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Biodiversity and Local Ecological Knowledge in France (COED. CIRAD) Biodiversité et savoirs naturalistes locaux en France (COED CIRAD) (French Edition).
Table of contents
- Le Rift est-africain : Une singularité plurielle
- Législation - Publications des agents du Cirad
Handbook of ecological economics. L'Observateur des Nations Unies , 36 1: Fruits , 69 1: Regulation and Governance , 8 2: Observatoire du Foncier, p.. CIFOR working paper, MNHN, Biotope, p.. Les promesses de l'innovation durable. Regards sur la terre, Jean-Yves Grosclaude, Rajendra K. Pachauri, Laurence Tubiana eds. Innovation for sustainable development. A planet for life, Estado del arte de la quinua en el mundo en PloS One , 8 4: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Development and Change , 44 2: Environmental Management , 52 4: Sustentabilidade em Debate , 4 1: Contrats Concurrence Consommation Cahiers Agricultures , 22 1: Conservation Letters , 6 1: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review , 16 4: WIPO Journal , 4 2: Global Networks , 13 4: Earthscan Publications, p..
Springer [Pays-Bas], p..
Le Rift est-africain : Une singularité plurielle
The Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit-sharing in perspective: Legal studies on access and benefit-sharing, 1. Developing geographical indications in the South: The Southern African experience.
- Connecting With Our Children: Guiding Principles for Parents in a Troubled World.
- Search results.
- The Owens Valley Controversy and A. A. Brierly: The Untold Story?
- Biodiversity and Local Ecological Knowledge in France (COED. CIRAD)?
- Les produits de terroir: Entres cultures et règlements (Anthropologie) (French Edition)?
- Geographies of Origin and Proximity: Approaches to Local Agro-Food Systems.
- Laurence Bérard.
Comparaisons Madagascar, Niger et Mali. S'adapter au changement climatique: Kamau Evanson Chege ed. Common pools of genetic resources: Routledge Research in International Environmental Law. Crop genetic resources as a global commons: Challenges in international law and governance. International Journal of the Commons , 6 2: Queen Mary Journal of Intellectual Property , 2 1: Irrigation and Drainage , 61 1: Cahiers Agricultures , 21 Ecology and Society , 17 1: Martins de Souza M.
Tropenbos International, p.. Update sciences et technologies. Van Vliet Geert ed. The environmental challenges facing a Chinese oil company in Chad. De Wasseige Carlos ed.
The forests of the Congo Basin: State of the forest Publications Office of the European Union, p. Exploitation artisanale de bois d'oeuvre en RD Congo: Environnement, discours et pouvoir: Environmental impact Assessment Review , 31 2: European Journal of Environmental Sciences , 1 2: Grain de Sel Climate Policy , 11 5: Forest Policy and Economics , 13 3: Cadernos do LEME , 3 2: Land Tenure Journal 2: Ecology and Society , 16 3: Collection Le monde diplomatique, edicion chilena, Local development, rural areas and agrofood systems.
Derechos de propiedad intelectual sobre lo vivo y el mejoramiento de especies agricolas: Le Monde diplomatique, Edicion chilena, Africa negotiating an emerging multipolar world. Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies, 7. Labels of origin for food: Payments for ecosystem services and food security. International Political Economy Series. The European Union and global governance: Food Control , 21 3: Politiques et Management Public , 27 2: International Forestry Review , 12 2: Estudos Sociedade e Agricultura , 18 1: Perspective - Cirad 5: Taloha - Revue Scientifique Internationale des Civilisations Cahiers Agricultures , 19 1: Journal of World Intellectual Property , 13 2: Biodiversity conservation in certified forests.
Dictionnaire de l'Inde contemporaine. The struggle over land in Africa: Conflicts, politics and change. Les mondes agricoles en politique: Presses de Sciences Po, p. La Jaune et la Rouge: Forest Ecology and Management , 9: The economics of intellectual property in South Africa. Non-state actors as standard setters. Les politiques d'enregistrement des droits fonciers: Pimentel Otavio Luiz ed.
Législation - Publications des agents du Cirad
The economics of intellectual property: Suggestions for further research in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Journal of Animal Science and Technology: Nature and Faune , 23 1: Journal of World Intellectual Property , 11 4: Phytopathology , 98 Law, land use and the environment: Publications des agents du Cirad.
Does criminalising fire hinder conservation efforts in swidden landscapes of the Brazilian Amazon? La trajectoire d'institutionnalisation de l'agriculture biologique en Ouganda, success story de l'Afrique subsaharienne. Shaping the implementation of the FSC standard: The case of auditors in Brazil. History of food traceability. Design, functioning and perspectives of the intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Are French geographical indications losing their soul? Anglicizing recent developments in the governance of the link to the origin in France.
Deforestation and timber production in Congo after implementation of sustainable management policy: A reaction to the article by J. Agrawal Land Use Policy Establishing geographical indications without state involvement? Learning from case studies in Central and West Africa. Looking upon LAFS governance , Regulatory Boards of GIs are local partnership institutions comprising farmers, cooperatives, industries, marketing companies and often public agencies.
They are responsible for drawing up the reference standards of the label, registering the farmers and companies, monitoring compliance with the standards, legally protecting and promoting the label. The institutional activity of Regulatory Boards entails cooperation in the tasks inherent to the functioning of a distinctive sign.
However, the effects of collective action transcend the original objective, which involves obtaining differentiation-related incomes, and a number of other positive effects beneficial to LAFS can also be enhanced. These institutions frequently adopt a series of non-mandatory tasks —apart from defining standards, certification, etc. Other types of institutions can also play similar inter-professional roles in LAFS: Developing a local institutional framework poses a good opportunity for local farmers and artisanal enterprises, because business scale remains too small in many rural areas worldwide to individually manage activities such as training of human resources, technical assistance or marketing strategies.
It was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy in Slow Food has now more than members who are also integrated within a much broader network of small-scale, identity-based and sustainable production units, associations and experts on quality food, known as Terra Madre. Particular emphasis is placed upon education, training, dissemination and research into local foods, ranging from agricultural production to gastronomy.
The project first aims to develop organisation and market access of artisanal producers of identity-based foods through proximity short chains. It also aims to encourage artisanal producers to branch into new activities, such as training, tourism and cultural activities. Local urban consumers are linked to the project, buying baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables and participating in activities organised by producers.
A promotion strategy of the network based on information technologies is another focal point of the project. Moreover, one of the most critical phases in the development of a LAFS involves the codification of the quality linked to the origin, because conflicts can arise in the decision-making processes among different local actors who present an imbalance in their degrees of bargaining power.
There is a need to make essential collective decisions regarding specifications of varieties, animal breeds, techniques or codes of practices. We will subsequently refer specifically to some chief resources emerging in the literature, which can act as a lever of cooperation or conflict in shaping the governance of LAFS: Additionally, other local resources articulating LAFS governance involve collective commercial strategies, training local skills or formation of social capital, among others.
First, dissemination and adoption of innovations and knowledge are perceived by many researchers to constitute a key source of local cooperation and development of socio-economic networks. Varying networked forms of interdependence between enterprises and institutions play a role in structuring processes of cooperation and innovation around food quality within LAFS.
Regulatory Boards and other local agro-food development institutions can assume the role of integrating poles of collective action for local stakeholders, chiefly in terms of dissemination of knowledge and innovations. Moreover, family and friendship networks, together with production networks, are dimensions that are quite inter-linked in rural areas: Secondly, shared knowledge of traditional techniques , usually transmitted inter-generationally and often re-created, constitutes an outstanding resource around which local communities organise themselves;  this knowledge can be a source of cooperation or conflict among different categories of stakeholders.
Traditional agricultural knowledge regarding techniques has historically constituted the leitmotiv for building local networks of knowledge. The traditional knowledge of the artisanal cheese producers, which preserves a higher degree of typicity and natural heterogeneity of the product, clashed with the objectives of the rule-opposing group of stakeholders, which comprises bigger companies oriented towards less-differentiated markets; when using stainless steel vats, a more homogeneous product is obtained and sanitary regulations are therefore accomplished with lesser costs.
Although the above mentioned rules were finally included in the product specifications, and a higher level of product typicity was protected by the PDO, governance occasionally fails, with gerle supporters and opponents at loggerheads. Thirdly, symbolic capital represents a local aggregated capital for identity-based foods, generating a reputation that can be valorised either in the markets or through development of common goods.
The collective appropriation of symbolic references for value-adding purposes becomes a major governance problem involving common immaterial goods. Symbolic capital depends foremost on two associated reputation attributes: Failure in territorial governance of the LAFS prevents the local communities from adding sufficient value. Artisanal fishermen, farming associations and some small local and national fattening micro-businesses can hardly valorise the local symbolic capital, due to their poor bargaining power in relation to the marketing and export companies and to some big mussel collection and fattening firms.
The latter concentrate most of the local valorisation for commodified and mass-market production, expropriating the local collective symbolic capital, which belongs to the whole local community. Additionally, the economic and institutional activity of a LAFS may not only have positive effects on governance of the LAFS itself, but also on territorial governance as a whole. Studies on LAFS show that setting up local agro-food development institutions can contribute to generating collective benefits for the whole territory they belong to by means of the inter-institutional relations they encourage.
These collective benefits are called externalities, which in Economics mean the indirect benefits or costs affecting third parties who do not incur in an economic transaction. For instance, the beneficial effects of conserving a genetic heritage, a typical cultural tradition or an agricultural landscape do not concern only the members of a LAFS, but also the local society as a whole. Studies on LAFS provide a good number of illustrations of successful rural development experiences based on local value-added strategies of identity-based foods which promote positive territorial externalities —socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, technological, etc.
First of all, as a general issue, LAFS activity can represent a lever of empowerment and social debate in local development dynamics , stimulating not only networking and cooperation among LAFS stakeholders and institutions, but concerning other local economic sectors and civil society too Belletti and Marescotti, Well-rooted LAFS can also contribute to disseminating and promoting a general local culture of quality , encouraging quality in other food or artisanal products, as usually occurs in regions with a good general reputation for identity-based quality foods, such as Tuscany in Italy or Provence in France.
Enhancement of economic concentric diversification activities, together with the building of a positive reputation of a region can become relevant positive territorial externalities created by the development of LAFS. For enhancing reputation, it is recommended to jointly obtain promotional synergies both from the typical product and from its specific territory. Moreover, territorially based institutional arrangements between different agro-food and non-agro-food producers bring together different rural activities, including tourism, culture, food, gastronomy and recreation: In this sense, the literature refers to the contribution of local productive systems to the production of a territorialized basket of goods , or a composite supply of different products and services linked both culturally and naturally to a specific territory Pecqueur, Wine routes, cheese routes, olive oil routes or salt routes, are strategies born in Mediterranean Europe that are now spreading throughout other geographical areas of the world.
The enhancement of local gastronomic heritage can also constitute the central argument for developing diversified activities from farmer to table: Trubek analyses nonprofits partnerships between farmers, chefs and culinary institutions for building a new symbolic capital that had barely existed before in some states of the USA California, New England, etc. Finally, formation of human capital and building social capital in new economic activities are other relevant externalities that respond to a broader territorial development objective.
The reactivation of the salterns in the s by means of setting up a co-operative was considered to constitute an exemplary experience for heritage conservation and valorisation. A technical training programme was created which was especially devoted to transmitting commercial knowhow. A PDO and other quality labels were established. Synergies were created for promotion and consumption of food production and tourism activities.
The articulating element of the territorial development strategy, which united enterprises, associations and local institutions, as well as other local sectors, lay in the image of the territory, around which local development alliances and initiatives were established Fourcade et al. The slogan of the territorial development strategy sums up well the spirit of the activities for valorising the product and the territory: This model of salt marsh inspired the reactivation of other similar historical sites devoted to salt production in other parts of Europe and America.
However, deficits with regard to local governance often hinder these valorisation strategies. Rytkonen , this issue highlights how a LAFS was enhanced by saving the remnants of traditional goat farming in a remote rural area in the North of the country. During the s, a collective action was initiated to add value to traditional agriculture by means of a diversified neo-patrimonialisation strategy: As a result, a successful development programme won national recognition, had positive spillover effects on other Swedish rural areas, and generated locally positive territorial externalities.
In relation to environmental externalities , it should first be mentioned that the contribution of LAFS to maintaining farming in less favoured areas can be considered as a first positive one, as it combats farm abandonment and, consequently, depopulation in remote rural areas. The conservation of native plant varieties or breeds enhanced by many GIs contributes to generating a territorial externality, because protection of local genetic heritage is beneficial not only to local populations but even at a much broader geographical scale.
Moreover, cooperatives and Regulatory Boards develop programmes in the Mediterranean EU, in partnership with public agencies and local institutions, on collective dissemination and training for the use of plant cover or for maintaining terraces in cultures on steep slopes, as effective methods for combating erosion; plant covers are currently recommended in sloping olive orchards or vineyards, not only to combat the loss of soils and fertility, but also because the negative effects of soil erosion and fertility loss spread to the surrounding territory reservoir silting, etc.
Other cooperative programmes intended to fight diffused pollution in agriculture or to re-use agricultural or agro-industrial waste are also beneficial to large natural ecosystems, such as river basins. Landscape of mountain olive groves cultivated with plant cover: Preserving autochthonous varieties and breeds or traditional farming systems can appear explicitly in the product specifications.
As a result, GIs can provide the opportunity for territorialising environmental-friendly production regulations, taking local specificities into account. In any case, protection of geographical origins can maintain and promote cultural biodiversity, consequently generating environmental externalities for the whole region and even beyond. Research on LAFS arises from analysis of the diversity of relationships between food and territory.
During the last two decades, a specific theoretical and empirical framework has been established in an effort to understand the anchorage and governance, as well as the effects on rural development, of a range of productive, socio-economic and cultural activities related to local food products and their terroirs.
Research on origin of food products, based upon a historical and bio-cultural analysis of food identity, as well as on geographical and organisational proximity, which in turn focuses on a socio-cultural and economic approach to collective action, are key issues in LAFS studies.
With regard to origin , the intense relationships between agriculture and food processing, on one hand, and territory, environment and rural societies, on the other, together with their varied historical trajectories, determine the multiplicity of specific territorial resources —natural, cultural and socio-institutional ones— influencing food identity.
New cultural-hybrid food identities are continuously being created worldwide, because territorial anchorage of food evolves over time and space. Moreover, organisational proximity is a potentiality for rural and territorial development. Specific resources of local food heritage are not only considered as factors generating differentiation attributes of food products, but also as specific assets that can be valorised both commercially on the markets and by creating common and public goods.
The LAFS bases its efficiency on local governance of socio-economic and cultural networks linked territorially by means of the collective action of farms, agro-industrial firms, production services, auxiliary industries, retailers and institutions. From a policy perspective , LAFS can contribute to counterbalancing the de-localisation tendencies affecting many commodity agro-food products on globalised markets. On these mass-markets, the price competitiveness strategies of leading retailing and agribusiness companies are continuously seeking territories, particularly in labour-intensive productions, where labour and other costs are cheaper.
Patrimonialisation and valorisation of food identity becomes a sustainable survival strategy with regard to withstanding the de-localisation tendencies of agricultural products. Rural development policies promoting food anchorage are particularly appropriate in remote rural areas and in low-yield agricultural regions, such as numerous mountain or desert areas in America and Europe. Another main policy issue is based on the following argument: Local social preferences in relation to environment, cultural heritage or rural development must be taken into account in the design of territorial policies.
Finally, studies on LAFS propose integrating methodologies and concepts influenced by complementary scientific approaches coming from the human, social and natural sciences. LAFS result from complex interactions among different types of variables, such as territorial dynamics, food cultures or the physical and natural environment. To put it another way, these systems involve history, insolation, soils, rainfall, animals, plants…, as well as human beings and their institutions, co-operations and conflicts.
This approach requires the focus of different scientific disciplines: It is perhaps the time for enhancing mutual understanding among geographers, economists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, environmentalists and agronomists.
Local Agro-food Systems and public goods. AGL , coordinated by Dr. Commodities are undifferentiated agricultural raw materials and products, or first elaboration agro-industrial goods, which are commercialized in bulk on the global mass-markets. A comparison of similarities and differences of both schools appears in Bowen and Mutersbaugh Although research, economic activities and policies on identity-based foods and territories have spread worldwide, the examples appearing in the paper fundamentally refer to America and Europe, in accordance with the thematic of the special issue.
Although most of the scientific contributions came until recent times from France and from other European Mediterranean countries, Latin American research has decidedly been developed in the last decade: Local inter-professional organisations are institutions that associate members from various levels of the local supply-chain of a food product: His wife, Maria Teresa of Austria, organised get-togethers in which women chatted over hot chocolate.
According to EU legislation, a PDO covers agricultural products and foodstuffs in which all the phases of the food production chain are located in one given geographical area using recognised know-how. However, to achieve a PGI label it is only required that at least one of the different stages of agricultural production or processing is located in the area. Governance is a form of government involving in the political decision-taking process multiple independent private and public stakeholders, who are coordinated in a non-hierarchical manner and who present multiple interactions and mutual agreements, as opposed to hierarchical government decisions only involving the State.
Vertical relationships involve links among stakeholders in different phases of the food chain i. See in Petrini the philosophy, ideological fundamentals and lines of action of Slow Food movement. See in Muchnik and Sainte-Marie a compilation of contributions on the relationships between collective organisation in LAFS, on the one hand, and techniques and knowledge, on the other. Geographies of Origin and Proximity: Spanish Journal of Rural Development , 4 4: Journal of Rural Studies , Local development, global recognition. Rivista di Economia e Politica Industriale , 5 1: Patrimoines et savoirs naturalistes locaux.
USA , July August 1, A Guide to the Issues, London: Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. Les savoirs locaux dans la gestion de l'environnement. Terroir et savoirs naturalistes locaux. Savoirs, pratiques vernaculaires et conservation.