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Part of our value-added professional format series, the Urban Operations Field Manual (FM ) provides the analytical tools for evaluating an urban operation .
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The most important of these are the Army's operational concept and the fundamentals that support it. They form the foundation for all Army doctrine. All Soldiers should understand and internalize them. FM 1 describes the American profession of arms, the Army's place in it, and what it means to be a professional Soldier. This is a privately authored news service and educational publication of Progressive Management. Mehr lesen Weniger lesen. September Verkauf durch: Amazon Media EU S. Kundenrezensionen Noch keine Kundenrezensionen vorhanden.

Sagen Sie Ihre Meinung zu diesem Artikel. Testen Sie jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Joint Doctrine for Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Kite Balloons to Airships: In Search of Lethality: The Development of the B and Jet Propulsion: A History of Sea-Air Aviation: Naval Aviation in World War I: Command in Air War: Everest - The First Ascent. Marines in the Korean War Commemorative Series: Corsairs to Panthers - U. Marines In Iraq, A History of U. Naval Institute on Naval Innovation. The Air War in Southeast Asia: Air Force Officer's Guide.

Seeking Shadows In The Sky: Air Force Doctrine Document The Smell of Kerosene: The Battle of Britain: Apollo and America's Moon Landing Program: Saturn V Flight Manual: National Guard Forces in the Cyber Domain: Orientation Guide and Croatian Cultural Orientation: Orientation Guide and Cultural Orientation: Six Against the Secretary: The Katyn Forest Massacre: America's Civil War to Guide to Field Marshall William J.

Principles of War for Cyberspace: Joint Force Cyberspace Component Command: Aviation in the U. Miracle on the Hudson: F Systems Engineering Case Study: Battlefield of the Future: Beirut in Lebanon, Grozny in Chechnya, and Sarajevo in Bosnia-Herzegovina have been centers of conflict in the last 50 years. Urban areas, now more pervasive than ever before, will continue to be essential to successful operational and strategic warfighting.

Today, armies cannot execute major military operations without the influence of surrounding urban environments with the possible exception of the open desert. Several reasons have attracted and continue to attract armies to combat in urban areas:.

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A military force chooses to position itself in an urban area to capitalize on the perceived advantages offered by the environment. In contrast, an opposing force, by analyzing the factors of the situation, determines that it must enter the urban area to attack and destroy its enemy or devote essential combat power to their isolation. The urban area's infrastructure, capabilities, or other resources have significant operational or strategic value. The urban area's geographical location dominates a region or avenue of approach.

Russia's experience in Chechnya illustrates an increasingly important motivation for conducting urban operations. The Chechen rebels, after failing to engage Russian forces outside the city, chose to turn Grozny into the battlefield. Leaders of the defeated Chechen conventional forces recognized that fighting in the urban area provided them their best chance for success. The complexities of urban combat and the perceived advantages of defending an urban area mitigated their numerical and technological inferiority.

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The urban area provided the Chechens protection from fires, resources, interior lines, and covered and concealed positions and movement. Given such advantages offered by the environment, smaller or less-sophisticated military forces have similarly chosen to fight in urban areas. Such advantages of operating in an urban environment also prompt forces to conduct an urban operation to facilitate a larger campaign plan and decisive battle in another location. The urban operation can focus the enemy on the urban area and allow other forces to conduct operations elsewhere.

From a defensive perspective, an urban defense may gain time and space to reorganize forces in new defensive positions, to divert enemy forces from other critical tasks, or to prepare to conduct offensive operations. The stubborn defense permitted the Soviets to reorganize for later offensive operations. From an offensive perspective, an attack on an urban area may be a shaping operation used to divert resources from the decisive operation that will follow. Armies also fight in an urban area to obtain some critical feature or resource in the area, such as a port facility.

The desire to control an important seaport and access to the Persian Gulf largely motivated the Iranian and Iraqi struggle for Basra in the s. Other infrastructure of the urban environment may have operational or strategic significance and can compel military forces to attack or defend the area.

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As urban areas account for an increasing share of a country's national income, often generating over 50 percent of gross national product, the strategic implications for their control or influence become even greater. Urban areas are often located on terrain that dominates a region or an avenue of approach. In these cases, offensive armies capture these areas to proceed with security to another objective.

Conversely, defensive forces commonly defend the area to deny the area of operations. To illustrate, Cassino, Italy stood astride the critical highway approach up the Liri valley to Rome. The allies had to attack and capture the monastery to facilitate the allied offensive north. Cassino's location made bypassing virtually impossible. Likewise, Israeli army urban operations in Beirut were and have continued to be a result of its strategic location near the Israeli security zone; various Arab insurgent and terrorist groups used Beirut as a base for attacks against Israel.

Beirut evolved as the major base of the Palestine Liberation Organization, a major opponent of Israel. Beirut's location made it a security threat to Israel and thus compelled several major Israeli operations in the urban area see Appendix A. Another reason for engaging in urban operations is the symbolic-historical, cultural, political, and even economic-importance of many urban areas.

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Often, capital cities-such as Rome, Paris, Seoul, and Berlin-are identified as the strategic centers of gravity of their respective nations. Possessing or threatening these urban areas may impact directly on the outcome of a conflict. The objective of Germany's wars with France in and was ultimately Paris. Napoleon's campaign had as its objective Moscow, as did Hitler's offensive into Russia. The objective of the Soviet offensive was Berlin, and the North Vietnamese offensive had as its objective the South's capital of Saigon.

Still, history also reminds us that commanders assess the sustainability and decisiveness of operations directed toward these "prestige" objectives. For example, in , Napoleon captured Moscow but had to evacuate it within 30 days. He lacked supplies and shelter, failed to destroy the Russian Army, and failed to defeat the political will of the Czar and the people.

The US Army has a varied history of conducting operations to attack or defend larger urban areas. The American Revolution saw the Army conduct several urban operations.

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These operations included the unsuccessful defense of New York, the successful attack on Trenton, and the decisive siege and attack on British forces at Yorktown. The Mexican War also had a successful assault on the fortified city of Monterey and the decisive siege of Mexico City. During the American Civil War, the armies, in the tradition of Napoleonic maneuver warfare, avoided urban areas and fought in the open. However, the opposing armies frequently made urban areas their objective because of their importance as railheads.

Success in the siege of several key urban areas-Vicksburg, Atlanta, and Petersburg-contributed to the Northern victory. These limited urban combat operations were small but essential parts of what were urban stability operations.

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From to , the Army provided public security for a sector of Peking, China of around 50, inhabitants. The Army conducted UO and, in the course of the operation, the 9th US Infantry suffered percent casualties while fighting in Tientsin. Punitive expeditions to places such as Siberia, Cuba, Philippines, Central America, and Mexico put the Army in various urban situations that required using military power, notably, the occupation and security of Vera Cruz, Mexico in World War II forced the Army to grapple with the issues of large-scale urban combat almost immediately.

Manila represented a large, modern, friendly urban area, which was the capital city of a close US ally. Defending the urban area posed numerous challenges. Ultimately General MacArthur determined that he could best conduct its defense outside the city by defeating the enemy forces in combat on the invasion beaches or shortly after they landed. When Japanese forces defeated MacArthur's Philippine Army in a series of engagements, MacArthur had to decide how best to protect the friendly populace of Manila.

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He had two choices: He had little choice but to declare Manila an open city and move his forces to Bataan to wage an operational defense in the vain hope that a counteroffensive could relieve his isolated force. On 2 January , Japanese forces entered Manila unopposed. Had General MacArthur decided to defend Manila, his forces would have found scant doctrine in the Army regarding how to fight in an urban area. Doctrine for urban operations did not appear until early , when faced with the possibility of fighting through the larger urban areas of Western Europe.

This manual had the first formal discussion of how the Army viewed urban combat.


  • FM , Chapter 1, Urban Outlook.
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It was based on the Army's limited experiences in the Mediterranean theater and the study of German and Soviet experiences on the Eastern front. FM emphasized a deliberate pace, individual and small unit initiative, the liberal use of direct and indirect firepower, and decentralized command and execution.


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It focused on the urban area as opposed to the environment ; however, it did include policies towards the noncombatants. The manual was also focused at the regimental combat team level.