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Duarte Schmidt Lino and Bruno Xavier de Pina among the authors of a new work on corporate governance. Please note, your browser is out of date. For a good browsing experience we recommend using the latest version of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera or Internet Explorer.

Contact person at PLMJ if applicable. Given that agriculture is one of the major sticking points between the two sides as regards the Association Agreement, does the Commission believe that all EU sanitary and phytosanitary standards will be met before the date set for the submission of these proposals? To this end, Trade Commissioner De Gucht and Mercosur Trade Ministers committed to exchange market access offers for goods, services and government procurement not later than the last quarter of the year. It should be recalled that in accordance with EU legislation and in line with the provisions of the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement, agriculture products imported from third countries shall comply with the relevant EU requirements or with conditions providing equivalent guarantees in order to protect public health, animal health and plant health.

The EU level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection, including high standards related to food safety, are not subject to negotiations with third countries. Providing or offering market access through the reduction of tariffs to a negotiating partner does in no way change this. Does the Commission think that the creation of this committee could positively influence the negotiations under way on the EU-Mercosur Association Agreement? At the last EU-Brazil Summit the leaders agreed to create an ad-hoc bilateral working group to analyse more systematically the potential for further strengthening economic ties, including in the areas of investment and competitiveness.

The Commission believes that this is a pragmatic way of looking at how we can further underpin the already important economic bonds between Brazil and the European Union. The Commission believes that this ad hoc working group, including the crucial contribution of the business communities from the two sides, while concentrating on bilateral issues could also contribute to understanding the areas where EU-Mercosur relations need to be strengthened. The recent EU-Brazil Summit in Brasilia confirmed the good and dynamic bilateral relationship and the willingness of both sides to further strengthen the Strategic Partnership.

The Summit Joint Statement reflects, inter alia , the breadth and depth of the relationship and the commitment to advance in our bilateral and bi-regional agenda, including the EU-Mercosur negotiation process. Despite the economic crisis, our economic and trade relations with Brazil have continued to grow.

The EU is the main destination for Brazilian exports and the leading source of their imports. According to data for the first three quarters of , EU exports to Brazil were still growing significantly, while EU imports from Brazil had declined as compared to the same periods in Wine production in Portugal rose by 9. The wine sector is one of the few sectors in which Portugal produces a surplus, and its potential is huge.

The above suggestion from the IMF would mean an immediate collapse in sales and penalise producers in particular. The Commission would like to draw the Honourable Member's attention to the fact that it declines making comments on other international institutions' statements. However, the sum of these two types of cholesterol is not the same as total cholesterol. Does it not agree that this new form of cholesterol, considered to be more dangerous and to have greater potential for clogging arteries, is sufficiently significant to be screened for in blood tests done in the EU? The study also mentions that further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Further research in this area is needed to ascertain whether screening for remnant cholesterol in blood tests should be considered. Only a regional, integrated and holistic strategy will enable us to make progress on any of the specific problems. A reinforced security and law enforcement capacity must go hand-in-hand with more robust public institutions and more accountable governments, capable of providing basic development services to the populations and of appeasing internal tensions. Development processes, promotion of good governance and improvement of the security situation need to be carried out in appropriate sequence and in a coordinated manner in order to create sustainable stability in the region.

In a document prepared by congressmen, local communities are called on to ensure that they are adequately equipped to supply populations with enough energy, food and water to get by in the event of an emergency. The Commission is aware of the potential threats to space-based and ground-based infrastructure posed by space weather events including major solar storms. Assessing the impact on Earth orbiting satellites, GNSS reception, the electric grid and other systems is an important aspect. Emerging risks such as those due to space weather will be addressed in the risk overview that the Commission has been asked to compile based on national risk assessments that Member States are preparing.

Complementary activities aiming at building up European space weather services are being conducted through ESA programmes.


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Dado que o 7. A Portuguese researcher has discovered a way to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy, while minimising its side effects. The study published in the journal Cancer Cell has in turn brought new hope for cancer patients. European Union research funding is granted based on annual competitive calls for proposals. Collaborative research applications submitted to these calls are selected through an independent peer-review evaluation process with scientific excellence as the overriding criterion and financial support awarded to the best applications.

As FP7 comes to an end, there are currently no more calls foreseen in this area. It is yet too premature to ascertain which could be the specific research issues addressed.

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Nos termos do Tratado artigo Despite the warnings issued by scientists, many have chosen to ignore reports by the European Environment Agency EEA that the discovery of new products may have a negative impact on health, regardless of the benefits they are said to have on quality of life.

In order to highlight its findings, the EEA published a paper that it recently presented in Brussels to various EU representatives from Parliament and the Commission and environmental non-governmental organisations. The paper covers a wide range of issues such as the effects of radiation from mobile phones, leaded petrol, climate change, invasive species, chemicals such as DDT, mercury, pesticides and insecticides, and tobacco.

What is its view on this issue? It must also take account of available scientific data. It contains useful analysis which suggests the need to strengthen the science-policy dialogue and ways to address emerging risks. What is the current status of investments made to date in renewable energy in the EU?

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Can the Commission provide any forecasts for ? For the time being, EU investments in renewable energy appear sufficient to keep up with the early stages of the trajectory towards the targets. However, additional efforts will be needed in the forthcoming years in order to reach the final targets. For further details on the evolution of renewable energy in Europe, the Honourable Member is invited to consult the recently published Commission report. Tem conhecimento desta importante descoberta? According to reports in the Portuguese media, two Portuguese surgeons have developed a pioneering surgical procedure for treating inguinal hernias.

This innovative procedure, which enables twice the number of operations to be performed in less time than conventional procedures, is attracting the interest of specialists around the world. Is the Commission aware of this important discovery? Does it have any data that confirm these conclusions? The Commission is not following specific development in treating inguinal hernias and it does not have specific data on the reports referred to by the Honourable Member. This Joint Action supports collaboration between European organisations responsible for assessing effectiveness of health technologies, including surgical procedures.

The EUnetHTA network aims at bringing European added value through facilitating efficient use of resources available for assessments, and sharing and promoting good practice in assessment methods and processes. According to a recent report published by the World Health Organisation WHO , dengue is the only neglected tropical disease to have spread in the last decade and to represent a genuine global pandemic threat.


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In the report, the WHO assesses the global impact of tropical diseases and suggests public policies that could be implemented in order to reduce or eradicate their incidence. Does it plan to offer extraordinary support to EU countries affected by dengue? The European Commission agrees with the World Health Organisation's assessment that the global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades and that the disease is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas.

The Commission offers technical and scientific support, through the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ECDC , to countries which are affected by dengue and other communicable diseases, including Member States, like Portugal, currently hit by dengue outbreaks. At the start of January, 3.

Real GDP is predicted to grow by 1. As part of this process, Projects of Common Interest PCI will be selected for investment along 12 priority corridors and areas. Altogether, about projects have been submitted throughout the process, of which around two thirds in electricity and one third in gas. Oil was only covered to a minor extent, due to the limited scope given by the regulation. For the sake of transparency and inclusiveness, the projects were submitted either directly through the working groups, or through the two online consultations carried out in spring and autumn The list of submitted projects is available at http: The people of my constituency, Northern Ireland, are deeply divided politically.

This has led to street demonstrations, with many unionists — particularly those living in socially and economically disadvantaged areas — disillusioned with the political situation in Northern Ireland. What relevant EU funding opportunities may exist for a forum or organisation that aims to bring together representatives of a single identity group in a Member State to discuss how their cultural, political, social and economic interests can be consolidated?

Within the remit of EU competence there are no precedents of granting emergency funding to a single identity group in a Member State with the specific purpose of increasing its political engagement and participation within a divided society. However, all projects are required to identify how they will promote reconciliation, enable communities to work more effectively together and demonstrate outcomes in terms of good relations and understanding. As a result, millions of cattle were slaughtered and then incinerated.

In the Netherlands, by contrast, a policy of vaccination was applied, after EU regulations were lifted, allowing the meat from vaccinated animals to be sold. Can the Commission confirm that no untoward effects on human health have so far been reported as a result of the change in regulations? Scientific research suggests that tuberculosis can be transmitted between cattle and badgers.

The UK Government recently announced that a cull of badgers should take place and began operating a regionally based pilot scheme to that end. The cull has now been suspended. If the suspension is lifted the number of badgers affected is likely to be, tragically, tens of thousands. It is suggested by proponents of the cull that vaccination is ineffective as a method of control. Finally, can the Commission point to any scientific knowledge as to whether it is possible to vaccinate badgers effectively against tuberculosis either directly or indirectly, for example through food pellets?

Foot-and-mouth disease is a viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that has no public health importance and it poses no risk for food safety. As regards vaccination of badgers, while there is no EU legislation in place to regulate it, EU financed research projects and field trials are ongoing. Preliminary data seems promising but full information that is necessary to properly assess their outcome is not yet available. In none of these Member States did the occurrence of TB in wildlife cause an insurmountable problem to eradication of the disease from bovine animals.

The Commission has proposed to introduce a new Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition GAEC for the protection of wetland and carbon rich soil including a ban of first ploughing. The Commission has considered the GAEC instrument in a broad context, in conjunction with the development of the environmental legislation and with the definition of green direct payments. The assessment clearly pointed out to the need of strengthening the scope of GAEC to address climate change concerns.

Based on the available data, the Commission would like to underline that the percentage of area concerned by the proposed GAEC 7 is not significant and consequently will not reduce the agricultural potential of the Member States. Although carbon rich-soils used for farming cover a relatively small surface, these areas are considered as hotspots of greenhouse emissions from agriculture.

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Emissions are highest when organic soils are ploughed for the first time and therefore the GAEC will contribute effectively to mitigating climate change. The Commission wishes to highlight that the areas concerned are not usually the most productive and are often used as permanent pasture. In addition, the proposed measure will not prevent any agricultural activity but these areas can continue to be used for animal production.

The EU legislation does not foresee the conduct of an impact assessment in the procedure of authorisation of pesticide substances. Over the passed few weeks a number of retailers and food manufacturers have withdrawn food from sale after the discovery of horsemeat in ready-made meals labelled as beef.

A great deal of attention has justifiably been focused on labelling fraud in the food industry which of course constitutes an unacceptable case of misleading information for consumers. Many EU citizens are also concerned that a lot of perfectly edible food is being thrown away as a result. For instance, the Swedish producer Findus withdrew all their wrongly labelled products from shops. In doing so, they could have broken the cold chain and could therefore have contributed to rotting in food. They claim to sustainably manage the recalls, but it would no doubt be far more sustainable from an economical, environmental and moral point of view to give the choice to consumers of eating the edible food.

This is just one example among others of how food manufacturers have taken disproportionate decisions from a sustainability point of view in response to a crisis. Instead, the food could be relabelled properly, leaving the choice with consumers of eating horsemeat. In Sweden and other EU countries, there are also companies and organisations that collect edible food for charity. This would seem a more appropriate solution for the relabelled food.

I believe it is important that we let the consumer choose, raise their awareness and give them the chance to eat safe products if they so wish. There is something terribly wrong if false information and fraud on the packaging of perfectly edible food generates large amounts of food waste. Are there any EU food safety rules forcing food manufacturers and retailers to withdraw products from stores immediately in case of incorrect information on packaging? Does any rule stand in the way of them relabelling them, selling them or giving them to charity?

Is the best way of regaining consumer confidence and raising the credibility of the food supply chain to solve the problem of fraud by creating a waste problem? The Commission considers that if there is no safety concern in the foods at issue, i. Then these correctly re-labelled food products can be placed again on the market. The generation of food waste should be avoided in cases of fraudulent labelling where there is no food safety problem.

The Commission has confirmed that in response to the recent discovery of horse DNA in the human food chain, there will be a reinforcement of DNA and phenylbutazone testing across the European Union. However, following some reports that dog meat was found in the dog food chain in Spain, will the Commission confirm that random DNA testing will be applied to animal feed too? In addition, the feeding of terrestrial animals of a given species other than fur animals, with processed animal proteins derived from the bodies or parts of bodies of animals of the same species, is prohibited ban on interspecies recycling.

The competent authorities in the Member States are responsible for verifying the correct implementation of Union legislation. Spain informed the Commission that the suspicion is being investigated and that tracing of any possible dispatch of such products to other Member States is ongoing. The Commission continues to follow this issue and awaits the conclusions of the pending investigations. If the project has ended, could the Commission provide me with a copy of the final report?

Under this contract Ma'an Network completed six media actions promoting EU activities in the occupied Palestinian territory oPt. The project is ongoing.

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The EU does not provide global funding to non-governmental organisations NGOs but awards grants supporting specific projects and well-defined actions. The EU is respectful of freedom of expression as a key feature of a democratic society. El desempleo juvenil ha aumentado de manera espectacular como consecuencia de la crisis.

El objetivo de la Iniciativa sobre Empleo juvenil es reforzar, pero no sustituir, las medidas que cuentan con el apoyo del FSE para combatir el desempleo juvenil. The European Council conclusions on the Multiannual Financial Framework state that the Council will soon be adopting this guarantee. The figures for the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands are even more alarming: How does the Commission intend to mobilise the financial resources set aside for this initiative and, more specifically, what percentage will be allocated to tackle the youth unemployment problem in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands?

One of the main challenges Spain currently faces is the record high unemployment rate The allocation corresponding to each eligible region will be made proportionally to the number of young unemployed persons in the eligible region and the total number of young unemployed persons referred in all eligible regions.

The YEI is aimed to enhance and not replace the measures supported by the ESF in the fight against youth unemployment. Already in and credits from the ESF and ERDF allocated to Spain for the period were reallocated to the support of initiatives that benefit youth both related to employment as well as education. The increase of the Norwegian quota, which is 25 times larger than the total Danish cod quota, coincides with Norway releasing large quantities of fish on to the world market. In the past Norway has raised an import barrier on foodstuffs such as meat and cheese, and on flowers, resulting in higher prices on the European market.

Will the Commission take any steps to introduce an anti-dumping duty on the import of cod from Norway under the EEA Agreement? If the Commission obtains such evidence, it will carefully analyse all facts and may initiate an investigation if all legal conditions are met. The EU cod industry is free to bring a complaint and if there is sufficient evidence, the Commission is under a legal obligation to initiate an investigation if the relevant World Trade Organisation WTO and EU conditions are met.

Finally, the Commission would like to underline that, because the European Economic Area EEA Agreement does not include the common fisheries policy, the relevant legislation on the EU's internal market does not extend to fish products imported from Norway. Das Unternehmen nutzt offensichtlich seine Monopolstellung aus. The new version of a computer program from one of the largest software companies Microsoft can, in contrast to older versions, only be run on a single computer.

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The licence for this version is a perpetual licence that cannot be transferred to other devices. There is also an option of obtaining the aforementioned version on subscription. If someone opts for the subscription, the program can be run on five devices. The company is clearly exploiting its monopoly position. Consumers either have to pay a high price for the program or accept the fact that the program can only be used on a single device with no possibility of transferring the licence or that they will have to use an old version.

Is there any legislation within the European Union governing the licensing of software programs? If so, what legislation? Is it possible to take any sort action against this licensing arrangement? If so, what action can be taken? Should there not be legislation to prevent large companies forming monopolies like this so that we can protect consumers from unfair and extortionate prices?

The Commission ensures that all market players, including those in the software industry, abide by these rules. It is common practice in the software industry that software vendors offer various types of software licences in accordance with customer needs and price them accordingly. This practice does not, in itself, give rise to competition concerns, as it allows consumers to choose the licensing package at prices which best suit their needs.

Consumers who believe that their rights have been violated can complain to the national enforcement authorities responsible for consumer protection, or take legal action against a trader before a national court. Consumers may also seek assistance from a national consumer organisation to learn more about their rights and options to receive redress.

In diesem Zusammenhang wird insbesondere um Beantwortung folgender Fragen gebeten:. Falls ja, konnten potenzielle juristische Schwierigkeiten bei der Umsetzung einer solchen Gesetzgebung identifiziert werden? As some time has elapsed since then, it would be interesting to discover what conclusions the Task Force has reached following its investigations so far. In view of this, we would like to ask the following questions in particular:. Did the investigations produce evidence of the cost-effectiveness and feasibility of such legislation at EU level? If so, was it possible to identify potential legal problems in connection with the implementation of such legislation?

What additional measures has the Commission taken to prevent the import of products that are presumed to have been produced in the Laogai camps? Any potential ban of goods produced by forced or prison labour must respect World Trade Organisation WTO rules, including non-discrimination. Part of the Inter Service Group's ISG work is therefore to identify the scope of forced prison labour in third countries, as well as some of the obstacles in dealing with this complex issue, which include inter alia distinguishing forced prison labour from the forms of compulsory prison labour that is allowed if certain criteria are met according to internationally recognised standards.

All of these issues are central to the Laogai issue, and consideration of measures, if warranted, will be made in due course. Given the particularly difficult situation of the Greek economy and of producers of agricultural and livestock products, increased production costs and the steady decline in disposable income, will the Commission say:. What has the annual change in input costs and income been for producers in Greece over the last five years? Are any comparative data available for the same period for the other Member States?

Are any comparative data available for the other Member States? What are the main problems preventing the smooth implementation and take-up of the programme? What important projects have been excluded, given the increase in Community co-funding? Data on input costs and income in Greece are available at Eurostat. The implementation rate of a measure depends on many factors amongst others, delivery structure, institutional framework, national procedures, interest of beneficiaries , which vary considerably between Regions and Member States.

Progress reports prepared annually by the Managing Authority describe amongst others, the implementation problems and solutions proposed. For Greece, these reports can be consulted at http: No information is available at Commission level on legal commitments at programme level.

The Commission does not have any information on projects that might have been excluded due to the increase of co-financing rate of the programme. De Commissie verleent op dit moment geen humanitaire of ontwikkelingssteun die de rechtstreekse levering van medische noodhulp of medicijnen aan Iran inhoudt. De huidige, beperkte steun van de Commissie aan Iran wordt via internationale organisaties en niet-gouvernementele organisaties ngo's verstrekt en is voor het Iraanse volk bedoeld.

If not, why not? Can the Commission provide emergency medical supplies to Iranians in dire need using humanitarian or development funds, and assess whether the Iranian regime will accept this kind of direct medical assistance? Any shortage of available medicines or other essential goods inside Iran is however mainly due to the inadequate allocation of existing economic resources by the Iranian Government.

The Commission is currently providing no humanitarian or development assistance implying direct delivery of emergency medical assistance and medicines to Iran. The United States is our most important trading partner and trade between us has a decisive bearing on patterns of world trade overall: The launch of trade negotiations between the United States and the European Union is good news, therefore.

A transatlantic trade and investment agreement holds out the promise of growth and many new jobs on both sides of the Atlantic. Both American and European leaders have signalled their strong support for the conclusion of this agreement, but this support must be sustained over time and be reflected in practical measures which are needed now. The High-Level Working Group is calling for ambitious targets to be set in areas such as market access and regulatory and non-tariff barriers and for new forms of enhanced cooperation to be developed. The automotive industry is one of the sectors where these needs are being felt most keenly.

Parliament and the Council are currently considering several documents relevant to the automotive industry, dealing for example with CO 2 emissions and fuel. If we want a genuine dialogue, steps must be taken now to set up working groups on EU-US trade, bringing together representatives of the public authorities, industry and civil society, with very specific remits.

These groups could develop into think tanks, devising proposals and channelling information. Does the Commission have any plans to set up such groups in the near future? Tackling regulatory issues, including in a number of key sectors such as the automotive sector, will be a priority. The Commission is aware of the importance signalled by the Honourable Member to establish an effective process involving all constituencies concerned, based on shared objectives, to deliver on this goal.

This process is already underway. The EU and US automobile industries are engaged and have submitted a number of suggestions on how to address non-tariff barriers in the context of a possible trade negotiation. The Forum also gave an opportunity for a larger stakeholder group to present their views, including consumer representatives and civil society. Parliament will be immediately and fully informed at all stages of the negotiations, in particular through its Committee on International Trade.

La sentenza riguarda 55 zone e agglomerati, tra cui diverse zone nel nord-est dell'Italia cui fa riferimento l'onorevole parlamentare nella sua interrogazione. These fires are a real threat to the health of local people, because they produce huge quantities of particulates and combustion products. In addition to particulates not only PM10s but also PM2.

The ruling concerns 55 zones and agglomerations including several zones in North-Eastern Italy, to which the Honourable Member refers in his question. The Italian authorities have been reporting regularly on progress in cleaning up the landfill sited to which the ruling relates. Frodi alimentari e tutela del consumatore. I cittadini sono giustamente preoccupati e si domandano se possono ancora fidarsi di quanto riportato sulle etichette dei cibi che acquistano quotidianamente. La Commissione coordina attivamente a livello sia politico che tecnico le indagini in corso negli Stati membri interessati.

Sulla base del regolamento CE n. L'imminente proposta della Commissione sui controlli ufficiali mira anche a rafforzare ulteriormente il sistema esistente, comprese le disposizioni in tema di sanzioni. Lo scandalo attuale si sarebbe verificato anche se l'etichettatura d'origine fosse stata obbligatoria per i prodotti alimentari in questione.

Tuttavia, nel contesto del regolamento UE n. The public are rightly concerned and wonder whether they can still believe what they read on the labels of the foodstuffs they purchase in their everyday lives. They have to be able to find out what is in the food they are putting on their tables. Consumer confidence is an asset that Europe cannot afford to lose, and special protection must be afforded to consumers in a period of economic crisis in which they are having to economise on food.

What measures it plans to adopt to improve the transparency of consumer information in order to avoid further cases of food fraud? What measures it plans to adopt to increase the efficiency of the checks on the rules on the labelling and traceability of products intended for use in foodstuffs? Whether, in order to avoid a repeat of these events, it plans to introduce new rules to accompany these measures, such as the requirement that food labels must show the origins of all foodstuffs? It is because of this system that the origin and the extent of the fraudulent actions in question were quickly identified.

The Commission is actively coordinating the pending investigations in the Member States concerned both on a political and a technical level. The forthcoming Commission proposal on official controls will also aim at further strengthening the existing system, including the provisions on sanctions. Mandatory origin labelling is not a tool to prevent fraud by malicious operators. The present scandal could have occurred even if origin labelling was mandatory for the foods in question. Uniforme regelgeving rond gezonde vloerbekleding.

De Europese sector is voorstander van zulke reglementering. De sector blijft trouwens ruim onder de strenge normen die worden opgelegd. Voor inter nationale producenten van vloerbekledingen is de interne markt een belangrijke afzetmarkt. Het lijkt daarom verstandig dat de normering op Europees niveau vastgelegd wordt. De Commissie heeft het mandaat met betrekking tot het CE-merk voor vloerbekledingen EN aangepast met identieke voorwaarden, maar deze zijn nog niet doorgevoerd. Zijn er binnen de Commissie plannen om uniforme normen op te leggen voor gezonde vloerbekleding? Tot er een Europese regeling is voor de normen, welke stappen zal de Commissie nemen om de verscheidenheid tussen nationale wetgevingen te beperken zodat invoeren naar EU-landen niet geblokkeerd wordt door nationale beperkingen?

Zullen er controles gekoppeld worden aan het opleggen van deze normen? De Commissie heeft momenteel geen plannen voor EU-brede emissienormen voor vloerbedekkingen. De Commissie heeft een groep van deskundigen bijeengebracht, die de lidstaten en de belanghebbenden vertegenwoordigt inzake de luchtkwaliteit in gesloten ruimten. De groep deskundigen zoekt naar zowel wetgevende als niet-wetgevende oplossingen om chronische ademhalingsziekten en vormen van kanker ten gevolge van milieuvervuiling binnenshuis te verminderen. De binnen het CEN ontwikkelde testmethoden zijn in overeenstemming met de beproefde CEN-regels, die de kwaliteit van zijn normen waarborgen.

The European sector advocates such regulation. However, that sector continues to fall well short of the strict standards which are being imposed. For national and international producers of floor coverings, the internal market is an important sales market. It therefore seems sensible for standards to be set at European level. The Commission has adapted the mandate with regard to the CE mark for floor coverings EN with identical conditions, but they have not yet been implemented.

Do any plans exist within the Commission for imposing uniform standards for healthy floor coverings? Until there is European regulation of these standards, what steps will the Commission take to limit the differences between national laws so that imports into EU Member States are not blocked by national restrictions? Will the imposition of these standards be accompanied by monitoring? If so, what form will this take, precisely? The Commission does not currently have plans for EU wide standards regarding emissions from floor coverings.

The test methods developed in CEN are following the well-established CEN rules in ensuring the robustness of its standards. Onlangs stelde de Commissie voor dat alle zonnepanelen die uit China komen verplicht geregistreerd moeten worden door de douane. Dit besluit hangt samen met de antidumpingcampagne die de Europese Unie op dit moment voert rondom Chinese zonnepanelen. De aankondiging en berichtgevingen hebben reeds tot grote onzekerheid op de markt voor zonnepanelen geleid.

Daarnaast kan de maatregel volgens onderzoek van het bondgenootschap voor betaalbare zonne-energie AFASE tot fors banenverlies leiden: Erkent de Commissie dat de maatregel een protectionistische aard heeft? Hoe gaat de Commissie voorkomen dat dit een precedent schept voor meer protectionisme? Erkent de Commissie dat de maatregelen leiden tot banenverlies? Hoe zal dit verlies opgevangen worden? Deze registratie voldoet aan de regels van de Wereldhandelsorganisatie. In sommige derde landen is registratie een automatisch onderdeel van alle onderzoeken. Het effect van mogelijke maatregelen waaronder mogelijk banenverlies hoger in de bedrijfskolom voornamelijk wie zonnepanelen installeert en lager in de bedrijfskolom producenten van apparatuur en grondstoffen alsmede op de producenten van zonnepanelen in de Unie wordt momenteel geanalyseerd op basis van onder andere de door deze partijen verstrekte informatie.

The Commission recently proposed that all solar panels originating in China should be subject to compulsory registration by the customs authorities. This decision was prompted by the antidumping campaign which the European Union is currently carrying out with regard to solar panels from China. The announcement and reports have already caused serious uncertainty on the solar panel market. Does the Commission intend to follow up the registration requirement with a levy on solar panels? Is it true that this levy will also be introduced retrospectively?

Can the Commission guarantee that people who have previously invested in solar panels will not be affected? Does the Commission acknowledge that the measure is of a protectionist nature? The main objective of the book is to investigate to what extent a linguistic commonality determines a convergence of solutions with regards to corporate governance. With a view to reaching this aim, the book is structured around a common matrix of themes tackled by specialists in the seven Lusophone jurisdictions taken into consideration here: In each chapter the essential traits of limited companies, corporate governance models, shareholders, management and supervision are successively analysed.

This sequence is preceded by an introductory chapter, which tries to detect common trends and deal with transversal links. Governance Lab is dedicated to the reflection on and legal study of issues connected to corporate governance, striving to actively contribute to the progress of practices, recommendations and legal rules involved in this subject.