ". Note that the name of the street comes second and the number last. When addressing an envelope Italians often put the name of the town first and then the name and number of the street, viz. Non dbitapitl in campagnaP, " aren't you living in the country now?

Non 6 piii un bambino, " he is no longer a baby " ; non ci andrd piil, " I will go there no more ", "I will never go there any more ". Lei, che amava tanto, "you, who were so fond of ", lit. Ho dovuto venire in cittA, " I have had to come to town ". The past participle of verbs of the 2nd conjugation is formed by sub- stituting -uto for the termination -ere of the infinitive: Venire in citti is the equivalent of the English " to come to town ".

In both cases the article is omitted but the pre- position used is different. Where the subject of the principal and dependent clauses is the same the latter can be rendered by an infinitive in Italian, although in English it is usually better translated by a noun clause depen- dent on the conjunction " that " whethei; expressed or not. Devo vederlo, " I must see him " ; ho dovuto ved6rlo, " I had was obliged to see him " ; dovrd ved6rlo, " I shall have to see him ". Mi ci trovo assii bene, " I am very comfortable there ", lit.

Trovdrsi bene may mean " to be well " in health or " to be comfortable " at one's ease. Note the order of the reflexive pronoun mi and the adverb ci. The latter follows mi, ti and vi, but precedes si and the object-pronouns lo, la, li, le. Mia moglie e io ne saremo. When the subjects of a verb are of different persons joined by the conjunction e, and one of them is in the 1st person, the verb must be in the 1st person plural: In this sentence ne stands for di ved6rla to see you or some similar phrase: An adjective like contenti, which qualifies two 50 nouns of different gender referring to persons, must be in the masculine plural see also Lesson 21, No.

Alle due del pomeriggio, " at two o'clock in the afternoon ". Take note of this and similar expressions in which di is used for English " in ". This is a " set " phrase in Italian, and remains unchanged, whatever the verb or subject in the principal clause: Essi sono arrivati, non k vero? French n'est-ce pas P German nicht wahr P Piena di sole e di aria, lit. We have already noted the use of nouns in Italian where in English adjectives would be used. Here is a similar construction. We should say " it is very sunny and airy ''. In ex- clamations of this kind " what a " is rendered by che or quale without the indefinite article: The same rule applies if the noun is qualified by an adjective, as in che bel giardino!

Note the impersonal si fe, " one is ", " you are ". Sembra di 6ssere, "' seems to be ". Sembrdre, " to seem ", usually follows the rule of the majority of verbs by inserting di before a dependent infinitive see Lesson 5, No. I fiori della mia serra, '' the flowers in my greenhouse ". We have here a further example of the use of the infinitive to express the English gerund see Lesson 5, No. Even in this sentence, where the infinitive is preceded by a definite article and has the form of a noun, it can still govern a direct object. Condurre, " to lead ". Corso is the name given to certain streets, usually main streets, that are wide and long and frequently bordered with trees.

Dove sono imagazzini piii eleganti,. Note that the verb tends to occupy the central position in a clause. To put any verb at the end of a clause would be unusual and with the verb 6ssere practically im- possible. When the superlative immediately follows the noun it qualifies, the definite article is omitted. Questi magazzini sono i piii eleganti della citti, ' these shops are the most fashionable in the town ", but i magazzini piti eleganti SOno nel corso Vittorio Emanuele, " the most fashionable shops are in Victor Emanuel Street ".

The word palazzo may denote any large, important building, such as the Palazzo di Giustizia, "Law-Courts", Palazzo della Borsa, " Exchange ", etc. It is, of course, also used for '' palace. Adibito ad uso di w , " intended for the use of Ad uso di is one of those " set " phrases in which the article is omitted. Banche, " banks ", is the plural of the feminine noun banca.

The h is added to preserve the hard sound of the C. The masculine noun banco, pi. Vi si trdvano molte persone, " there are many people there " or " many people are to be met with there ". In tutte le ore, '" at all hours ". Automdbili, " motor-cars ", is here feminine, but can also be masculine. Pubbliche, " public ". Note the extra b in the Italian spelling. Tranv4i, " trams ", is invariable. The word may also be spelt tramvdi, tramvia or tranvia. Omnibus, ' omnibuses ". All monosyllables and all nouns end- ing in -i, -ie, -U, in an accented vowel or in a consonant, are invariable.

There are several instances in this lesson: Si incrociano, " cross one another ", not " cross themselves ". This is the 3rd person plural, present indicative, of the reci- procal verb incrocidrsi, which is identical in form with the reflexive. If any ambiguity is likely to arise, the sense can be 53 made clear by placing I'un I'altro, " one another ", after the reciprocal verb.

The transitive and intransitive verbs have the same form in English, viz. Vicini I'uno aU'altro, " near to one another ". Che, " that", is a conjunction here, although it has the same form as the relative pronoun. The adjective difficile is not followed by a preposition before a dependent infinitive.

See Lesson 2, No. Via vdi, '" coming and going ", can be written as one word, viavdi. See Lesson 1, No. Nelle strade piti affollate, " in the most crowded streets ". The word guardia is always feminine even when referring to a member of the male sex. Disgraziato, " unfortunate ". This word must not be confused with the English " disgraceful ", which is disonorante or vergo- gnoso. Similarly disgrazia means " misfortune ", " ill luck " or " accident ".

Ne refers to all the noise chiasso and bustle via v4i continue of the busy street. Note the position of the verb see No. Illuminate a gas, " lit by gas ". It is important to notice the difference in the prepositions used in Italian and English to express the same idea.

The order could not have been otherwise in this sentence because the relative clause must come immediately after its antecedent: In pieno giorno, " in broad daylight ", lit. Ho tentato ieri sera, " I tried last night " lit. Chiede danaro al SUO amico, " he asks his friend for money ", lit. Informazioni, with the meaning of " information ", is generally used in the plural. In the singular, informazione, it may mean " a piece of information ".

Tutto 6 COSi cambiato, " everything has changed so much ". In Italian, when one word is prefixed to another, the initial consonant of the second is frequently doubled: Un po' di tempo libero, " a little spare time ". Po', as a noun qualifying another noun, is followed by the preposition di. Un lungo tratto di strada da f4re, " a long distance way to go ". The preposition da before an infinitive may indicate necessity, duty or purpose. Vuole che prendiamoP, " shall we take? It is I 55 subjunctive because it is dependent on a verb expressing desire. Note that the 1st person plural, present tense, has the same form in the subjunctive as in the indicative.

The infinitive used in this way to render the English gerund as subject or direct object is nearly always preceded by the definite article see Lesson 5, No. Sarebbe, " would take ", lit. The conditional tense always has the same stem as the future, which is usually formed from the infinitive see Lesson 5, No.

In' the case of the conditional these terminations are as follows: Non saremmo Ik che fra un'ora, " we shouldn't get there under an hour ", lit. Non before the verb and che after are used to express '' only " adverb: There is an alternative rendering with soltanto, "' only ": Note that the sole difference between the 1st person plural of the future and conditional tenses is that the latter has an additional m, and remember that in Italian double consonants are sounded as two separate consonants.

It is therefore im- portant that the student should make the difference felt and not pronounce saremmo sa-rem-mo , " we should be ", in the same way as saremo, " we shall be ". This phrase could be translated " I am in no hurry ": Preferisco ved6re, "I prefer to see". Preferisco is also the equivalent of the English phrase " I would rather ". In verbs of the 1st conjugation the in- finitive ending -are is replaced by -i in the singular and -ino in the plural. In 2nd conjugation verbs and those of the 3rd like sentiie the termination -ere or -ire is replaced by -a sing.

In verbs like preferire, isc is inserted before the -a no. Vada per questa via, " go along this road ". Some of the uses of per may be seen from the following examples: Vada sempre per questa via, " continue along this road " or " keep straight along this road ". Sempre, " always ", " still ", when used with a verb often denotes continuity of the action of the verb. Fino ad una piazza, " as far as a square ". Fino a signifies "up to ", "as far as ".

Fino in, however, suggests getting right into within a place, as in fino in via Mazzini in the text above, " right in to Mazzini Street ". Lei 6 stato, " you have been ". The context shows that in this instance the rendering could not be "you were". Scusi, " excuse me ". The object-pronoun is often omitted in this form of apology. Si apre il Musto, " the Museum is opened ".

Here is another instance of the use of the indefinite pronoun si to express the passive. Aperto, " open ", is an adjective with the same form as the past participle aperto, " opened ". Entrata means " admittance ", " entrv ", as well as " entrance ". The consultation will be focused on safety of specific service sectors, including tourism accommodation and related services, outdoor leisure activities as well as amusement parks and fairgrounds.

La ragazza fuori ufficio

It will be the framework to consult on possible policy options in the area of service safety, gaps in existing legislation as well as to collect input and suggestions on initiatives and best practices. A large body of evidence now exists to suggest that wind turbines do impact human health. Will the Commission consider that this Written Question constitutes the presentation of scientific evidence demonstrating a direct link between wind turbines and human health effects? If not, would the Commission please elucidate how scientific evidence is to be presented? What steps will the Commission take to ensure that this new research is given full consideration?

Will the Commission now prepare its own study into the adverse impacts of wind turbines on human health? In developing noise policy the Commission relies on literature published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, such as the report in question. The weight of evidence is clearly increased where results from one study are confirmed by other research groups, as demonstrated by systematic review of the literature by a competent body such as the World Health Organisation WHO.

In the context of the forthcoming review of the Environmental Noise Directive, the Commission intends to liaise with the WHO on the examination of scientific evidence supporting the definition of dose effect curves related to wind farm noise. Bovine tuberculosis bTB is a serious problem for the dairy and beef industries in the United Kingdom. Since the first bTB-infected badger was discovered in the early s, badgers have been blamed by some for the continued spread of bTB in cattle, and various efforts have been made to reduce or eliminate badger populations from bTB-affected areas, with little if any discernible impact on the spread of the disease.

This policy has been criticised by many as not being based on the available science. In order to prevent the widespread and unnecessary killing of many tens of thousands of badgers, it is imperative that the UK Government be dissuaded from its current policy and given every encouragement and assistance with a view to finding alternative solutions to the problem of bTB in cattle. To this end, we would like to ask:. If a candidate vaccine were to be developed that would show sufficient protection and no interference with diagnostic tests, to be able to use such a vaccine in practice, EU and international rules will first need to be amended.

All medicines are authorised by the national competent authorities or the European Commission. For certain medicinal products the company may ask the authorisation by the Commission after a scientific assessment performed by the European Medicines Agency EMA and provided a Union interest in such a product can be demonstrated.

The Commission will propose a review of these rules in The evolution of milk production after quota abolition depends on various factors: The expiry of the milk quota regime is projected to have a limited impact on milk deliveries at the aggregate EU level. In addition, the Commission has launched this summer a call for tender to obtain a prospective analysis on the most likely evolution of the sector based on the viewpoints of a number of independent experts in the future context without quotas. The study, which is expected to be finalised by the summer , will address the following two themes in particular:.

Does the Commission have any plans to change the regulations applying to schools to allow children access to such kits? Any regulations applying to schools to allow children access to asthma kits fall under the responsibility of Member States. Currently there are around 3. What measures is the European Union taking to highlight the need for better autism services for citizens in the Member States? The Commission is aware of the importance and social impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders and has been undertaking actions for better identification, early detection and information to the public and professionals about this group of disorders.

As a part of this, the Commission supports civil society organisations representing people with Autism Spectrum Disorders and their families. Moreover, on request of the European Parliament, the Commission manages four pilot projects on employment of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders that aim to help develop policies for employment and social integration of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders. These projects will present their results shortly. The project European Autism Information System EAIS , which ended in , helped to provide systematic, consistent and reliable data on Autism Spectrum Disorders prevalence, economic burden and harmonised early-detection tools.

In addition, the project for a European network of surveillance on risk factors for autism and cerebral palsy project aimed at facilitated early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorders in children, improving the prognosis and quality of life for children and families. What, if any, restrictions can be placed, at EU or Member State level, on pork from pigs whose production does not comply with this legislation? To date, five Member States confirm that they already fully comply with group housing of sows. To provide further indications on the state of compliance of particular Member States would at this time not be reliable because the situation is still in progress.

Concerning market restrictions there are no EU mandatory marketing standards regarding farming systems for pig meat. Such actions can include the restriction or prohibition of the placing on the market of food or animals produced under non-compliant animal welfare conditions on farms for which they have statutory control possibilities. The Commission will not hesitate to initiate infringement proceedings against those Member States which will not be in compliance after the legal deadline.

The United Kingdom is fully compliant with these new rules, at a major cost to local producers. Can the Commission outline what progress has been made since this letter was issued? Can it also state what, if any, infringement proceedings have been brought for non-compliance, and, if so, against which Member States? Additionally, which Member States have made the most progress in this type of healthcare programme?

It outlines the vision for eHealth in Europe and consolidates actions to deliver the opportunities that eHealth can offer. Under the Competitiveness and Innovation Programme, the Commission funded the pilot project epSOS to develop EU interoperable architecture for the provision of summarised patient health record and electronic prescription services. The Commission does not assess the performance of Member States' healthcare systems.

L'undecimo comandamento: Romanzo by Anton Giulio Barrili

Their proposals are currently being evaluated to determine which ones demonstrate good practices of innovation in care delivery and to highlight transfer opportunities of such practices to other regions in Europe. Northern Ireland is presently experiencing the most severe outbreak of Escherichia coli E. Over 90 cases of E. Given that there is no specific medical treatment for E.

How many confirmed cases of E.

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  4. Can the Commission provide a breakdown by Member State of these cases? With reference to confirmed cases of E. It provides for the primary responsibility of the food business operator for the safety of food. The operators must, at all stages of production, processing and distribution, ensure that food is protected against any contamination. A criterion for process hygiene in the slaughterhouse foresees sampling for E. Among these 4 cases, ten Member States reported a total of 27 food-borne outbreaks all together human cases with a strong link to a particular food vehicle.

    Foods of bovine and ovine origin are frequently reported as source. Further breakdowns and details can be seen in the referred report. A major outbreak of verotoxigenic E. What is the current state of play in relation to the ongoing negotiations on an EU-Azerbaijan Association Agreement? Almost half a million households in Northern Ireland use oil to heat their homes. Can the Commission state how UK home heating oil prices, and specifically those in Northern Ireland, compare with prices across the EU?

    Furthermore, can the Commission provide a detailed assessment of this drastic price rise, with particular reference to the rise in price to the consumer compared to the changing price of crude oil over the same period? Please note that the Commission does not have access to the specific data for Northern Ireland; therefore UK average is used as a proxy. The final consumer price of heating oil in the UK rose by It is clear from various media reports that the human rights crisis in Azerbaijan is escalating, with serious problems in relation to freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of the media.

    What role is the Commission playing in raising these issues with the Azerbaijani authorities, and what impact do these violations have on the possibility of an association agreement? The Commission and the High Representative are fully aware of the situation of human rights in Azerbaijan. The Azerbaijani authorities should be up to their own commitments. The EU will continue to monitor the situation closely, taking account of the views of civil society, and will try to constructively engage with Azerbaijan to improve its human rights record. Does the Commission have any plans to initiate the formation of an independent investigation team to oversee the investigation of forced organ harvesting practices in China?

    The Commission shares the Honourable Member's concern regarding organs harvested from Chinese citizens. Therefore the Commission welcomes the recent announcement by the Chinese Government that the practice will be stopped and genuine voluntary organ donations will be encouraged. However, the regulation does not adequately address the issue of donor consent, especially for those who have died in custody or have been executed.

    While the Commission does not have any plans to initiate the formation of an independent investigation team to oversee the investigation of forced organ harvesting practices in China, this point has already been addressed in the framework of past rounds of the EU-China Human Rights Dialogue and will continue to do so. In recent weeks, there have been several tragic fatalities in house fires in my constituency of Northern Ireland, and in the United Kingdom more generally. The Commission is making considerable efforts to develop a comprehensive tobacco control policy.

    This policy includes public health campaigns most recently. All these measures indirectly contribute to preventing house fires. Furthermore the Council Recommendation on smoke free environments invites Member States to prohibit smoking in public places. Member States are monitoring fires and the circumstances of their outbreak to a varying degree of detail. Fire statistics are thus of different quality and, due to additional factors such as the installation of smoke alarms, it is difficult, if not impossible, to identify prevalent trends or make additional proposals for fire safety.

    The Commission is currently considering a broad consultation paper on consumer service safety which may include the issue of fire safety. La prassi amministrativa e le forze dell'ordine spesso mostrano l'interferenza del governo nell'esercizio del diritto di FORB delle persone. La HR ha mai chiesto un'indagine sulla promozione e la protezione dei diritti delle minoranze religiose in Indonesia?

    Despite the fact that the Indonesian government has incorporated key human rights into its national constitution and has ratified — among other international agreements — the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the implementation of those rights remains very poor in Indonesia. In particular, there seems to be a lack of political will on the part of local authorities to ensure the protection of religious minorities. According to local and international news reports, the right to freedom of religion or belief is at risk, with attacks being carried out both on members of religious minority groups and on those who profess non-theistic or atheistic beliefs.

    Does the High Representative intend to call on the Indonesian government to put effective protection measures in place to enable religious minorities to have full access to their right to freedom of religion? Does the High Representative feel that the European Union should take action to assist the Indonesian government to reverse the increasing incidence of violence and legal action against religious minorities in that country? The right to freedom of religious belief is guaranteed in Indonesia's constitution, and Indonesia has made considerable progress over the last decade in establishing a legal framework for protecting human rights.

    The EU will carry on addressing the issue of Freedom of Religion or Belief and encouraging interfaith dialogue, and should enhance its visibility by adopting new EU Guidelines on the issue in early Tagli al programma Erasmus e al fondo per la ricerca e l'innovazione Gli attuali problemi di bilancio che incontra Erasmus derivano dalla decisione del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio di votare un bilancio per il in cui l'importo degli stanziamenti di pagamento era sottofinanziato rispetto al livello degli impegni.

    In particolare, la Commissione ha chiesto altri milioni di euro per il programma di apprendimento permanente, importo che dovrebbe consentire di soddisfare le esigenze di pagamento fino alla fine dell'anno. Le reazioni sulla stampa di tutta Europa e anche del mondo parlano da sole: The funding cuts would damage the very foundations of the internationalisation policies of European universities and significantly reduce the chances of a better future for millions of young people. The Erasmus experience gives young people a chance to experience Europe at first hand. Keeping this forward-looking programme alive means investing in the construction of a Europe of the people and a ruling class that is more sensitive to the concept of European unity.

    Whether it believes that steps can swiftly be taken to ensure that the requests already made can be fulfilled? What measures it intends to take to prevent this problem of financial cover reoccurring in subsequent budgets? The current budget problems for Erasmus stem from the decision of the European Parliament and the Council to vote a budget for in which the amount of payment credits was underfunded relative to the level of commitments. This Draft Amending Budget can be found at http: Reactions in the press across Europe and even worldwide speak for themselves: This is why it is absolutely crucial to not interrupt national or EU funding to students.

    With the recent agreement by the Budgetary Authority on the Draft Amending Budget and the Draft budget , the immediate threat appears to have been averted. The Commission counts on the responsibility of the Member States and the European Parliament to continue to guarantee adequate funding and continuity in the implementation of the European programmes in the coming months and year.

    Henceforth they will no longer be renewable automatically but must be awarded in a public tender procedure on expiry of each operating licence, as well as having an appropriate duration. The law was warmly welcomed by European Commission Vice-President Viviane Reding, who said that it improves legal certainly for property owners subject to the Coastal Law. Does the Commission believe that it may set up a legal model specific to the situation in Italy, which provides a basis for flexible rules that are capable of safeguarding the seaside leisure and tourism industry that is essential to our economy, without resulting in infringement proceedings by the EU?

    For this purpose, in those cases authorisations need to be granted for a limited period of time, which shall be appropriate to enable the provider to recoup the cost of investment and to generate a fair return. The extension of concessions in the Spanish draft reform to which this question also refers for another seventy-five years does not concern authorisations granted to service providers who provide services from portable infrastructure in beaches, such as bars and kiosks.

    For authorisations for the use of beaches for that purpose, the draft reform establishes a maximum length of four years. In light of this fact, the draft reform would not seem to raise concerns of incompatibility with the principles laid down in the Services Directive. The seventy-five year period mentioned in the question applies to concessions granted to owners for the use of their own property, which had been constructed in areas that now revert to the public maritime domain.

    The draft reform seeks to ensure legal certainty for owners of buildings in view of the ambiguities found in the current legal framework for shoreline property in Spain. Global Recalls Portal, nuovo strumento per la tutela dei consumatori. Come intende la Commissione pubblicizzare l'esistenza di questo strumento all'interno degli Stati membri in modo da metterne a conoscenza i cittadini e stimolarli a usarlo? La Commissione, pur incoraggiando gli Stati membri a tenere conto, in sede di elaborazione delle politiche e di pianificazione della vigilanza del mercato, delle maggiori informazioni rese ora disponibili dal Global Recalls Portal, non ha previsto campagne specifiche di promozione a livello nazionale.

    Le informazioni relative al portale figurano nel sito web Europa e nell'account Twitter dell'UE dedicato alla sicurezza dei consumatori. A simple search performed by inputting keywords such as product name, brand or manufacturer, produces a data sheet containing a product description, identification images, issues encountered and countries in which the recalls were made. This should help inform and guide customers in their purchases, improve confidence in the market and give buyers greater confidence when purchasing a product. How does the Commission intend to promote the existence of this tool within Member States, so that citizens become aware of it and start using it?

    The Global Recalls Portal is a new tool which, if used properly, will provide greater protection for our citizens. Since the greatest danger to the market and to consumers comes from counterfeit goods, mainly from China, which continually slip through the net, what does the Commission intend to do to strengthen customs checks? The Commission encourages Member States to take into account in policy and market surveillance planning the wider information set now available through the GlobalRecalls portal, but there are no specific promotion campaigns at national level planned by Commission.

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    The OECD is also considering a mobile application to facilitate access to the portal. The Commission supports the OECD project including the aim of improving translation and search capabilities. The Commission looks forward to seeing more historical data added from those jurisdictions which are participating already and to gathering data from additional jurisdictions.

    The Commission, together with Member States, developed guidelines for customs authorities to carry out import controls on product safety and compliance. In order to reinforce the effectiveness of these controls a number of actions are developed, including visits to Member States, common criteria for risk analysis, and collection of data on dangerous or non-compliant goods stopped by customs at the border.

    Products for daily use by consumers and that may be affecting health and safety accounted for Macellazione rituale in deroga alla normativa vigente. La normativa attualmente vigente sulla macellazione, aggiornata dal regolamento CE n. La Commissione conferma che la legislazione dell'UE non consente il ricorso a deroghe allo stordimento degli animali destinati alla macellazione rituale al di fuori dei macelli.

    The animal bleeds to death from a cut to the throat and is not stunned beforehand. Can the Commission confirm whether it is aware of similar events in other Member States and can it estimate how widespread this practice might be, which is in breach of current legislation? Does the Commission believe it is still right to maintain this exemption for ritual slaughter, given that, despite being included to give the Muslim community the opportunity to carry out its own rituals whilst observing current legislation, it is being breached increasingly often?

    The Commission confirms that EU legislation does not allow the use of the derogation from stunning animals for ritual slaughter outside slaughterhouses. The Commission is not aware of the specific event reported but has been occasionally informed in the past that similar events in other Member States occurred. Negli ultimi mesi alcuni Stati membri, tra i quali Irlanda, Portogallo e Grecia, hanno chiesto ed ottenuto dall'Europa aiuti finanziari. Dunque anche se ricapitalizzate, le banche non prestano denaro. Quale vigilanza sulle banche? Alle banche italiane sono andati ben miliardi di euro: Una nota banca italiana, ad esempio, ha ricevuto complessivamente, nelle due tranche di operazioni LTRO, 29 miliardi di euro — 14 miliardi nella prima tranche e 15 nella seconda — in pronti contro termine a tre anni.

    Over the last few months, a number of Member States, including Ireland, Portugal and Greece, have requested and obtained financial aid from Europe. Cuts in spending on healthcare and education, increases in VAT, reductions in the size of the pension system, pay cuts, increased taxes on companies and families — these are just a few of the effects on the European citizens who have benefited from this financial aid. So despite having been recapitalised, banks are not lending money. Can the Commission explain the causes of this disparity of treatment, in terms of interest rates, between private banks and Member States?

    Given that European companies are complaining about, among other things, the difficulty of gaining access to the money needed to remain in the market, does the Commission not believe that loans awarded to banks should also be tied to providing loans to private individuals and businesses in the country in which they operate?

    Has the Commission thought of establishing a permanent observatory to monitor the destination of the loans and the rates set and to ensure that the loans provided are used for the purpose for which they were granted: In return, as a guarantee to the ECB, they provided bonds guaranteed by the State, meaning the taxpayer. The aim of these operations was to pay off the losses made by the banks, relying on a future upturn in the European capital markets.

    It is disconcerting however that the banks have failed to use this money to finance companies. Differences in maturities and risks including collateral can explain the different interest rates. Liquidity operations conducted by central banks are part of their monetary policy, for which the Treaty grants them total independence. The Commission has no competence in imposing, or advising to impose, conditions on the destination of these liquidities. The Commission monitors developments in the banking sector, including the effects of liquidity operations on credit conditions.

    In the memorandum of understanding on financial-sector policy conditionality of Spain there is an obligation to report, among others, on small and medium-sized enterprise SME lending, on corporate lending and on consumer lending. In addition, access to finance is one of the levers identified by the single market Act 2 and boosting long term investment is one of the key actions. To this aim, the Commission will soon publish a Green paper on long term finance of the real economy, with particular attention to SMEs.

    Queste relazioni, di diversa natura e rilevanza, sono per la maggior parte disponibili su internet. Le relazioni stilate nel dalle delegazioni dell'UE nei rispettivi paesi che le ospitano riuniscono le informazioni raccolte dai funzionari dell'UE sul terreno, in particolate mediante contatti con le ONG locali. The EU uses all open information at its disposal to assess the situation of freedom of religion or belief worldwide, whether it comes from civil society organisations, governmental or international bodies. Due attention is notably paid to the work conducted by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief.

    Most of these reports of different nature and value are available on the Internet. Furthermore, the Human Rights Country Strategies, currently discussed among EU Member States, comprise a section dedicated to freedom of religion or belief. Sostegno per la salvaguardia dei Cavallini della Giara. Le sue origini sono incerte, le teorie sono essenzialmente due: La sopravvivenza di questa specie pare essere a rischio per la concomitanza di eventi naturali e umani: On the Gesturi high plateau in south-central Sardinia, there lives an ancient breed of horses called the Giara.

    Their origins are unknown, but there are two theories: There are currently horses left, living in herds of approximately 10, and they are the only breed in Europe that still lives in the wild. The survival of this breed appears to be at risk due to a combination of natural events and human behaviour. On the one hand, the exceptionally hot summer caused a terrible drought, resulting in a lack of food; on the other hand, forced coexistence with cows raised in the wild, often illegally, further diminishes the available food supply.

    The municipalities in the area, along with an association of volunteers, have undertaken to sustain and protect these horses as much as possible. Resolving the problem of cows raised in the wild has, however, stalled; in fact, last July a decree issued by the Region of Sardinia ordered the removal of cows from the plateau, but of an estimated heads, only 30 or so have been retrieved with no brand or microchip.

    Consequently, the Sites of Community Importance designated under this directive, as the site mentioned by the Honourable Member, do not appear to be the appropriate tool to provide specific protection or support for this species. The question is therefore a matter for the national authorities concerned. Olanda, Finlandia, Germania, Svezia e Gran Bretagna si oppongono alla proposta di bilancio rettificativo per il presentata dalla Commissione europea e riguardante l'esborso di milioni di euro per il terremoto in Emilia Romagna da parte del fondo d'emergenza sulle catastrofi naturali.

    Gli stessi Stati membri si sono opposti anche a un secondo bilancio rettificativo, sempre relativo al , in cui si chiede di finanziare gli 8 miliardi di euro mancanti per pagare le fatture dei programmi dei fondi di coesione, e i 90 miliardi necessari per il programma Erasmus di scambio degli studenti degli Stati membri. Cosa intende fare in favore delle popolazioni colpite dal terremoto in Emilia Romagna? Il bilancio rettificativo n. This is according to the rumours reported in leading Italian newspapers.

    Confirm the news reported by the Italian press on the alleged opposition by the Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom to using the natural disaster emergency fund? State what it intends to do for those affected by the earthquake in Emilia-Romagna? Commercio di uova non a norma nel mercato UE. Si deve ora considerare l'immissione sul mercato interno dell'UE di uova provenienti da allevamenti non a norma.

    Per evitare problemi di concorrenza dovuta alla circolazione all'interno dell'UE di uova non a norma, cosa sta facendo e cosa ha fatto nei dieci mesi trascorsi dall'applicazione della legge la Commissione per proteggere i consumatori ed i produttori che con investimenti importanti si sono adeguati alla direttiva? The report was not issued until and, as a result of this delay, many farmers did not take the risk of making investments in something that might later have been deemed inadequate. These farms are failing to comply with the strict rules regarding cage size, let alone the quality requirements, putting products on the market that should be banned.

    Is there a European body responsible for verifying compliance with the rules regarding the quality and labelling of eggs sold on the European market? Pagamento di lavori pubblici da parte delle amministrazioni pubbliche. Con questo decreto si impone alle amministrazioni pubbliche di pagare i propri clienti nei tempi massimi dei 30 giorni. In media le imprese che realizzano lavori pubblici sono pagate 8 mesi dopo l'emissione dello Stato Avanzamento Lavori SAL con casi in cui i ritardi superano addirittura i 3 anni.

    La direttiva copre tutti i settori senza eccezione, compreso quello delle costruzioni. Il legislatore europeo ha inoltre aggiunto un considerando che chiarisce questo aspetto particolare. What action does the Commission intend to take in order to protect this type of company? The directive applies to all commercial transactions between businesses and between public authorities and businesses. The directive covers all sectors without any exceptions, including the construction sector.

    Moreover, the European legislator has added a recital clarifying this particular issue. The Commission will closely monitor the correct transposition and implementation of the directive in all Member States. The introduction of the European arrest warrant has made it possible for much-needed judicial cooperation to be established between individual Member States. As far as the seriousness of the offence is concerned, Aurore Martin is accused of taking part in a press conference given by the political party Batasuna. Although this is indeed illegal in Spain, it is not in France!

    International experts have said that there can be no resolution to the Basque conflict without a guarantee of freedom of political expression for the Basque movement. The European arrest warrant for Aurore Martin flies in the face of this principle. Does the Commission realise that the execution of the European arrest warrant for Aurore Martin may jeopardise the peace process in the Basque Country? What does the Commission intend to do to ensure that the proportionality of European arrest warrants is monitored effectively?

    The European arrest warrant EAW is an entirely judicial procedure — including exhausting all judicial avenues of appeal. The Commission has consistently delivered this message and is monitoring progress on this issue. Alerte au nouveau ravageur du palmier: Native to India, this small beetle was first discovered in Europe in in a Tuscan tree nursery. Furthermore, the scent of the damaged palms attracts another pest, the red palm weevil, thus making the infestation even worse.

    A three-year trial could be launched at the start of However, the purpose of such co-financing is not to support experimental research on the control of harmful organisms. Moreover, it is actually more appropriate that such a control strategy is developed at the national level, so that local economic, environmental and social aspects can be fully taken into account.

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    In ihrer bei der Konferenz zum digitalen Raum am 4. Gibt es nach Ansicht der Kommission Staaten, die diese Interpretation nicht teilen? Hat die Kommission zu diesem Thema bereits den Dialog mit anderen Staaten gesucht? Does it consider that the interpretation it gives in answer to Question 1 above will also be shared by other countries such as Russia, China and the U.

    Does it believe that there are some States that do not share this interpretation? Has it already sought a dialogue with other States on this subject? If so, what have been the results of these discussions? What steps will it take to extend the scope of the principles of the Geneva Conventions to include cyberspace, in line with its interpretation, if no consensus with third countries is forthcoming?

    The EU-China Cyber Taskforce has discussed the applicability of the existing international law to cyberspace, and the consultations on this issue will continue also with other EU strategic partners. The EU supports current negotiations in several international fora on applicability of the existing international law in cyberspace, as well as a process of defining the norms for responsible state behaviour in cyberspace.

    Empleo en las entidades financieras intervenidas. EU regulations on state aid for such institutions are counterbalanced by the obligation to reduce their trade capacity, which logically leads to job cuts. However, the current process between the Commission, the European Central Bank and the Spanish Government could undermine the right to collective bargaining for those workers employed by the bailed-out financial institutions, as these institutions seek to approve staff cuts through the recapitalisation plans.

    This renders the right to collective bargaining meaningless. These job cuts in institutions bailed out using public money, and the fact that rights such as collective bargaining have become worthless, are part of a scenario in which the Spanish State did not react in time to EU regulations establishing salary restrictions for managers of the bailed-out institutions. In the case of NCG Banco, this has led to situations which have caused social alarm and indignation.

    In addition to all of this is the preferred shares scam, which affects thousands of people in Galicia, without distinction between investors and savers. In view of this:. Does the Commission believe that it is possible to bailout financial institutions such as NCG Banco using public funds when, in addition to nationalising the losses, it also leads to job cuts? Does it believe that the bailed-out financial institutions, such as NCG Banco, are respecting the right to collective bargaining? The Commission points out that one of the main goals of the restructuring plan is to return NCG Banco to viability, without the need for additional state aid in the future.

    Viability involves concentrating the bank's activities in its core areas, where it can best contribute to sustainable lending to the real economy. Reducing the bank's footprint inevitably requires reducing employee numbers. The Commission cannot comment on this, as it is subject to national law under the jurisdiction of national authorities and courts. The Commission asks banks to manage their capital position very prudently to minimise the need for public funds, and to avoid using state aid for the benefit of investors who invested in risky financial instruments.

    This is necessary to ensure that the restructuring costs of an aided financial institution burden not only the taxpayer but also the stakeholders of the institution, and in particular equity and subordinated capital holders. The Commission also stresses that the national authorities and courts have the competence to ensure that investors, in particular retail investors, are fully aware of the risks of investing in financial products, as well as to judge the conditions of the sale of these preferred shares.

    Ash tree dieback disease or chalara has been found in over sites in the UK. This disease will have widespread consequences for UK and European forests if it is not contained. It could wipe out the entire species of ash tree which is indigenous to the UK. Imports of ash trees into the UK have already been banned and movement controls have been instituted by the UK Government. Nonetheless, there appears to be no action or even alert from the Commission on this matter. What is the Commission doing to raise awareness about the situation and prevent the further spread of this disease across Europe?

    Is the Commission planning to take any concrete action to support Member States and the agricultural community in tackling this disease? It wasn't until that studies concluded that Chalara fraxinea was a form of a new species of fungus. No pest risk analysis was available and at the moment that the EPPO proposed to start working on such analysis, scientific experts advised that it was already too widespread in Europe to start developing a control strategy. The emergence of a new disease of ash trees was thus difficult to explain and act upon at this time. As soon as the Commission receives these notifications they are communicated to the competent authorities of the Member States through Commission electronic communication tool.

    The Commission has received formal notifications for Chalara fraxinea from a number of Member States since all of which have been communicated to the Member States. This issue was discussed with Member States for the first time in November. If eradication in the United Kingdom and Ireland or in a part of their territories is still realistic, the Commission may consider adopting temporary measures for the control of Chalara fraxinea.

    Over the last few years, many positive steps have been taken to tackle the problems associated with energy drinks. The implementation of the new food labelling regulations is to be welcomed, along with the recognition that the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly by children and young adults, has been identified as an emerging risk. While the industry recommends that these drinks are not suitable for children under 16, there is nothing stopping a young child purchasing an energy drink whose caffeine level is equivalent to that of 14 cans of ordinary cola, with a sugar content of up to 88g.

    With this being entirely legal and the advertising and packaging of such products being designed in a way which is attractive to young children, many are purchasing energy drinks before school or on their lunch breaks. As such, many schools in my constituency are experiencing increasing problems relating to hyperactive and disruptive pupils who have consumed these drinks. Can the Commission clarify what is being done at Union level regarding the availability of these high-caffeine energy drinks to young children?

    Is the Commission aware of any examples of best practice from other Member States who have managed to minimise the sale of these drinks to children under 16? A recent review of the M. It is nevertheless on the basis of the results of the Henry study that France recently banned the use of thiamethoxam an active ingredient in the pesticide Cruiser OSR on oilseed rape. Infrange la prima regola dei vampiri: Le sue azioni e le sue esclamazioni fanno spesso ridere ma a volte sono anche irritanti: Gli altri personaggi non sono molto caratterizzati, le loro storie e i loro caratteri sono appena accennati: Tutti si impegneranno per aiutare la Regina a sconfiggere il cattivo e a farle accettare il suo nuovo status.

    Il linguaggio e molto semplice, scorrevole, a volte un po' troppo volgare. Betsy wakes up late to go to work and is fired. In the evening while looking for her cat is hit by a truck and dies. He wakes up in the morgue with a terrible pink dress and cheap shoes.

    She has an obsession for shoes very expensive and brand: Turns out it was her stepmother to up like that and that she also stole all her shoes. Decides to take them back and goes to her father's house. Breaks the first rule of vampires ever be seen from loved ones But she slowly discovers she is not a vampire like the others, she is the Queen Betsy is a girl always cheerful , funny but very superficial with an obsession for shoes very expensive.

    She succeeded with great irony to accept her new status as undead and , in addition, considering ridiculous all laws of vampires. Her actions and her exclamations often make people laugh but are also sometimes irritating: The other characters are not very marked , their stories and their characters are barely mentioned: All will work to help the Queen defeat the bad guy and make them accept her new status. The intent of Davidson was to create a parody of urban fantasy and achieve a Becky kinselliana version vampire.

    The plot is fairly trivial and predictable but it's still a fun read: