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A short, pithy commentary offering an entirely original perspective on Psalm 1 in the light of the modern laws of jurisprudence and science. Includes KJV verse.
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Even as He Himself conducted His earthly life in full surrender and dependence on the Holy Spirit , so too must we as believers learn to daily, moment by moment yield to the the control of the Spirit, a process which we must carry out the remainder of our time on earth. In other words, there is no saint, no matter how sanctified, how Christ-like or how godly, who will ever achieve a level of spiritual growth in which they can say that they have "arrived.

We all experience some periods when we are walking wonderfully in step with the Spirit, but we also experience days of disappointing defeat and failure to trust and obey. But don't let the "cloudy days" discourage you. Confess and turn from your sins and lean hard on His everlasting arms. As William Cowper wrote Alford comments on the phrase "just as" - As is by no means superfluous, but gives the sense not as if it were a matter to be done in my presence only, but now as things are at present much more with more earnestness in my absence because spiritual help from me is withdrawn from you , carry out bring to an accomplishment your own emphasis on your own, perhaps as directing attention to the example of Christ which has preceded -- as He obeyed and won His exaltation, so do you obey and carry our your own salvation salvation which is begun with justification by faith, but must be carried out, brought to an issue, by sanctification of the Spirit -- a life of holy obedience and advance to Christian perfection Ed: The New Testament for English Readers.

This is a quality of love which calls for one to sacrifice of self for the sake of the recipient of that love. Paul in using this word agapetos is indicating to the Philippians that he has a heavenly, divine love for them, even commending them for their past obedience. His soul is bound up in these precious saints, who were the among the first Gentile converts in Europe read about the Macedonian Vision, God opening Lydia's heart and the converted jailer at Philippi beginning in Acts Beloved conveys a tenderness and affection which lend force to the injunctions which follow while providing a clear word of comfort and encouragement.

Therefore, my beloved brethren whom I long to see, my joy and crown, so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved. While this verse is actually Paul's first use of beloved in Philippians it does recall his earlier declaration of love for them God is my witness, how I long for you all with the affection of Christ Jesus.

And remember that He accomplished this not in dependence on His divinity but in dependence on His flesh which in turn continually depended on the Spirit's empowerment Paul does not set up this standard in an accusing way but in an affirming way. How different the tone is here from books like Galatians, where Paul is dealing with the danger of legalism and works Gal 2: Just as you have always obeyed - The idea is "Recall the times when you were filled with the Spirit and walked in obedience, disciplining yourselves for godliness, etc.

He uses this encouragement to gently prod them onward to a lifestyle of further obedience. Memory is a good thing when it remembers good behavior! Past commendation is used by Paul to motivate present and future conduct. How different from his question to the saints in Galatia David Guzik is "spot on" commenting that "We should not miss the connection between the obedience Jesus showed Php 2: Hupakouo implies the idea of voluntary submission. Another meaning of hupakouo in Acts And when he knocked at the door of the gate, a servant-girl named Rhoda came to answer hupakouo - of a doorkeeper who hearkens or answers a knock and opens the door.

Hupakouo - 21 times in the NT - Mt. Don't say you can't stop that sin believer. Be honest and say "I won't"! If someone says they believe and continually disobey and have no evidence of a changed life and new power over sin, they could be deceived - Let us all apply the test given in Paul's solemn admonition 2Co Note how this truth parallels Ro Do not be deceived! How important is this point in modern day evangelicalism where there are those who claim salvation but have no demonstrable change in their lifestyle?

Hupakouo - 52 uses in the non-apocryphal Septuagint LXX -. The word " answer " is our word hupakouo and in context meant to hear and to answer as a result of hearing. In secular Greek hupakouo was used of the doorkeeper whose duty is was to listen for the signals of those who wish to enter and to admit them if they are entitled to do so.

Is the word of God "knocking" on the door of your mind and heart in any area of your life? Are you "opening the door" and letting the truth in? Are you responding to the truth you've let in or have you sequestered it in a back room of your heart so it won't disturb you? Paul had used the adjective form hupekoos in Philippians 2: Christ is their example of perfect obedience and the Philippian saints have a good record of obedience in his presence. They had "hearkened" or given respectful attention to and surrendered to the truth of God's word as shown by their subsequent behavior.

Little wonder that Paul as the "spiritual father" of these "beloved" saints had such affection for them for as John writes. Paul stresses not how much the saints at Philippi knew but how well they obeyed. He knew that when God measures the character of a man or woman, He puts the tape not around their head to see how much they know but around their heart to see how well they obey!

Your conduct does matter! So Paul appeals to the example of Christ's perfect obedience and their past obedience to continue to exhibit consistent obedience. Paul knows that ongoing obedience is essential to sanctification , which cannot occur without it. Are you a hearer of the word on Sunday and a "forgetter" on Monday? Are you growing in Christ-likeness sanctification or are you just growing older and more hardened because you hear but don't obey? Beloved brethren, " do not be deceived , God is not mocked, for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap. Click for a discussion of the phrase " obedience of faith " which emphasizes the important relationship between belief and obedience.

Christ became obedient even unto death. The Philippians have hitherto been obedient; they were obedient when the apostle called them to faith and repentance; let them be obedient now. That obedience is due to God who seeth the heart. We must not depend too much on human teachers, whether present or absent; we must look to the unseen Saviour who is ever present, and work out, each one for himself, our own salvation.

Obedience is defined not in legal terms but in relational terms as knowing Christ, being like him, and serving him When the path of obedience to Christ becomes steep and dangerous, pleasure seekers look for an easier way. Religious tourists hunting for sensational entertainment, instantaneous enlightenment, and emotional excitement will jump on the newest rides and take quick shortcuts, but they will not be found with pilgrims on the long, hard road following in the footsteps of Christ, who was obedient to death—even death on a cross. But the essential characteristic of the wise who build their community on Christ is their consistent obedience to Him.

The measure of our effectiveness in ministry is greatly determined by how people live in our absence. We have accomplished nothing if our disciples only live for God when we're around and then go back to disobedience or complacency when we leave. They must learn to feel responsible to God, not to us. Bruce Goettsche - Integrity in the faith is something that is revealed in the hidden times more than in the public times. It is the reminder that who we are when no one is looking is who we really are.

We can all maintain a certain image when we are in church. But the real test of faith is when we are outside of the church. The goal of the Christian is to live consistently. Will Rogers perhaps summed it up well, "Live in such a way that you would not be ashamed to sell your parrot to the town gossip. John Eadie comments that Paul's "absence did not make the obligation to obey less imperative, but it demanded more earnestness and vigilance from them in the discharge of the duty. His voice and person were a guide and stimulant, his addresses and conversations reproved their languor, and excited them to assiduous labour, so that His presence among them wrought like a charm.

And now that he was not with them, and they were left to themselves, they were so much the more to double their diligence, and work out salvation. Vine adds that "Their fulfillment of his exhortation "work out your salvation" was not to be dependent on his being with them. On the contrary, there was a stronger reason for their carrying it out when he was absent, as they would realize the more their dependence on Christ.

The power of faith that depends upon the power of the unseen but personally present Christ is sufficient for the accomplishment of His will. Collected writings of W. It is interesting to see association of obedience linked as in the present verse with "fear and trembling" in Paul's letter to the Corinthians where he wrote that the affection of Titus Now much more in my absence - This reminds one of Paul's instruction to slaves in Eph 6: ESV Study Bible - They cannot be content with past glories but need to demonstrate their faith day by day as they nurture their relationship with God.

Pulpit Commentary - They were to make their future, as they had made their past. They were not to make their obedience to the gospel dependent on his presence with them. An obedience as in his presence would have meant negligence in his absence. Nay, they were to make his absence a stimulus to greater exertion. When they had not his help they were to feel the greater need of rousing themselves to action. A a greater need on God their ultimate source of spiritual energizing. Paul Apple writes that "the degree of obedience of the child is not determined by what the child does when the parent is present, but by what he does when the parent is absent.

Paul Apple - Philippians. John MacArthur comments that Paul's "point is that there is never a time when a true believer is not responsible to obey the Lord. Believers must never be primarily dependent on their pastor, teacher, Christian fellowship, or anyone else for their spiritual strength and growth. Joseph A Beet - Philippians 2: Dwight Pentecost comments that the example of Christ in the previous verse should be sufficient motivation for them to obey explaining that "In Paul's mind, if his presence would put pressure upon them, the example of the loving suffering of the Lord Jesus Christ ought to put even greater pressure on them.

It was Paul's greatest desire to please a person. That was the motive in his personal life, and it was not necessary for that Person to be present. Ironside has an interesting introductory note on this next section applying the truth more to the entire body of believers rather than to individual believers writing that Here, in seeming contrast to that doctrine, the apostle told the saints to work out their own salvation with fear and trembling, as though there were a possibility that salvation might be forfeited because of failure to work it out properly.

Notice first, however, that the apostle did not speak of working for salvation. He spoke of working it out , which is very different. I am reminded of a little girl who listened to a legalistic sermon preached on this text. The minister insisted that no one could be saved by grace alone; each person must work out his own salvation. At the close of the service she innocently asked, "Mother, how can you work it out if you haven't got it in?

If salvation of the individual were being contemplated here, it might be enough of an explanation to say, "It is your own; therefore manifest it—work it out. But more than individual salvation is being contemplated. Taken in context, verse 12 refers to assembly salvation.

That is, Paul was giving direction to an assembly of Christians. They were exposed to difficulties from without and from within; they were passing through a world totally opposed to the testimony committed to them. Paul was showing them how to continue in fellowship together in spite of the fact that each individual had within him a corrupt nature that could surface—to the detriment of the whole church—if given the opportunity.

We have already noticed that there was some difficulty in the Philippian assembly between two sisters of prominence, Euodias and Syntyche. This disagreement could easily cause distressing quarrels and even division if not judged in the presence of the Lord. Similar misunderstandings could arise from time to time and would need to be carefully watched for.

When the apostle himself was with the Philippians, they could refer all such matters to him and he would, so to speak, work out their salvation from these perplexities. He would advise and guide as needed. But at the time he was writing to them, he was far away. He was a prisoner for the gospel's sake and could not personally give the help he wanted to provide.

Since he was absent, he directed them as obedient children to work out their own salvation in godly fear and with exercise of soul, so that they would not depart from the right path or stray out of the will of God. How beneficial Paul's words have been for generations of Christians! Sooner or later, all assemblies of saints on earth will probably have internal differences, and the advice or command the apostle gave to the Philippians will apply in all such cases.

It is God's way that churches should be put right from within, by self-judgment in His presence and submission to His Word. Jonathan Edwards by most measures the greatest theologian in American history attests to the importance of a proper understanding of Philippians 2: Paul a sentence hit me when I was about twenty-two that has shaped my theology ever since , "Work out your salvation with fear and trembling for it is God who works in you to will and to do his good pleasure" Bolding added.

The Spirit will carry you. Nor is God working merely to strengthen us in our willing and acting. God Himself is working in us both to will and to act: But far from this being a disincentive to press on, Paul insists that this is an incentive. Assured as we are that God works in this way in His people, we should be all the more strongly resolved to will and to act in ways that please our Master.

An Exposition of Philippians Ed Note: It is very surprising that Carson makes no mention at all regarding the role of the Holy Spirit in his exposition of this passage! W A Criswell emphasizes that Philippians 2: The idea is to progress to the finish or completion in spiritual growth and maturity. However, though we are active, we are not alone. Ministered by the indwelling Holy Spirit.. New King James Version. The Christian's workout Php 2: These words, as they stand in the New Testament, contain no exhortation to all men, but are directed to the people of God.

They are not intended as an exhortation to the unconverted. They are, as we find them in the epistle, beyond all question addressed to those who are already saved through a living faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. No proof can be needed of this assertion, for the whole epistle is directed to the saints. All true obedience springs from saving faith, and he was therefore addressing those who, through faith in Christ, had been rendered obedient to the gospel commands I have heard it said that the good sculptor, whenever he sees a suitable block of marble, firmly believes that there is a statue concealed within it.

True, there are some traces of it, some dim outlines of what is to be; it is for you, with the chisel and the mallet, with constant endeavor and holy dependence upon God, to work out that image of Christ in yourself, till you shall be discovered to be by all men like unto your Lord and Master. God has sketched the image of his Son in you; in the as-yet-but-slightly-carved marble He has fairly outlined it, and you have but to go on chipping away these sins, infirmities, and corruptions, till the fair likeness of the incarnate God shall be seen by all.

John Eadie - The compound verb katergazomai expresses the idea of carrying out, or making perfect Joseph Beet writes that katergazomai "denotes effective effort, and implies that deliverance day by day is a result of persistent work: While using all means to strengthen our spiritual life Ed: Word, prayer, dependence on the Spirit's enablement , we are bringing about our present and final deliverance.

So sailors have often toiled to save their ship from the rocks and themselves from a watery grave. Thomas Watson - Life is a day for labor. The day is the time for working, Psalm The sun rises and man goes forth to his work. Death is a sleeping time for the body.

Life is a working time. A Christian has no time to lie fallow. Until My Change Comes. Jerry Bridges emphasizes that "Our responsibility regarding our wills is to guard our minds and emotions, being aware of what influences our minds and stimulates our desires.

As we do our part, we will see the Spirit of God do His part in making us more holy. The Pursuit of Holiness. He was really saying that it's not by grace alone that we are saved - and the little girl tugged the arm of her mother, and said: How can you work it out if you haven't got it in? Do you see the difference here? It has to be in before you can work it out. This is the primary difference between Christianity, Bible believing Christianity, and the religions of this world - because religion is an attempt to work in, rather than let God work something in, you're trying to work the thing in.

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Chris Vogel - Augustine said, "God gives us commands we cannot perform, that we may know what we ought to request from Him. This puts the brakes on self-congratulatory, self-improvement rhetoric. No more can we say with personal determination that we will do anything, but this forces us to constantly acknowledge that we must change, and that God His Spirit indwelling us is the One making us change. Change is certainly hard activity, necessary activity, but never a self-reliant activity. God wants us to be neither activists nor apathetic. We must be confident that God will work in us when and where we see areas which call for obedience.

Either we cannot bring ourselves to choose what we know to be right, or else, having chosen it, we fail to do it. Sin has corrupted both the power to choose and the power to accomplish. God supplies not only the will we need to change, but the power to respond. God is working from above and within to make you both to will and to do.

When we grasp this, obedience ceases being rules that regulate conduct and become another opportunity for God to mold us to be like Christ. Freedom to live as God commands comes as God empowers. As the cart weaves in and out of the aisles it is obvious to you how that cart moves. But what is obvious to you may not be known by the small operator.

While he is proud of his efforts in controlling the cart, Dad stands behind. There Dad stands, with hands resting on the bar, guiding every move. When it comes to change in your life, you know what God demands; you know what is necessary. New Year's resolutions will come and go. But real change must occur. The funny thing is it looks like it's us doing it! You do the work for the Lord - the speaking, the music, the serving, the encouraging, the leading and it sure looks like it's you who's living your Christian life But, it was really his father.

The same with you and me. To work so as to bring something to fulfillment or successful completion and implies doing something with thoroughness. It means to do that from which something results. This verb always means to complete the effort and the work begun. As discussed below work out is in the present imperative which is a reminder that we can't even obey this without the Spirit's enabling power!

This truth should help keep us humble! As Rod Mattoon says " The life of the Christian is not a series of up's and down's , but in's and out's. God God's Spirit continually works in us and we work out what He has done within us. Katergazomai was used by secular Roman writers Strabo - 60BC to describe the working of a silver mine with the goal of extracting all of the precious ore.

By analogy, we are commanded to "mine out" of our lives all the richness of salvation God has so graciously deposited in us. By sustained Spirit enabled effort and diligence we are to work out and perfect in daily conduct the precious "ore" God has placed within us when He blessed us with "every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places" in Christ Eph 1: He referred to the "working out of the mines" and used the exact word [ katergazomai ] that Paul used in our text.

What did Strabo mean when he told his contemporaries to "work out the mines? They already had the mines in their possession. Now they were to derive the full benefit from them. When we become Christians, God plants tremendous potential in our lives, like a mine, and He wants us to realize that potential to its fullest.

Working out the full benefit of our salvation is a task to which we must be committed all our lives. Katergazomai was also used to describe working in a field with the reaping of a big harvest! I love that picture -- Lord, let each of us "reap a bountiful harvest" in the glorious Gospel field known as sanctification! Oliver Cromwell, the English leader of the past, wrote in the front of his Bible, this motto: Finally, katergazomai was used to describe one working on a math problem and deriving the correct answer.

Wil Pounds renders Phil 2: Bring the whole purpose of your salvation to completion. Paul uses the present imperative which is a command calling for the readers to make it their lifelong work to obey this command, bring their salvation to the goal the goal of Christ likeness, "conformed to the image of His Son" Ro 8: Thus this is not an optional exercise. The point is that believers have a responsibility to put forth real effort in their Christian lives and it is not just " let go and let God.

Thus the clause could be rendered more fully as "You yourself keep on bringing your salvation fully to its intended goal. The point is do not go half-way in your salvation. Do not take bits and pieces when there is a whole parcel of glorious Gospel land to be claimed by faith obedience. Trust and obey there's no other way to be blessed in Jesus, then to trust and obey! God has given us new life in Christ, but His desire is for us to experience this life abundantly in His Son Jn He desires that we possess our possessions so to speak cf Eph 1: Even as Joshua and Israel had been given the land of Canaan, they were still commanded to exert effort to possess their possessions.

Go on, keeping growing until your salvation is completed 2Pe 3: Notice that this verse implies that the believer has both freedom and responsibility. The responsibility of man in this verse as noted is balanced by the divine sovereignty in the next verse Phil 2: Paul says believers are to continually be perfecting Christ likeness, that glorious supernatural life which commenced at our new birth.

Dearly beloved, is this your ongoing experience - increasing Christ likeness? You can use Gal 5: Don't place yourself under guilt or the law -- sanctification is about direction not perfection. But if you are not going in the "right direction," it begs the question of "Why not? How's your time in the Word? While reading through the Bible in a year is great, it is far better to daily "ingest" a small portion of "filet mignon" Mt 4: The power that compels us comes from the Spirit who indwells us.

Handley Moule places the command to work out our salvation in proper perspective writing that "We have still in our ears the celestial music, infinitely sweet and full, of the great paragraph of the incarnation, the journey of our Lord of love from glory to glory by the way of the awful cross As C H Spurgeon wisely advised "Hurried reading is of little benefit.

Psalm 1 in 999 Words: Delighting in the Law of the Lord (Nimble Commentaries)

To sit down awhile and meditate is very profitable cf Mary in Lk Martyn Lloyd Jones writes that working out what God has worked in "is the practical exhortation of the New Testament Gospel to us today. I must now perfect Ed: The seed has been planted; I have been given it in embryo. My business is to allow and to encourage this gift to grow and develop, until it comes to its final perfection and full maturity. I have got the gift: I need not be worried lest God is not present and not with me. God is working in me and I must develop it all I can. It is always a matter of trust and obey No one can live the Christian life until he has Christ.

It is not a matter of the imitation of Christ but the manifestation of Christ, the Holy Spirit reproducing the life of Christ in and through the believer cf 2Cor 3: William Barclay says that katergazomai "always has the idea of bringing to completion. It is as if Paul says: TDNT writes that katergazomai is. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Katergazomai describes not the spirit in which the work is done, but the aim and issue—"carry through" and so it represents the full and final bringing of an enterprise to a successful conclusion.

Paul's point is that by working out our salvation, believers bring the whole purpose of salvation to completion. In a sense then we are to daily "mine out" of our lives all the richness of the great a salvation which God has so graciously "deposited" within each believer. Remember that in chapter 1 Php 1: D R Jenkins offers an analogy to help explain how God works in Php 2: J C Ryle reminds us "If there is anything which a man ought to do thoroughly, authentically, truly, honestly, and with all of his heart, it is the business of his soul.

If there is any work which he ought never to slight, and do in a careless fashion, it is the great work of "working out his own salvation" Philippians 2: Believer in Christ, remember this! Whatever you do in religion, do it well. A W Pink - As Matthew Henry pointed out, "Many are more inquisitive respecting who shall be saved, and who not—than respecting what they shall do to be saved. Pink is not saying we work for our salvation as we could earn it but we do carry out the daily business of working out our growth in Christ likeness.

Quietism teaches that the believer is passive and is characterized by the saying, "let go and let God. They believed you could come to a post-conversion crisis experience in which you momentarily became so totally surrendered that you never sinned again — what some call sinless perfection. So it was thought that sanctification, growth in holiness, does not involve any effort on our part, except surrender. Effort, it was thought, was a hindrance to the process of sanctification, so self must get out of the way. Such phrases are used as die to self, crucify self, put self on the altar. Pietism on the other hand teaches that it is a diligent effort toward personal piety.

You are active, aggressive and working in all your power to live the sanctified life. Pietism has its roots in 18th century Germany as a reaction to the lifeless and detached theology of the Church at that time. So there was a strong emphasis on Bible study, holy living, practical Christianity, spiritual exercise and self-discipline. They took the opposite view of the Quietist. They said that if there was a belief that did not lead to works, it was not a worthwhile belief.

If passivity was the hallmark of Quietism, activity was key to Pietism. The problem arises that when you believe that all your spiritual progress is based upon your ability to dedicate yourself, discipline yourself, and move yourself in the right direction, then you're going to experience two things: When you succeed, you'll be proud! If you are the only resource, where do you go when you fail? If you fail and you have no place to turn, the chances are you're going to give up.

Both sides are problematic. When you read verse 12, it looks like Paul is a Pietist. When you read verse 13, it looks like he's a Quietist. These verses must be taken together, not separately. How does change come about in our life, God or us? God commands us to change and God causes us to change. Thomas Watson writes that "Happiness is not attainable, but in the use of means.

Now, the use of means implies practice. Salvation must not only be sought out by knowledge, but wrought out by practice, "work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. There can be no crown without running, no recompense without diligence. William Dyer notes why it is so important to work out our salvation "Until you attain to firm salvation --you will never be free from great temptation.

What is to be worked out must first be worked in. An unconverted man can work nothing out, for there is nothing in. You have faith; work it out then; act like a believer; trust God in daily life. Be you Christlike, inasmuch as the Spirit of Christ dwells in you. Salvation is to be worked out.

We are not to work out our salvation from the guilt of sin; Christ has done that, but from the power of sin. God has in effect worked that in; He has broken the yoke of sin; it lives and struggles, but it is dethroned, and our life is to keep it down. A man may be saved from the guilt of sin, and yet not saved from the power of pride or bad temper. Your salvation is not complete till you are saved from these. You must fight them till you conquer. The model to be worked to. Every artist requires some idea in his mind to which he is to work.

People sometimes think that salvation imparts. Christ's followers are transformed—old things pass away, and all things become new. Those who believe in Him—are fashioned into His image. But these blessings do not come easily. The heavenly graces are not put into our life—as one might hang up lovely pictures on the walls to adorn a home! They must be wrought into our life in a sense, by our own hands. We must work out our own salvation, although it is God who works in us, both to will and to work.

For example, patience is not put into anyone's life—as one brings in a piece of new furniture. You cannot merely receive patience as a gift from God. Patience is a lesson to be learned—through long and watchful self-discipline. Christ is the teacher—but you are the student, and it is the student who must learn the lesson!

Not even Christ will learn it for you—to spare you the effort. Nor can it be made an easy lesson for you. It costs to grow patient, and you must pay the price yourself! God is teaching us the things we need to learn. The lessons are not easy—sometimes they are very hard! But the hardest lessons are the best—for they bring out in us the finest qualities, if only we learn them well. Those, therefore, who find themselves in what may seem adverse conditions, compelled to face hardship, endure opposition, and pass through struggle—should quietly accept the responsibility; and, trusting in Christ for guidance and strength, go firmly and courageously forward, conscious that they have now an opportunity to grow strong, and develop in themselves the qualities of worthy and noble character!

Lord, when we read in thy Word that we must work out our own salvation, thy meaning is not that our salvation should be the effect of our work, but our work the evidence of our salvation. If depraved men go to such great lengths to work out their indecent acts same Gk verb translated " committing " in Ro 1: Note that this verse is not teaching that an unsaved person can do good works to earn salvation. As James Hastings phrases it "We are not to work for life, but, as it were, from life, as being those who already have it and who are resolved, by Divine grace, to experience all that life implies Below are the 22 Uses of Katergazomai.

The NAS translates katergazomai as: May it never be! Rather it was sin, in order that it might be shown to be sin by effecting my death through that which is good, that through the commandment sin might become utterly sinful. In everything you demonstrated yourselves to be innocent in the matter. Muller wrote that "The believer must finish, must carry to conclusion, must apply to its fullest consequences what is already given by God in principle He must work out what God in His grace has worked in.

Wiersbe - As you yield to the Lord, He works in and you work out; in this way, you fulfill His plan for your life Eph. God cannot shine through you until He works in you, so let Him have His way. You are a light in a dark world, a runner holding forth the living Word to a dead world Php 2: This verse teaches "because you are already saved, because God has already entered your life in the person of the Holy Spirit, because you, therefore, have His power at work within you—because of these things you are now to strive to express this salvation in your conduct When a musician has a fine composition placed before her, that music is not the musician's masterpiece; it is the composer's gift to the musician.

But it then becomes the task of the musician to work it out, to give it sound and expression and beauty as she applies his skills to the composition. When she does, the composition reaches its completed purpose and thrills the hearts of her listeners. Swindoll, Laugh Again, p A H Strong - Our first and most important religious act is the signing of a declaration of dependence. We need to recognize our relation to God, to see that He is the source of all good, and that without Him we can do nothing.

But we are not to be mystics, folding our hands and leaving everything to God. He has made us reasoning and voluntary beings, and when He works in us, He only puts us in more complete possession of our powers of intellect and will. Our declaration of dependence needs to be followed by a declaration of independence. We must see to it that we become co-workers with God and not mere puppets moved by the Divine fingers. The true Christian is more of a man than he ever was before, and while God works in him, he is also to work out his own salvation.

It is not enough that we feel called to a higher and a better life, and that we perhaps suddenly burst the bonds that hold us to the past, and rejoice in the inherent and everlasting love of God. There must be patient growth and development of character—working out our own salvation. Let no man think that sudden in a minute All is accomplished and the work is done;— Though with thine earliest dawn thou shouldst begin it Scarce were it ended in thy setting sun.

Oh the regret, the struggle and the failing! Oh the days desolate and useless years! Vows in the night, so fierce and unavailing! Stings of my shame and passion of my tears! This is not working to attain something. Rather, because you have attained the riches of God in Christ, you are to let those riches work themselves out in your life.

The life that pleases God is the life through which the salvation of God works itself out. It is a life that conforms to the salvation God gave us, and the salvation God gave us depended on the humiliation of Christ. The life that honors God is a life that is patterned after the humiliation of Christ, that seeks not its own good but the good of others There is a great disparity between our knowledge and our practice.

Most people do not face a problem of knowledge for they have been taught the Word of God. The problem is translating what is known into daily conduct. While we might score high on what we know, we may not score very high on how we translate what we know into action. Work out the salvation that God has given you in a life that is in perfect harmony with that salvation. The Joy of Living: A study of Philippians. Kregel Publications Bolding added. Spurgeon - Does God work in you? Have you a work of the Holy Spirit in your soul?

If so, you are saved. J Lyth writes on the paradox of working out our salvation "Demands effort" but "It is not of works" and "Yet it must be worked out. It is mysterious - Not depending on self-effort but depending on Spirit energization! Observe that there are two parts of our salvation, the one complete, the other as yet incomplete, though guaranteed to be brought to perfection.

The first part of our salvation consists of a work for us; the second, of a work in us. The work for us is perfect—none can add thereunto. Jesus Christ our Lord has offered a complete atonement for all the offenses of His people. He took His people into union with Himself, and by that union they became entitled to all the merit of His righteousness; they became partakers of His everlasting life, and inheritors of His glory.

Saints are therefore saved completely so far as substitutionary work is concerned. Now with the work of Christ we cannot intermeddle; we are never told to work that out, but to receive it by faith. Justification is not at all by human effort, but by the free gift of God.

Psalm 1

The second part of salvation consists of a work in us—this is the operation of God the Holy Ghost. As many as were redeemed by the blood of Jesus, are also in due time renewed in the spirit of their minds. The Holy Ghost in regeneration descends into a man, and creates in him a new nature. He does not destroy the old; that remains still to be battled with, and to be overcome.

God has broken the yoke of sin in our hearts. It lives, and struggles, and contends, but it is dethroned, and our life is to be the continual overthrow and dethronement of sin in our members. Though the nature which the Spirit implants is perfect in its kind and in its degree, yet it is not perfect in its development. It is a seed which needs to work itself out into a tree; it is an infant which requires to grow into the stature of a perfect man. The new nature has in it all the elements of entire perfection, but it needs to be expanded, brought out, to use the words of the text, wrought out with fear and trembling.

Understand then, it is not at all to the mediatorial work of Christ, it is not at all with regard to the pardon of our sins or the justification of our persons that Paul speaks, but only with regard to our inner spiritual life. Your own ten heautoun is a reflexive pronoun which means not to work out someone else's salvation but your own. It is placed first in the clause to emphasis the importance of each one taking personal responsibility. Growth in holiness is not something someone else can do for us. Each Christian should make it their own business to work out their own salvation.

If we do not do it, it will not be done. But as Php 2: Mystery of mysteries for on one hand Jesus declared "apart from Me you can do nothing" Jn James Hastings notes that "Salvation must be personal for the all-important reason that sin is personal. Spurgeon - Your own salvation. Charity must begin at home. You ought to spread the truth, but you must first understand it. Johann Bengel commenting on your own writes "In this respect, indeed, let each look to his own affairs; comp. He says, your own: In his introduction to his sermon entitled " Your Own Salvation " Spurgeon says "I ask you all, as reasonable men who would not injure or neglect yourselves, to lend me your most serious attention.

Chase away the swarming vanities which buzz around you, and let each man think for himself upon his "own salvation. Each man apart, each woman apart; the father apart, and the child apart: When Paul was with them, his teaching instructed them, his example inspired them, his encouragement urged them on in their growth in grace. Now in his absence they were thrown upon their own initiative. They must learn to paddle their own canoe. They have their justification. Their glorification will be theirs in eternity Ed note: Their growth in Christ-likeness is the salvation concerning which Paul is speaking.

Thus, the saints are exhorted to carry their growth in grace to its ultimate goal, Christ-likeness. But the saint is not left without resources with which to do both, for God the Holy Spirit indwelling him produces in him both the willingness and the power to do His will. The saint avails himself of both of these by fulfilling the requirements laid down by our Lord in Jn 7: The literal translation is as follows: Philippians Commentary - Verse by Verse bolding and capitalization added.

The ideas inherent in soteria include rescue, healing, wholeness, restoration, preservation and protection. Salvation in this verse does not refer to the beginning of our salvation experience, the moment in the past in which we were justified declared righteous by grace through faith. Justification refers to a one time event and is often referred to as past tense salvation See discussion of the Three Tenses of Salvation - I have been saved, I am being saved daily, I will be saved one glorious day in the future. In the present context Paul is referring to present tense salvation we are " being saved " - eg, 1Cor 1: It is interesting to note that salvation soteria is used with a different meaning in in the first chapter where Paul writes that I know that this shall turn out for my deliverance soteria through your prayers and the provision of the Spirit of Jesus Christ Php 1: In this passage soteria refers to deliverance from prison which could have been accomplished either by release or by death, in either way resulting in freedom.

In sum, the meaning of salvation as determined by context which is always vital when one is doing word studies, lest one arrive at the wrong "definition" for that specific verse is not salvation of the soul justification but deliverance from the snares of the world, the flesh, and the devil which would hinder the believer from doing the will of God. Present tense salvation or sanctification is a life long event in which grow in Christ-likeness as we are delivered from evil.

And now, O priests, I take my leave of you; all the constituents of being are transitory; work out your salvation with diligence. Like Mahavira founder of Jainism , the Buddha showed each disciple how to rely for salvation upon himself, on his own powers, focused upon redemption by spiritual self-discipline. Here was the strictest sort of humanism in religion. Unfortunately for Buddha, his way of salvation missed the truth that it is God at work in us to will and work for His good pleasure. Buddha had it half right but salvation is not a game of horseshoes. And so Buddha was eternally wrong.

In summary, does this sound like the Christian life is going to be real work? As Kistemaker says the Christian life is one of "continuous, sustained, strenuous effort" New Testament Commentary: At times you will walk through a valley that casts a "shadow of death", but as the next verse teaches, you will never walk through it alone. Is the strenuous effort to work out our salvation worth the reward? For one day we will each cross the "finish line" into glory where at least one reward will be to hear "Well done, my good and faithful servant. On the other hand, discipline yourself for the purpose of godliness for bodily discipline is only of little profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise for the present life and also for the life to come.

Some have attempted to support the idea that when God saves a soul it is then up to the individual to possess and achieve the ultimate goals of salvation in Christ. They view Christianity as a step-ladder which reaches from earth to heaven which it is our duty to climb. A careful examination of this passage, however, will not justify this immature conclusion. Notice the "key" that unlocks the accurate interpretation is found in the little word "for" which begins Php 2: First of all, the salvation which is in view in this passage is not salvation from the guilt of sin.

This is accomplished once and for all when a sinner receives Jesus Christ by faith as the One who bore his sins in His own body on the cross. In this sense, salvation is accomplished once and for all. Many times in Scripture, however, salvation is presented as a process which is not completed until the redeemed saint stands perfect in glory Ed: See study of Three Tenses of Salvation. The salvation that is in view in this passage, therefore, is deliverance from the power of sin , and the experience and manifestation of the new life in Christ.

Like all other forms of salvation, it is a work of God but involving to a larger degree the element of individual experience and participation. It is therefore described as a human work in the expression: As many have pointed out, it is not possible to work out something which is not already possessed.

In other words, having received Christ as our Savior and having become a child of God, one has received many things which relate to his salvation which are true of every Christian, such as the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit , eternal life, and the new possibility of serving God acceptably. The exhortation is to the point that this manifestation of salvation Ed: The exhortation to accomplish this is couched in most loving terms by the apostle.

He reminds the the Philippians of their past experience of always obeying, a yieldedness to God that was manifested not only when he was there but also in his absence. Now without his presence in their midst they were to give themselves all the more to a diligent working out of their salvation. In a word, it is an exhortation to realize the whole program of God in sanctification, testimony, and growth in grace. Having thus alerted them to the necessity of serious effort, he assures them, however, that salvation fundamentally is a work of God for, in, and through man, not a work of man for God.

It is something that God does for us. Accordingly, in verse thirteen he assures them: Even the present experience of salvation depends upon divine provision. With the great principles of experience of salvation set forth in verses twelve and thirteen, a series of particular exhortations follow. In verse fourteen he categorically commands them: It demands of the Christian that he avoid complaining, not only in some things but in all things. The very common failing of the saints of God of murmuring, as illustrated in the life of Israel in the wilderness, is regarded as a very serious failure in the eyes of God.

Their complaint about lack of water and lack of food, though very human, nevertheless brought sweeping divine judgment upon them. Their murmuring, though understandable, reflected an attitude of insubordination and lack of faith in their relationship to their God.

Others live the Christian life by keeping their car washed and polished—looking good on the outside—but they fail to give proper attention to the engine that supplies the power. Still others live the Christian life by holding the steering wheel and patiently waiting for instructions on where and when to go.

Their car has been gassed up by the presence of the Holy Spirit Php 2: Are you like that parked car? Are you stalled on the highway to holiness? Are you waiting for a push a "Let go and let God" mindset? Even worse, are you trying to push your car down the road of life in your own natural energy? Or is your life one that looks good on the outside but lacks the Spirit's power on the inside? The only thing the Lord will not provide is the decision to sit behind the wheel, turn on the ignition and drive. This is a choice of the will that each one of us must make, but God even gives us that desire.

But we still have the choice to act on His desire or to act on our won desire. The choice is yours. How are you working out what God has implanted in you? Let me tell you a very interesting story: He was born a slave, and on one occasion he was traded as a little boy for a horse. Let me read an account: He was also a musician, he once toured the mid-West US as a concert pianist. He was a painter, he had exhibited at the world's greatest fairs - but the most surprising thing about him was his ability to make things out of nothing'.

Wait until you hear this! In spite of his background Professor Carver said, listen to this: I fear he will be forgotten, as there is but little prospect of the republication of so diffuse, and perhaps heavy, an author. He is a very Alp of learning, but cold and lacking in spirituality, hence his lack of popularity.

By John Mayer, Doctor of Divinity. Intended chiefly for the assistance and information of those that use con- stantly every day to read some part of the Bible, and would gladly always understand what they read if they had some man to help them. Containing certain short notes of exposi- tion upon the five books of Moses, etc. Valuable liis works would be if there were no better, but they are not com- parable to others already and afterward mentioned. You can do without him, but he is a reputable author. You will find it contained in four thin folio volumes, and you will have a treasure if you procure it.

His style is as pithy and witty as that of Thomas Fuller, and it has a sacred unction about it to which Fuller has no pretension. In three distinct volumes. The first beginning at the Creation of the World, and ending at Moses. The second continuing the History from Joshua till the Birth of Christ. The like undertaking in such a manner and method being never attempted before. Christopher Ness, min- ister of the gospel in London.

By the right Rev. The notes are too short and fragmentary to be of any great value. The volumes are a heavy investment. Among entire commentators of modern date, a high place is usually awarded to Thomas Scott,! He is the expositor of evan- gelical Episcopalians, even as Adam Clarke is the proph- et of the Wesleyans, but to me he has seldom given a thought, and I have almost discontinued consulting him. The very first money I ever received for pulpit services in London was invested in Thomas Scott, and I neither regretted the investment nor became exhilarated thereby.

His work has always been popular, is very judicious, faithfully communicated to the use of Great Britain, in English, etc. By Theodore Haak, Esq. This third, above the first and second, edition so enlarged, as they make an entire commentary on the sacred Scriptures, the like never before published in English. Wherein the text is ex- plained, doubts resolved, Scriptures paralleled, and various read- ings observed.

By the labor of certain learned divines, thereunto appointed, and therein employed, as is expressed in the preface. In the family, Scott will hold his place, but in the study you want condensed thought, and this you must look for elsewhere. It is well executed, and for poor men a great godsend. I believe the Soci- ety has some special arrangement for poor students, that they may have these volumes at the cheapest rate. Gentlemen, if you want something full of marrow and fatness, cheering to your own hearts by way of comment, and likely to help you in giving to your hearers rich ex- positions, buy Dr.

Hawker was the very least of commenta- tors in the matter of criticism ; he had no critical capa- city, and no ability whatever as an interpreter of the letter ; but he sees Jesus , and that is a sacred gift which is most precious whether the owner be a critic or no. The Religious Tract Society. By Robert Hawker, D. It is to be confessed that he occasionally sees Jesus where Jesus is not legitimately to be seen.

He allows his reason to be mastered by his affections, which, vice as it is, is not the worst fault in the world. There is always such a savor of the Lord Jesus Christ in Dr. Hawker that you cannot read him without profit. His writing is all sugar, and you will know how to use it, not devouring it in lumps, but using it to flavor other things.

His Old Testament volumes are to be greatly commended as learned and laborious, and the epistles are useful as a valuable collection of the various opinions of learned men. Placed by the side of the great masters, Barnes is a lesser light, but taking his work for what it is and professes to be, no minister can afford to be without it. It is in all the form of a paraphrase, with the text in italics ; a mode of treatment far from satisfactory as a rule, but exceedingly well carried out in this instance.

The notes are very good, and reveal the thorough scholar. Our authorized version is placed in the margin, and a new translation in the paraphrase. The four evangelists are thrown into a harmony, a plan which has its advantages but is not without its evils. The practical improvements at the end of each chapter generally consist of pressing exhortations and devout meditations, suggested by the matter under discussion. It is sadly indicative of the Socinianism of the age in which the good man lived, that he feels called upon to apologize for the evangelical strain in which he has written.

Edited, and care- fully revised, by the Rev. Longman, Orme, and Co.

No Life Insurance Society should accept the proposals of a commentator on the whole of either Testament, for it seems to be the rule that such students of the Word should be taken up to their reward before their task is quite completed. You mean to take that goodly freight on board before you launch upon the sea of married life. As you cannot visit the Holy Land, it is well for you that there is a work like the Pictorial Bible, in which the notes of the most observant travellers are arranged under the texts which they illustrate.

For the geography, zoology, botany, and manners and customs of Palestine, this will be your counsellor and guide. You have reading more interesting than any novel that was ever written, and as instructive as the heaviest theol- ogy. The matter is quite attractive and fascinating, and yet so weighty, that the man who shall study those eight volumes thoroughly, will not fail to read his Bible intelligently and with growing interest. Especially designed for the family circle. By JonN Kitto, D. A New An- notated edition has just been brought out by Messrs. He selected the title as modest and appropriate, intending it in the sense of a pointer or indicator, like the sun-dial ; his aim being to point out or indicate the full force and meaning of the words and sentences of the New Testament.

Ever since the year in which it was first pub- lished, A. Though modern criticism has furnished many valuable additions to our materials for New Testament exegesis, yet in some respects, Bengel stands out still facile 'prin- cess 9 among all who have labored, or who as yet labor in that important field. He is unrivalled in felicitous brevity, combined with what seldom accompanies that excellence, namely, perspicuity. Now first translated into English, with original notes explanatory and illustrative.

Revised and edited by Rev. Clarke, 39 George-street, 18G3. As the bones arc necessary to the human system, so Scrip- ture must have its historical matters. The expositor who nullifies the historical ground-work of Scripture for the sake of finding only spiritual truths everywhere, brings death on all correct interpretations. Those ex- positions are the safest which keep closest to the text.

He declared that he would make no spiritual parade of his last hours, but if possible continue at his usual works, and depart this life as a person in the midst of business leaves the room to attend to a knock at the door. Accordingly he was occupied with the cor- rection of his proof-sheets as at other times, and the last messenger summoned him to his rest while his hands were full. This reveals a calm, well-balanced mind, and unveils many of those singular characteristics which enabled him to become the laborious recensor of the various MSS.

The Critical English Testament. We strongly advise the purchase of this book, as it is multum in parvo, and will well repay an attentive peru- sal. Tischendorf and Alford have contributed largely, with other German and English critics, to make this one of the most lucid and concise commentaries on the text and teachings of the New Testament. You will find in it the ripened results of a matured scholarship, the harvesting of a judgment, gen- erally highly impartial, always worthy of respect, which has gleaned from the most important fields of Biblical research, both modern and ancient, at home and abroad.

You will not look here for any spirituality of thought or tenderness of feeling ; you will find the learned Dean does not forget to do full justice to his own views, and is quite able to express himself vigorously against his opponents ; but for what it professes to be, it is an ex- ceedingly able and successful work.

For the use of Theological Students and Ministers. By Henry Alford, D. In four vol- umes. The Commentary by Patrick, Lowth, Arnald, Whitby, and Lowman,J is said, by Darling, to be of standard authority, but you may do without it with less loss than in the case of several others I have mentioned. The authors were men of great learning, their associa- tion in one commentary is remarkable, and their joint production has a place in all complete libraries.

William Tegg and Co. London, Oxford, and Cambridge. Bell and Sons, It gives many precious hints, and much of the choicest thought of mediaeval writers, besides suggesting catch- words and showing connections between various passa- ges, although it is occasionally marred by the character- istic weaknesses of the Bishop, and has here and there foolishnesses at which one cannot but smile, it is a great work, such as only an eminent scholar could have pro- duced.

I am not so enamored of the German writers as cer- tain of my brethren appear to be, for they are generally cold and hard, and unspiritual. In some of them the bulk of the work is made up of these authoritative names, and quo- tations from their works. This gives their writings the appearance of prodigious learning and research. Every page is bristling with hard words and strange languages, and the eye of the common reader is terrified at the very appearance, as the powerful citizen is at the pointed cannon of a fortress.

The American translators have added considerably to the German work, and in some cases these additions are more valuable than the original matter. For homileti- cal purposes these volumes are so many hills of gold, but, alas, there is dross also, for Baptismal Begeneration and other grave errors occur. It is costly, too costly for your pockets, and I am therefore somewhat the less sorry to add that it is not what I hoped it would be. Of course it is a great work, and contains much which tends to illustrate the text ; but if you had it you would not turn to it for spiritual food, or for fruit- ful suggestion, or if you did so, you would be disap- pointed.

The object of the work is to help the general reader to know what the Scriptures really say and mean, and to remove some of the difficulties. It keeps to its design and in a measure accomplishes it. I must also add to the list A Commentary, critical, rent European divines. Translated from the German, and edited, with additions, by Philip Schaff, D. Genesis to Lamentations, Vol. H, and III, 36s.

It is the joint work of Mr. Faus- set, and Dr. Several other works I omit, not because they are worth- less, or unknown to me, but because for scant purses the best will be best. I must not omit upon the New Testament the goodly volume of Burkitt. Burkitt is somewhat pithy, and for a modern rather rich and racy, but he is far from deep, and is frequently common-place. I liked him well enough till I had read abler works and grown older. Some books grow upon us as we read and re-read them, but Burkitt does not.

London, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. Endeavored by William Burkitt, M. Late Vicar and Lec- turer of Dedham, in Essex. Numerous editions, folio and quarto. The best commentators, after all, are those who have written upon only one book. Few men can comment eminently well upon the whole Bible ; there are sure to be some weak points in colossal works ; prolixity in so vast an undertaking is natural, and dulness follows at its heels — but a life devoted to one of the inspired vol- umes of our priceless Bible must surely yield a noble result. If I find myself able to do so, at some future time I will introduce you to a selection of the great one-book writers.

For the present this much must suffice. Having introduced you to tlie commentators, I must now press upon you one of the most practical uses of them, namely, your own public commenting upon the Scriptures read during divine service. Preaching in the olden time consisted very much more of exposition than it does now. I suppose that the sermons of the primi- tive Christians were for the most part expositions of lengthy passages of the Old Testament ; and when copies of gospels, and the epistles of Paul, had become accessi- ble to the churches, the chief work of the preacher would be to press home the apostolical teachings by deliv- ering an address, the back-bone of which would be a complete passage of Scripture: I suppose this to have been the case, because some of the early Christian modes of worship were founded very much upon that of the synagogue.

In the synagogue, it was the rule of the Eabbis that never less than twenty-two verses of the law should be read at one time, and the preaching consisted of notes upon a passage of that length. Such a rule would be a mere superstition if we were slavishly bound by it, for the present plan of preaching from short texts, together with the great neglect of commenting publicly upon the word is very unsatisfactory.

We cannot expect to deliver much of the teaching of Holy Scripture by picking out verse by verse, and holding these up at ran- dom. The process resembles that of showing a house by exhibiting separate bricks. It would be an astound- ing absurdity if our friends used our private letters in this fashion, and interpreted them by short sentences disconnected and taken away from the context.

Such expositors would make us out to say in every letter all we ever thought of, and a great many things besides far enough from our minds ; while the real intent of our epistles would probably escape attention. Nowadays since expository preaching is not so common as it ought to be, there is the more necessity for our commenting during the time of our reading the Scriptures.

Since topical preaching, hortatory preaching, experimental preaching, and so on — all exceedingly useful in their way — have almost pushed proper expository preachings out of place, there is the more need that we should, when we read passages of Holy Writ, habitually give running comments upon them. I support my opinion with this reason, that the pub- lic reading of the abstruser parts of Scripture is of ex- ceedingly little use to the majority of the people listening.

What more edification can come from a chapter in English which is not understood than from the same passage in Hebrew or Greek? The same argument which enforces translation demands exposition. If but a few explanatory words are thrown in by a judicious reader, it is wonderful how luminous obscure portions may be made.

Two or three sentences will often reveal the drift of a whole chapter ; the key of a great difficulty may be presented to the hearer in lialf-a-score words, and thus the public reading may be made abundantly profitable. I once saw a school of blind children among the charming ruins of York Abbey, and could not help pitying their incapacity to enjoy so much beauty: Are ignorant people wandering among the glories of Scripture much less to be pitied? Who will refuse them the light? Abundant evidence has come before me that brief comments upon Scripture in our ordinary services are most acceptable and instructive to our people.

I have of- ten heard from working men, and their wives, and from merchants and their families, that my own expositions have been most helpful to them. They testify that when they read the Bible at home in the family, the exposition makes it doubly precious to them ; and the chapter which they had unprofitably read in course at family prayers, when they peruse it the next time, recollecting what their minister has said upon it, becomes a real de- light to them.

They have neither the money nor the time to do so, and if they are to be instructed in the Word of God in things which they cannot find out by mere experience, and are not likely to have explained to them by their associates, they must get that instruction from us, or nowhere else ; nor do I see how we are to give them such spiritual assistance except through the regular practice of exposition. It is astounding what a range of truth, doctrinal, practi- cal, and experimental, Holy Scripture brings before us ; and equally worthy of admiration is the forcible manner in which that truth is advanced.

Hints given in the way in which the word of God offers them are always wise and opportune ; as, for instance, the rebukes which the word administers might have seemed too severe had they been made by the pastor, unsustained by the word and unsuggested by it, but arising out of the chapter they cannot be resented. You can both censure sins and encourage virtues by dilating upon the histories which you read in the inspired records, whereas you might never have touched upon them had not the chap- ter read brought the matter before you.

If you want to make full proof of your ministry, and to leave no single point of revelation untouched, your easiest mode will be to comment upon Scripture habitually. It is a very sad fact that they do not read so much as they should at home ; the ungodly, in England, scarcely read the Bible at all ; and if only that part which we preach upon be expounded to them, how little of the Bible can they ever know!

If you will mark your Bibles with lines under the texts from which you have spoken, as I have always done with an old copy which I keep in my study, you will discover that in twelve or fourteen years very little of the book has been gone through: Try, then, by ex- position to give your people a fair view of the entire compass of revelation ; take them as it were to the top of Nebo, and show them the whole land from Dan to Beersheba, and prove to them that everywhere it fioweth with milk and honey.

Earnestly do I advocate commenting. It is un- fashionable in England, though somewhat more usual beyond the Tweed. The practice was hardly followed up anywhere in England, a few years ago, and it is very uncommon still. It may be pressed upon you for one other reason, namely, that in order to execute it well , the commenting minister will at first have to study twice as much as the mere preacher, because he will be called upon to prepare both his sermons and his expositions.

As a rule I spend much more time over the exposition than over the discourse. You will soon reveal your ignorance as an expositor if you do not study ; therefore diligent reading will be forced upon you. Anything which compels the preacher to search the grand old Book is of immense service to him. If any are jealous lest the labor should injure their constitutions, let them remember that mental work up to a certain point is most refreshing, and where the Bible is the theme toil is delight.

It is only when mental labor passes beyond the bounds of common sense that the mind becomes enfeebled by it, and this is not usually reached except by injudicious persons, or men engaged on topics which are unrefreshing and disagreeable ; but our sub- ject is a recreative one, and to young men like ourselves the vigorous use of our faculties is a most healthy exer- cise. Classics and mathematics may exhaust us, but not the volume of our Father's grace, the charter of our joys, the treasure of our wealth.

A man to comment well should be able to read the Bible in the original. Every minister should aim at a tolerable proficiency both in the Hebrew and the Greek. These two languages will give him a library at a small expense, an inexhaustible thesaurus, a mine of spiritual wealth.

Really, the effort of acquiring a language is not so prodigious that brethren of moderate abilities should so frequently shrink from the attempt. A minis- ter ought to attain enough of these tongues to be at least able to make out a passage by the aid of a lexicon, so as to be sure that he is not misrepresenting the Spirit of God in his discoursings, but is, as nearly as he can judge, giving forth what the Lord intended to reveal by the language employed. This has been done by preachers time out of mind, and they have shouted over an inference drawn from a shall, or an if gathered out of the transla- tion, with as much assurance of infallibility and sense of importance as if the same language had occurred in the words which the Holy Ghost used.

At such times, we have been reminded of the story told by the late beloved Henry Craik, in his book on the Hebrew language. At one time, the Latin Vulgate was so constantly spoken of as the very word of God, that a Roman Catholic theo- logian thus commented upon Genesis i. But there is this distinction, that Maria the seas has the i short, because that which the seas contain is only of a transi- tory nature, while the gifts and graces of the blessed Virgin Maria shall endure for ever.

Fail not to be expert in the use of your Concordance. Be sure you buy a genuine unabridged Cruden, and none of the modern substitutes ; good as they may be at the price, they are a delusion and a snare to ministers, and should never be tolerated in the manse library. To consider cheapness in purchasing a concordance is folly.

You need only one: At the head of each notable word, Cruden gives you its mean- ing, and very often all its particular shades of meaning, so that he even helps you in sermonizing. When you have read his headings, by following out the concordance, you will observe connections in which the word occurs, which most advantageously and correctly fix its mean- ing. Thus will the word of God be its own key.

A good textuary is a good theologian ; be then well skilled in using Cruden. I make but small account of most reference Bibles ; they would be very useful if they were good for any- thing ; but it is extremely easy to bring out a reference Bible which has verbal and apparent references, and nothing more. Get the best, keep it always on the table, use it hourly, and you will find your best com- panion. Need I after my previous lectures commend to you the judicious reading of commentaries! Yet these men are by no means original, and often their sup- posed inspiration is but borrowed wit.

They get a peep at Gill on the sly. A batch of poems was sent me some time ago for The Sivord and the Trowel , which were written by a person claiming to be under the immediate influence of the Holy Spirit. He informed me that he was passive, and that what was enclosed was written under the direct physical and mental influence of the Spirit upon his mind and hand. My bookshelves can show many poems as much superior to these pretended inspirations as angels are to blue-bottles ; the miserable doggrel bore on its face the evidence of imposture.

So when I listen to the senseless twaddle of certain wise gentlemen who are always boasting that they alone are ministers of the Spirit, I am ashamed of their preten- sions and of them. No, my dear friends, you may take it as a rule that the Spirit of God does not usually do for us what we can do for ourselves, and that if religious knowledge is printed in a book, and we can read it, there is no necessity for the Holy Ghost to make a fresh revelation of it to us in order to screen our laziness.

Yet be sure you use your own minds, too, or the expounding will lack interest. One is filled artificially by water brought in barges from a distance, and few care for its insipid con- tents ; the other is a refreshing natural well, cool and delicious, and the people contend for every drop of it.

Freshness, naturalness, life, will always attract, whereas mere borrowed learning is flat and insipid. Cecil says his plan was, when he laid a-hold of a Scripture, to pray over it, and get his own thoughts on it, and then, after he had so done, to take up the ablest divines who wrote upon the subject, and see what their thoughts were. If you do not think and think much, you will become slaves and mere copyists. The exercise of your own mind is most healthful to you, and by perseverance, with divine help, you may expect to get at the meaning of every understandable passage.

So to rely upon your own abilities tfs to be unwilling to learn from others, is imbecility. Wliat should he the manner of your 'public comment- ing? One rule should be always to point out very care- fully wherever a word hears a special sense ; for rest assured in Holy Scripture the same word does not always mean the same thing. The Bible is a book meant for human beings, and therefore it is written in human language; and in human language the same word may signify two or three things.

So it is in the word of God. You must explain the difference between a word used in a peculiar sense, and the ordinary meaning of the word, and thus you will prevent your people falling into mistakes. If people will say that the same word in Scripture always means the same thing, as I have heard some assert pub- licly, they will make nonsense of the word of God, and fall into error through their own irrational maxims. To set up canons of interpretation for the Book of God which would be absurd if applied to other writings, is egregious folly ; it has a show of accuracy, but inevi- tably leads to confusion.

The obvious literal meaning of a Scripture is not always the true one, and ignorant persons are apt enough to fall into the most singular misconceptions — a judicious remark from the pulpit will be of signal ser- vice. Many persons have accustomed themselves to misunderstand certain texts ; they have heard wrong interpretations in their youth, and will never know better unless the correct meaning be indicated to them. We must make sure in our public expositions that obscure and involved sentences are explained.

To over- leap difficulties, and only expound what is already clear, is to make commenting ridiculous. When we speak of obscure sentences, we mean such as are mostly to be found in the prophets, and are rendered dark through the translation, or the Orientalism of their structure, or through their intrinsic weight of meaning. He begins a sentence, and does not finish it perhaps until eight verses further on, and all the in- terstices between the commencement and the end of the sentence are packed full of compressed truth, which it is not always easy to separate from the general argu- ment.

Hints consisting of but two or three words will let your hearers know where the reasoning breaks olf, and where it is taken up again. Here perfect nonsense is often made by reading the passage as if it were all spoken by the same person. In Isaiah the strain often varies most suddenly, and while one verse is addressed to the Jews, the next may be spoken to the Messiah or to the Gentiles.

Is it not always well to notify this to the congregation? If the chapters and verses had been divided with a little common sense, this might be of less importance, but as our version is so clumsily chopped into fragments, the preacher must insert the proper paragraphs and divisions as he reads aloud. In fine, your business is to make the word plain. In Lombardy I observed great heaps of huge stones in the fields, which had been gathered out from the soil by diligent hands to make room for the crops: There are Orien- talisms, metaphors, peculiar expressions, idioms, and other verbal memorabilia which arise from the Bible having been written in the East ; all these you will do well to explain.

To this end be diligent students of Oriental life. Then as you read you will interpret the word, and your flock will be fed thereby. Look, my brethren, straight down into the secret chambers of the human soul, and let fall the divine teaching through the win- dow, and thus light will be carried to the heart and con- science. Make remarks suitable to the occasion, and applicable to the cases of those present.

Show how a truth which was first heard in the days of David is still forcible and pertinent in these modern times, and you will thus endear the Scriptures to the minds of your people, who prize your remarks much more than you imagine. Is a caution needed among intelligent men? Yes, it must be given. Be sure to avoid prosiness. Avoid it everywhere, but especially in this. From page of that work and onwards the most valuable hints will be met with. Much that we would otherwise have inserted in this volume is admirably stated by our learned friend.

If you are supremely gifted, do not be long ; people do not appreciate too much of a good thing ; and if your comments are only second-rate, why, then be shorter still, for men soon weary of inferior talking. Very little time in the service can be afforded for read- ing the lessons ; do not rob the prayer and the sermon for the sake of commenting. This robbing Peter to pay Paul is senseless. Do not repeat common-place things which must have occurred even to a Sunday-school child. Do not remind your hearers of what they could not pos- sibly have forgotten. Give them something weighty if not new, so that an intelligent listener may feel when the service is over that he has learned at least a little.

Again, avoid all pedantry. Those who have no learning usually make a point of displaying the pegs on which learning ought to hang. Brethren, the whole process of interpretation is to be carried on in your study ; you are not to show your congregation the process, but give them the result ; like a good cook who would never think of bringing up dishes, and pans, and rolling pin, and spice box into the dining hall, but without ostentation sends up the feast.

Never strain passages when you are expounding. Be thoroughly honest with the word: Let it be said of you, as I have heard a venerable hearer of Mr. In the church of St. Zeno, in Verona, I saw ancient frescoes which had been plastered over, and then covered with other designs ; I fear many do this with Scripture, daubing the text with their own glosses, and laying on their own conceits. There are enough of these plaster- ers abroad, let us leave the evil trade to them and follow an honest calling.

The worst is — Scripture warped from its intent. Flowers are well enough, but hungry souls prefer bread. Do not be carried away with new meanings. No one text is to be exalted above the plain analogy of faith ; and no solitary expression is to shape our theology for us. Other men and wiser men have expounded before us, and anything undiscovered by them it were well to put to test and trial before we boast too loudly of the treasure-trove. Do not needlessly amend our authorized version. It is faulty in many places, but still it is a grand work, taking it for all in all, and it is unwise to be making every old lady distrust the only Bible she can get at, or what is more likely, mistrust you for falling out with her cherished treasure.

When reading short psalms, or connected passages of the other books, do not split up the author's utterances by interjecting your notes. Read the paragraph through, and then go over it again with your explanations ; breaking it up as you may think fit at the second reading. No one would dream of dividing a stanza of a poet with an explanatory remark ; it would be treason to common sense to do so: Better far never to comment than to cut and carve the utter- ances of inspiration, and obscure their meaning by im- pertinently thrusting in untimely remarks of your own. Upon many passages comments would be gross folly: I speak as unto wise men ; prove your wisdom in this thing also.

If I were bound to deliver a sermon upon the subject in hand, I could not desire a better text than Nehemiah viii. Let it always be distinct. Aim to be good readers, and be the more anxious about it because few men are so, and all preachers ought to be so. It is as good as a sermon to hear our best men read the Scriptures ; they bring out the meaning by their correct emphasis and tone.

Never fall into the idea that the mere utterance of the words before you is all that is re- quired of you in reading ; good reading is a high, but rare attainment. Even if you do not comment, yet read the chapter previously, and become familiar with it ; it is inexcusable for a man to betray the fact that he is out of his latitude in the reading, traversing untrodden ground, floundering and picking his way across country, like a huntsman who has lost his bearings. Never open the Bible in the pulpit to read the chapter for the first time, but go to the familiar page after many rehearsals.

You will hear in your meeting-house the delightful rustle of Bible leaves which is so dear to the lover of the Word ; your people will open their Bibles, looking for a feast. The Word will become increasingly precious to yourself, your knowledge will enlarge, and your aptness to teach will become every day more apparent. Try it, my breth- ren, for even if you should see cause to discontinue it, at least no harm will come of the attempt. In all that I have said I have given you another rea- son for seeking the aid of the Holy Spirit. He is always accessible: Commentaries, expositions, interpreta- tions, are all mere scaffolding ; the Holy Ghost himself must edify you and help you to build up the church of the living God.

This List is compiled for the use of ministers of aver- age attainments, and the brief reviews are written from that stand-point. Few can conceive the amount of toil which this compilation has involved, both to myself and my industrious amanuensis, Mr. In almost every case the books have been actu- ally examined by myself, and my opinion, whatever it may be worth, is an original one.

A complete list of all comments has not been attempted. Numbers of volumes have been left out because they were not easily procura- ble, or were judged to be worthless, although some of both these classes have been admitted as specimens, or as warnings. The titles have been abbreviated to gain space, but it is believed that in every case they are full enough for recognition.

The prices, which relate to second-hand books, have been placed as proximate valuations, and have either been taken from actual invoices, and cata- logues, or have been kindly filled in by the aid of vari- ous booksellers, to whom we. The abbreviation S stands for second-hand. That mark is not inserted where the date is remote, and where the price can only refer to second-hand copies, since there are no others.

The reader will please observe that the books most heartily recommended are printed in black faced type, with the remarks in larger type. Good, but more ordi- nary works are in medium type, and the least desirable are in the smallest letters. Thus we hope the eye will be caught at once by volumes best worthy of attention.

Latin authors are not inserted, because few can pro- cure them, and fewer still can read them with ease. We are not, however, ignorant of their value. Hosts of family Bibles, discourses, and paraphrases are omitted because they would have wasted our limited space, and we could only have admitted them by raising the price of our book, which we resolved not to do, lest it should be out of the reach of men of slender incomes.

We give the labor to our brethren freely, only wishing that we could with it confer upon our poorer friends the means of purchasing the choicest of the comments here mentioned. New York, Sheldon and Co. It is to be specially noted, that in no case do we en- dorse all that any author has written in his commentary. We could not read the works through, it would have needed a Methuselah to do that ; nor have we thought it needful to omit a book because it contains a measure of error, provided it is useful in its own way ; for this catalogue is for thoughtful, discerning men, and not for children.

We have not, however, knowingly mentioned works whose main drift is sceptical, or Socinian, except with a purpose ; and where we have admitted comments by writers of doubtful doctrine, because of their superior scholarship, and the correctness of their criticism, we have given hints which will be enough for the wise. It is sometimes very useful to know what our opponents have to say. The writers on the Prophetical Books have completely mastered us, and after almost completing a full list, we could not in our conscience believe that a tithe of them would yield anything to the student but bewilderment, and therefore we reduce the number to small dimensions.

AVe reverence the teaching of the prophets, and the Apocalypse, but for many of the professed expounders of those inspired books we entertain another feeling. May God bless this laborious endeavor to aid his ministers in searching the Scriptures. If Biblical stud- ies shall be in any measure promoted, we shall be more than repaid. Many of the works in this list are published in the United States ; and the English books , which arc obtainable can be imported by any bookseller at about AOcts.

An issue of the London Religious Tract Society, republished, and containing numerous maps. Library sheep, in one vol. Spiritual reflections after the High Calvinistic School. Some preach- ers cannot see Christ where he is, but Allen finds him where he is not. There is jn these reflections much godly savor, but very little exposition. Contain valuable remarks, hut are somewhat out of date. The work is probably less esteemed than it should be.

Translated from the German. Helpful in showing the historical position of the hooks, and in assisting to illustrate them by the circum- stances under which they were written. We have re- ferred to it with benefit. An eminent Methodist Preacher. Notes, Critical, Explanatory, and Practical. Necessary to Methodist Students. Old Testa- ment portion to be issued in eight vols. New Testament already out, five vols. We can only speak of the Hew Testament ; it is sur- passingly useful, sententious, and sensible. Buy the work at once. Light and Truth ; or, Bible Thoughts and Themes.

Bonar required four volumes for the New, we wish he had felt the same need for the Old. The passages selected are popularly expounded, but the thought is not deep. The volumes will be more prized by the ordinary reader than by the minister. A learned Inde- pendent Minister and eminent Hebrew scholar. Good, but may be dispensed with, now that the East has been more fully explored. Useful in its day, and still popular.

Notes on New Testament an undisguised plagiarism from Guyse. In the works of Calvin, pub- lished by the Calvin Translation Society, are the Comment- aries, in 45 volumes. Clark, of Edinburgh, now issue sets of 45 vols. V , and Habakkuk. Sepa- rate volumes, 6s. We have entered most of them in their proper places, but cannot afford space for separate mention of the volumes of the C.

See pages 15 and 16 of this work. Daily Scripture Readings 3 vols. Chalmers, edited by Rev. Those acquainted with the writings of Chalmers will know what to expect from his pen when guided by fer- vent devotion. Also printed on large paper, six vols. Despite some few oddities, this is one of the most learned of English expositions. Notes very brief, but judicious.

Author one of the ejected minis- ters, an exceedingly learned man. This work was highly commended by Owen, Baxter, Howe, and others, but is now superseded. Comper Gray, of Halifax, and C. Stokes Carey, of London. Suited for Teachers and Local Preachers. Tlie Holy Bible, with Notes Explanatory and Practical, selected from the writings of the most esteemed divines and Biblical critics.

An admirable collection of notes. Men with small means will find it a miniature library. A condensed Commentary on the Bible. An excellent makeshift for a poor man. A Commentary on the Old and New Testa- ment. An Exppsi- tion in the very words of Scripture. It is very handy to have explanatory passages thus presented to the eye. In general the work is excellently done ; but ministers with scanty purses can make a Biblical exposition for themselves. The Old and New Testaments, with the various readings and marginal notes, parallel passages systematically arranged, numerous philological and ex- planatory notes, etc.

Generally used as a Pulpit Bible. Said to contain 4, notes and , parallel passages, being all those of Blaney, Scott, Clarke, and others. The tables, notes, introductions, etc. Annotations plainly expound- ing the most difficult places. An almost forgotten production of the unhappy Dodd.

It is founded on the manuscript collections of Cudworth, Waterland, Clarendon, and others. Not very likely to quicken piety, or inspire spiritual thought; yet, as Adam Clarke thought very highly of it, and Dr. Coke appropriated it, it must have some value. Notes, taken principally from the Church of England writers. Published by the S. Prepared by the Rev.

More fitted for the family than the study. A compilation most appreciated among Episcopalians. Parallel Texts, in full. Commentary of Matthew Henry, etc. Commentary by Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown. To which is added the Biblical Cyclopaedia, by Dr. John Eadie, a Biblical Atlas, etc. A Christian man wishing for the cream of expository writers couid not make a better purchase.

Ministers, as a rule, should not buy condensations, but get the works themselves. Synoptical Lectures on the Books of Holy Scripture. First Series — Genesis to Canti- cles. Second Series — Isaiah to Acts. Fraser has observed, like many others of us, the mischief which results from cutting the Bible into frag- ments, and using it piecemeal. In these volumes he discourses of the Bible at large, indicates the scope of each book, and furnishes a brief digest of its contents. He has compressed rigorously. The design was in itself most laudable, and it has been well carried out. An Exposition of the Old and New Testament.

Invaluable in its own line of things. For full title and extended remarks see pages 21 and Several editions ; the one published by T. The work can be readily procured ; but if its price were raised in proportion to its real value, it would become one of the most costly books extant. Not so pithy as the Contemplations ; nor, indeed, could it be expected to be so.

It is not necessary to the Student, but might be useful. The Evangelical Expos- itor. Full of devotion and sweetness. The fol- lowing are recent editions. The prices refer to new copies. For title and remarks see pages 13, 14, Notes highly spoken of; we consider them the most ordinary of platitudes.

A really standard work. We consult it continually, and with growing interest. The following are different forms or abridgments of the same work, each of which we can highly recom- mend: Much the same as the Fourfold Commentary. A work of art as well as learning. A reproduction of the Notes, etc. The omission of the text renders the work cheaper. New edition, edited and revised by J.

May always be obtained, both new and second-hand. Translations of the Commentaries of Dr. Lange, and his Collaborateurs. There are now ready eight volumes on the Old Testa- ment, viz. The other Books of the Old Testament are in active preparation. New Testament, complete in 10 vols. The volumes greatly differ in excellence, yet none could be spared. We have nothing equal to them as a series. The Temperance Bible Commentary. Readers will probably estimate the value of this work according to their views upon Total Abstinence. This question appears to be one which renders both advocates and opponents too warm either to give or accept a cool, impartial verdict ; we shall not therefore offer one.

Annotations from Job to Canticles. Annotations upon all the New Testament. Frequently associated with Richardson on the Old Testament. Antique, but still prized. Observations on all the primitive Hebrew words of the Old Testament. For full title and remarks see page Laborious writing and heavy reading. It was a capital idea to lay the heathen under contribution. The author is at home in the Classics, and has performed his work well. Full of remarks such as are to be found in Thomas Fuller and Bishop Hall. For full title see page The proverb concerning too many cooks applies also to Commentators.

The work is good, but it might have been better. Corrected by the Rev. Good edition in smaller type, four vols. Our copy is dated Old folios, 14s See title and remarks an page A New and Literal Translation, with Notes. Often ungrammatical and unintelligible. Not without its good points, but much more curious than useful. From Henry and Scott, with numerous observations from other writers. With the text and maps, six vols.


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Without the text, six vols. The Society kindly allows Students to purchase this work at a reduced rate. The abridgments are carefully executed. For title and remarks see page Horae Homileticae ; or Discourses digested into one continued series, forming a Comment upon every book of the Old and New Testa- ment ; twenty-one vols. J Not Commentaries, but we could not exclude them. See New Bible Com- mentary. A Com- mentary ; containing Copious Notes. To comprise the whole Bible in one volume necessitated notes few and brief.

Sutcliffe , though an Arminian, is in general so good that we wish we had more of him ; his style is vivacious and forcible. There are also 4to. Dickinson, Far- ringdon Street, E. Oh, rare John Trapp! Critical Notes on the Old and New Testament. Wall was the great champion of infant baptism against the learned Gale.

His notes are good, but out of date. Help for the more easy and clear understanding of the Holy Scriptures. Seldom to he met with complete, hut this need not be regretted, for though somewhat useful, it is not of primary importance.


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  • Notes on Old and New Testament. Clark says that those on the Old are meagre and unsatisfactory. He is quite right. Bishop of Sodor and Man. The Holy Bible, with Notes and various renderings. Commentary on the Bible, as Literally and Idiomatically Translated. Too small to be of any use. You cannot put the sea into a tea cup. His uncommon skill in Hebrew learning, and his excellent Commentaries on the Scriptures are held in high reputation to this day.

    It has always been held in high esteem. We confess, however, that we can only read it as a task, for the dry scholastic style repels us, and it seems to us that in answering a number of sceptical doctors, whose opin- ions are ridiculous, the author has made much ado about nothing. These criticisms will be of more interest to the scholar than of value to the minister.

    Horsley was far too ready to invent new readings ; yet he was a master in his own line. He writes very dogmatically and with a violent bias toward a theory of interpretation which with all its excel- lencies, cannot be everywhere maintained. Numbers of other writers have followed in his track, but none with equal footsteps. Rather tame, but will well repay quiet reading. His works are now somewhat rare. A sort of paraphrase, after the maimer of Doddridge's Family Expositor , which it was intended to accompany. Not a very able production.

    Choice Observations and Explanations upon the Old Testa- ment, containing in them many remarkable matters, addi- tional to the large Annotations made by some of the Assembly of Divines. Of secondary importance, and very short; yet good. Frequently bound up with Leigh No. Though old not out of date.

    The Pentateuch, with Notes. A book of no importance. Our copy is in the old Black Letter. It contains little to repay the student for toiling through the old-fashioned expressions. A Synopsis of Criticisms upon those passages of the Old Testament in which modern com- mentators have differed from the Authorized Version. The object of this work is to lay before the reader the principal alterations which modern critics have proposed in the Authorized Ver- sion, together with the reasons for or against such emendations.

    Many of the notes are in Latin. Of small use to the average minister. We greatly grudge the four shillings which we gave for it. With Recommendatory Preface by Rev. This book was written by the Three Misses Bird, of Taplow. The Remarks are very plain and practical, and a spirit of earnest piety and fervent prayer pervades them throughout. Family Exposition of Pentateuch. See remarks under each separate volume.

    Besides the remarks from authors mentioned in the text, there are observations from the manuscripts of Joseph Kinghorn , of Norwich. It is not a didactic or spiritual work, but almost entirely explanatory and illustrative. Compiled by a Priest of the Church of England. Christ in the Prophets. Of the High Church order, and praised by the Saturday Review. What worse need be said? Yet will we add that the savor of Christ in these books saves them from unqualified condemnation.

    The author modestly says, that his work is highly usef ul. Comparativelv few of our readers will set much store by the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel; but those who desire to read will find here a good literal version. Translation from corrected texts with various Reading and Notes. The author was a Hebraist of considerable repute, but treated the inspired word far too flippantly. His style of criticism is essentially sceptical. Trans- lated by the Rev.

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    Very different from other German authors. Plain, clear, and instruc- tive. Not choked up with metaphysical bewilderments and long lists of sceptical authors whose names defile the pages which bear them. Historico-Critical Introduction to the Pentateuch. Almost entirely occupied with a discussion upon the genuineness of the Pentateuch.

    A check to the rationalistic and infidel spirit. Those who have never taken the poison do not need the antidote. Genuineness of the Pen- tateuch. Hengstenberg, as Professor at Berlin, had access to the rich collec- tion of Egyptian antiquities in the Museum, and he has made noble use of his advantages.

    Gen- esis according to the LXX. Translated into English, with Notes on the Passages in which it differs from our Author- ized Version. Exodus and Leviticus, 10s. Numbers and Deuteronomy, 10s.