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Table of contents
- Church history
- wesatimunogo.cf: Benny Lai: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle
- NOTE ON ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS
- Italian Music Incunabula
Torti came from the southern part of Italy, the town of Nicastro in Calabria, to print his first book in Venice, the Missale of 48 i He continued publishing until , gradually coming to specialize in glossed legal folios That he printed books for Scoto and Giunta is clear from a contract of I among Torti, his brother Silvestro, Luca Antonio Giunta, Amadeo Scoto, and Giorgio Arrivabene It provides a detailed description of how such an association of printers and publishers functioned.
Missale of 28 November Torti's type varies little from Scoto's quarto type; Torti's virga is slightly more pointed, and his podatus has more space between the upper and lower notes Torti's staff was probably printed from brass rules A strong indication that in Torti was reprinting the I quarto is found by comparing the music on ff m I and m6 of the Missale see Figs 44 and 45 The music on f mi" is crowded Some neumes are set upside down, and strangely 21 Essling, Crucifixion no 2 bis, p 57 and illustration on p The Torti Missale is not included in Essling.
Cristoforo de Pensi of Mandello on Lake Como printed one book in Venice in , two in , one each in the next two years, and more frequent issues until his last book in I Teodoro Ragazzoni and his brothers Giacomo and Francesco came from Asola to be printers in Venice in the last decades of the fifteenth century Between and I5oo Teodoro issued twenty-three books, many of them liturgical. The usual Venetian unpointed virga has a long stem, with two shorter stemmed variants and a stemless version for use on the bottom line of the staff A virga with the stem on the left also has a variant with a shorter stem The diagonal has an almost imperceptible curve and a long stem with a shorter variant The first note of the podatus is the only pointed notehead The F clef has a long stem with a shorter alternate There are no kerned types, with the possible exception of the direct The bottom of the stemmed forms abut the text type, as does the stemless virga The use of rules to print the staff provides an irregular base for the music type, causing some difficulty in having noteheads fall squarely on lines and spaces The overall impression of Ragazzoni's music is of irregularity both in type design and in printing 23 BMC V: Punctum, 32 Lozenge printed irregularities due to poor matrix?
Podatus Diagonal F clef I I. Rinaldo de Novimagio Reinelde of Nijmegen, in Holland first appears in at Venice as a partner of the German Theodor von Rynsburg By Novimagio was printing on his own with the same two gothic types used when he was a partner He used twelve more types by the end of his career, in Menno Hertzberger, , i: An undated folio with space for music was assigned to him by Weale-Bohatta W and by Hubay to Eucharius Silber in Rome;29 assignment to a specific printer is difficult, since several shops used the same alphabetic types.
Pinzi's first music font was a large missal type with a short-stemmed virga that has a notehead taller than it is wide. The long-stemmed F clef and diagonal have shorter variants. The C clef has a variant for the top line in which the top half of the character is cut off. There is a direct, but the compositor often substituted the lozenge for the direct. In addition to the normal stemless virga there is an unusual variant of half the width of the regular notehead that is used for the pressus.
The appearance of that narrow design and the three-note scandicus in both RI6 and R9 Missale Strigoniense, I II , printed by Johann Hamman within two months suggests a single type designer. No kerned types are verifiable, though the existence of broken stems of the virga and virga cum orisco suggests that those stems may originally have been kerned. Several sorts abut the text type above and below the staff stemmed and stemless virga, podatus. A mistake by the compositor illustrates the relationship between the text type and the music type.
I, staff 5, the letter x is printed twice to fill blank space not used by notes see Fig. The position of the letters indicates that the space for music type was made equal to three times the size of the body of a text type so that the same spacing materials could Norton, Italian Printers, p. Johann Emerich came from the town of Udenheim in the diocese of Speier, an area on the Rhine River south of Mannheim His name first appeared together with the name of Johann Hamman, a fellow native of Speier, in the colophons of two books printed in , a missal for Paris and a Dominican breviary After a hiatus in his career of five years during which his name appeared in no book,.
Emerich began issuing books under his own name as printer: Liturgical books, especially those with music, were Emerich's specialty Of the seventy-one books he printed, sixty-seven were liturgical The exceptions were the Astrolabe of Johann Angelus editions in and I , three theological tracts Bernard, Anthony, and Lyra and the rules for the Benedictine and Carmelite monastic orders Books with music or space for it account for twenty-four plus six? Roman, three plus two? Another characteristic of Emerich's types is their attention to such details as liquescence, accidentals, and various sizes of diagonals and stem sizes used to form ligatures All the stemmed notes in the type appear in multiple sizes With the resulting large number of sorts Emerich was able to avoid the monotonous succession of virgas common in the printed music of many of his competitors and to set plainchant in type in a fashion that closely resembled the ligature construction common in the manuscripts of the time The number of sorts in the font, as is shown in the specimen below, is thirty-one or thirty-two if the small virga used to form a bivirga is included Kerning is visible when the stem of a virga printed on the bottom line overlaps the text type Two years later Emerich began using a folio music type Ri9 that appeared in five of his large-format missals between I and The virga was increased in size by half, to 6 X 2.
The notes are designed with sharp right angles without points or curves except in liquescent notes. The virga stem has the short length characteristic of Emerich. There are few new shape: The font must have demanded expert knowledge of music from the type designer and typesetter, who could well have been the same person-perhaps Emerich himself.
The mensural characters in the music font are the second set ever used, after those printed in Venice without staff lines for the Niger Grammatica of D by Theodor Franck of Wurzburg Mi. They include a time signature for duple meter, a descending semibreve ligature in the form of a diagonal, an ascending semibreve ligature with a square notehead, a single-stemmed semiminim, and a double-stemmed semiminim.
Sorts from the plainchant type fill out the mensural font: A year before Petrucci's use of mensural type in the Odhecaton Venice, 14 May 50o1 , Emerich succeeded in printing the popular "Credo Cardinalis" in mensural notation for. Emerich developed R2 for the lavish production of the first complete Roman gradual and antiphonal i , published by Giunta.
The production included a new font of extra-large music type, two new gothic text types, a stunning series of large woodcut illustrations and initials that would be reused by the Giunta firm for decades, and an extra-large, heavy folio paper that made possible the printing of the largest book of the century. Among fifteenth-century printed music books the choirbooks contain music notes second in height and width only to the Parma Graduate D i6 of the Moilli brothers.
Liquescence is better represented in the type for Emerich's Graduale, with its more elaborate neumes necessary for the melismatic chant sung by the choir, than it is in the music type for the syllabic. The particular liquescent note forms cut into type for R2I include those illustrated in Fig. The virga cum orisco was a much more common note at the beginning and end of pieces of plainchant in 50oo than it is today. An examination of manuscript graduals of the period see Fig. For an illustration of Emerich's Credo printed in the I Graduale, f. A variant version of the mensural Credo of Emerich's Graduate from a contemporary St.
Gall manuscript has been edited along with other mensural chant in Otto Marxer, Zur spatmittelalterlichen Choralgeschichte St. Liquescent note forms in R2I, used in Emerich's Graduale. FIG 50 Kerned and abutting music and text types in R2 I a subtlety that was lost in the transition to type, in which there is a single musical sign for the virga cum orisco.
Nearly every page of the Graduale has corrections either printed or by hand, or both, which vary from copy to copy The corrector, music theorist Franciscus de Brugis, who prepared the text for the printer, very likely played a continual and active part in proofing copy The preface to the Graduale attests to the corrector's responsible role: Suffecisset utique mi fratres universi que legitis in hoc volumine graduum id me ademplesse: Abbatia Sancti Petri, Comparative statistics on the use of liquescent type forms in the first fifty folios of the Graduale will form the basis of a future article.
E Io, ff ki", n8 Editions: I55 X I77 57 Music pages: Torculus Virga cum orisco, 5 X 8. B flat Bar line rule Liquescent neume 2 X 4 22 5 32 7. I77 X I30 o Music pages: Io Virga I 2. Clivis I 2 stemless Diagonal. Scandicus I 2 stemless r F clef, 1. IIo X 80 38 Music pages: The Missale Nannentense io May issued l y Blavi, Torresani, and Mapheo de Salodio Paterbonis has no space for music see the item after D 34 , Torresani's first music type has the usual Venetian unpointed and short-stemmed virga There are no variant stem sizes; when a note is used on the bottom line of the staff, the text is moved down to make room see Fig 5 The punctum is an abutting type that can be set adjacent to text type in the space above or below the staff The lozenge is kerned to fit tightly against another lozenge Since 38 D Bernoni, Dei Torresani, Blado e Ragazzoni celebri.
Hoepli i , p 7 39 Fulin, "Documenti," no 96 4o. Norton, Italian Printers, p 4i Fumagalli. Giovanni Battista Sessa was a Milanese whose family presumabaly came from the district of Sessa, not far from Lugano He issued some thirty books in the fifteenth century one in , four in the remainder from I to oo His last known book was printed in , and he was succeeded by his son Melchior in Quaritch, 45 BMC V: Sessa's R24 includes a podatus with a smaller upper note and a lower note pointed at the upper left as compared with Emerich's R2o, in which two sizes of lozenge are used to create the podatus, one as small as the direct and often confused with it by the compositor Music type is used less skillfully in Sessa's books than in Emerich's Impressions of spacing material appear above and below the music see Fig 53 The placement of notes on lines and spaces in the octavos is inexact The staff lines of the [not after ] Missale vary a good deal in width and in distance from each other 3.
Catechumeni by Emerich, the only other printer to have issued that title in the fifteenth century, proves him to have been a much more careful printer His neumes are carefully spaced over words that are themselves widely spaced so that there is no difficulty in knowing to which syllable a neume belongs Evidence to date does indicate, as Proctor suggested, that Sessa himself probably was a publisher rather than a printer,47 and the appearance of a type of a certain printer in his books has been taken to indicate that that man was the printer The text type used in the I [not after Missale, is like that of Bonelli,48 but the text type is not necessarily a key to the music printer: I X I Music pages: Sessa's books Sessa's music type does vary from Emerich's in many small ways, and the staff technique in Sessa's books is not always appropriate to the type The quality of the Sessa music printing is poorer than that in any of Emerich's books Certainly Emerich is unlikely to have printed the text, since he never used roman type, which appears in each of Sessa's music books Similar music type could have been supplied to printers by a Venetian type producer who provided each printer with the specific characters necessary for the music in his book in a body size of his specification, leaving the printer to supply his own staff material If such a type producer designed a small plainchant font for Emerich, he may have provided a font of the type on a larger body to the printer s of Sessa's books Virga I I.
R6, a music type that had appeared a month earlier in Bernardino Benali's folio Missale Romanum 5 August , Because of Benali's earlier independent venture, I have attributed the music printing of the Missale to him as well One extant copy of the Missale of Arrivabene in the Vatican Library contains printed staves without plainchant notes The music could have been printed in Benali's shop for Arrivabene and Paganini, who apparently sold copies with or without printed music The first signature to contain music contains mis-signings that support an interruption of the normal printing sequence Signature g contains music on f g2r-V In at least four copies, the following leaf, g3, is mis-signed as h3, and g4 as h4 Such mistakes could result from the division of labor between two shops: Giorgio Arrivabene, 29 V , f p3v.
Direct 14 X 7 Christoph Valdarfer of Regensburg began his activity as a printer in Venice During and I47I, several books were issued there under his name He had already applied in I for permission to establish at Milan a printing shop with twelve employees, but his request was turned down because a monopolistic privilege had been granted to the publisher Panfilo Castaldi with Antonio Zarotto as printer After Castaldi's departure from Milan in , Valdarfer came to Milan to print books for Filippo di Lavagna and Cola Montano, a humanist cleric, using two presses and the roman type of a specimen sheet attached to the contract of August I After a period of active printing in Milan between I and 2i February , Valdarfer next appears in Basel, on 28 July , as an employee of the printer Bernhard Richel.
Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, , 9: Christoph Valdarfer, i IX , f. Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Inc. Nothing is known of the financial backing for the Missale and its music type, but it is possible that the promise of a remunerative commission for the work provided at least part of the incentive for Valdarfer's sojourn in Basel, where he could have learned how to print music. Valdarfer's next book containing music was a Missale Romanum of i September I, just six months after the Missale Ambrosianum. The Roman Large Missal is designated as a new type, R26, despite the fact that it shares some designs with Ai the direct, the virga, and the C clef and shares the same body size, cast to be printed on a staff of That staff is now made of cast metal segments in one size The bodies of the cast types were small enough to allow characters to be printed.
AI and R26 share designs with very long stems reaching down from the top line of the staff to the bottom.
The irregularity and thinness of those stems, together with their frequent lack of connection to the notehead, suggest that the printer added stems to the cast noteheads by using various lengths of metal rules, just as was done for the bar lines see Fig. That technique certainly simplified punchcutting and casting of multiple stem lengths but resulted in a weak and irregular appearance. Nevertheless, it allowed the printer to preserve a common scribal practice of bringing the stems of notes down to the bottom of the staff.
On the first staff printed with type f. Only in Valdarfer's music books has the technique of using metal rules for note stems been observed. The first music type for Ambrosian plainchant is a fairly sophisticated font with a different-size podatus for three intervals and a torculus for two intervals, as well as five sizes of custos or direct, a 5. The staff of Ambrosian chant was still commonly written with two lines, a red F and a yellow C line, or with four black lines with additional colored lines for C or F inserted between the black lines as needed.
Dizionario biografico degli italiani 21 Leonard Pachel came from Ingolstadt in Bavaria, as did Ulrich Han, who matriculated at the University of Leipzig in the i44os and became the first named printer of music A professional connection between two Germans from Ingolstadt who number among the first music printers in Italy is possible Pachel, who died on 7 March i at the age of sixty, was about twenty-five in , the time of Han's first music book Pachel first appears in printing history as a witness to a Milanese contract of I between the first music printer in Milan, Christoph Valdarfer, and his publishers Cola Montano and Lavagna.
Pachel and Scinzenzeller's first book was a Virgil of 30 November I, and their last joint venture appeared on i August I49o.
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Valentin Koerner, , 3: Such a long-stemmed virga was common in such contemporary manuscripts as the pontifical of Giovanni Barozzi, bishop of Bergamo, I I75 X I21 Music pages: Thanks to Arnaldo Ganda's recent research on the biography and works of Antonio Zarotto ca II5Io , his career has unusual clarity in our account of early Italian music printers. Montano Montano assumed responsibility for choosing titles for their classical publishing program Their first book, Cicero's Epistles, was financed by the rector of Casorate, Giuliano Merli, with Panfilo Castaldi as agent Merli advanced the money for the paper 25 soldi imperiali per volume , plus other expenses up to 30 ducats of gold Montano and Orsoni received half of the profits, Zarotto the other half Unfortunately, a competing publisher, Filippo di Lavagna, apparently managed to issue an edition of the Epistles first, on 25 March To avoid leakage of information on current publications and the possibility of future simultaneous publications, clauses were inserted in Zarotto's next printing contracts demanding secrecy from the partners and employees concerning future publications.
Cola Montano was expelled from Zarotto's printing society on 20 February for having employed other printers, an act expressly forbidden in the contract of the society First esteemed by the Sforzas, Montano's tumultuous career would include expulsion from Milan for instigating a plot to kill the duke, and death by hanging soon afterward, in Florence Upon leaving Zarotto, Montano associated himself with the Milanese publisher Filippo di Lavagna and the printer Christoph Valdarfer On Io September he reestablished contact with Zarotto and Orsoni in a contract for printing missals "fabricandi libros missales in civitate Mediolani ad stampam".
The first dated printed missal appeared on 6 December ,22 with a colophon that specified its innovative character: That the market was ready for his Roman missals was made clear by the appearance of Zarotto's second edition on 26 April , only sixteen months later Nearly a copy of the first, this folio of I92 leaves added the service for blessing of holy water and doubled the number of pages with space for music Rubrics were printed in red throughout, but the leaf for a Canon illustration was still left blank, and music was left to the scribe The death of Marco Roma, Zarotto's major backer of the Is, accounts for the drastic reduction, amounting to near-suspension, of new editions in In i Zarotto's Missale Romanum included a printed illustration for the first time; in he added printed music Between and I Zarotto printed a folio Roman missal about every eighteen months His Milanese competitor, Leonard Pachel, issued missals annually from to I, plus three more in , , and I, but they were intended for less affluent consumers: The first Ambrosian missal was printed in by Zarotto and financed by Marco Roma for Archbishop Daniele, who collected forty-two orders for copies, nineteen printed on vellum, eleven on paper, 22 For a facsimile edition, see R Lippe, Missale Romanum Mediolani , 2 vols London: Forli, , p I Zarotto's music type included characters to print both Ambrosian and Roman plainchant Its first dated use was on i January I in his Ambrosian missal, and just two months later he used it for his first Roman missal with music Because both works were in folio one would assume the type to have been designed for that format, but the size of the type-a notehead of 2 square mm, a lozenge of 4 mm, and a staff of I2.
X Io3 Music pages: F clef piece, i X 5.
Francesco Girardengo began printing in Pavia in and issued books with colophons naming his native city, Venice, and Siena until at least I From to Girardengo acted in partnership with another citizen of Pavia, Giovanni Antonio Beretta, issuing about fifty works The terms of their association reveal that Beretta, treasurer of the local cathedral, provided the capital and a retail outlet in his house while Girardengo was the printer and seller on both sides of the Alps The fact that one missal, with blank space for music Missale Claromontense, D 32 was issued under the sole name of Beretta is discounted by the men's biographer, who feels that during the partnership both men were responsible for each book issued.
Note of a Portraitmedal," The Library, 4th ser. The book is evidence that in in Bologna, music type was being cut on a small body and set at varying heights with the aid of spacing material The stem of the virga abuts its adjacent type The piece of metal joining the C clef appears to be kerned and slightly bent Perhaps the rather crude appearance of the music is due in part to a poor compositor, since such an easy word as "domine" is misspelled in the second line of text i BMC VI: N Zanichelli, , tav XIV. The single incunabulum with music printed by Bonini in Italy is a Carmelite missal: Olschki, , pp , and bibliography, pp ; A Cioni, "Bonini Boninis , Bonino," Dizionario biografico degli italiani 12 The black is printed exactly where it should be at the top of the page, but by the middle of both columns it is too low.
After printing in Venice from to , Giacomo Britannico returned to his native city of Brescia, where he and his brother Angelo began issuing books in association in , practically monopolizing the trade in that city. Miscellanea in onore di mons G Bellini: Tipografia Antoniana, , doc 16, "Stampator librorum. It is assumed that the brothers issued all these books in association, whether or not the colophons mention both their names Gaffurio's Practica Musicae was reprinted for Angelo by Bernardino Misinta in and 15o8.
The Britannico music font has few kerned types or closely abutting characters The printer had difficulty in handling notes at the top and bottom of the staff and resorted to using notes cut in half see type specimen: C clef a variant for top line F clef; a without C clef 'Direct a kerned Bar line rule. Christian Preller of Bavaria printed in Naples from to , with an excursion to Capua in I at the request of the archbishop, to print a breviary for local use.
He specialized in liturgical books-ten of his eighteen editions are religious'-and used only gothic types. None of his signed books contains music. A missal with music, printed without a colophon, is attributed to him on the basis of the text type and printer's device, the initials of which suggest as publisher Antoine Gontier: Variant forms of the virga provide two alternate, shorter stems, plus a punctum for the bottom line of the staff.
The unusual C clef has a descending line at the bottom of the C. The direct is identical with the F clef; its design is the reverse of the usual Venetian style, with the note at the right instead of the left of the line pointing to the next staff. The design is vertical instead of slanted so that the direct can be set completely within the column of type without the usual. The visual impact is weakened by the line pointing up instead of forward. If the direct must be set on the top line of the staff, a variant is used without the vertical line.
The upper notes of both podatus I and podatus 2 are curved in a fashion not seen in other Italian fonts. Preller's music type is well cut and printed. The unpointed rectangles, lozenges, and diagonals have straight edges and clear angles. The lozenge is slightly kerned, so groups fit closely together though not as closely as those of Emerich. Because many types are cast as abutting designs, neumes may be formed by combining sorts; some combinations are more successful than others see Figs. The bar line is exactly the height of the staff and is a cast piece of type.
If the type was cut in or before, it is the most sophisticated font used in Italy to that date. Istituto Nazionale di Studi sul Rinascimento Meridionale, , pp. Fava and Bresciano, La stampa a Napoli, I: Combined types as used in Preller's Missale Romanum. Christian Preller for Antoine Gontier? Christian Preller, ca ]; Cambridge, Mass. Music theory books sometimes make reference to music characters in passages in the text of the book This forced early printers to create alphabetic-music types, il much the same way as they had to create Greco-Latin types for Latin books with Greek passages Since the music was to be printed in a line of text rather than at various heights on a musical staff, these music characters were cast on the same size body as the text type Proctor described the Greco-Latin types as "clumsy in form and wild in employment," made by workmen accustomed to Latin types who applied their technical knowledge and practice to the production of Greek forms in a Latin spirit.
Plato de Benedicti, at Bologna in I While they contain a few sorts of music type, those sorts do not face the problem of printing at various heights on a musical staff They are therefore not to be described as actual music types Other such incipient type may have gone unobserved in my investigation of Italian printed incunabula; the two here described are noted as an adjunct to the inventory of music types capable of being printed as part of actual notated music Francesco Benedetti printed in Bologna from until his death in ; he issued one undated book in Venice Among the praise he received for his printing is the comment of the music theorist Nicolo Burzio D 8 in an illustrated history of Bologna: Librariorumque Italiae I6oo Baden-Baden: Unsigned gatherings of preliminary leaves before the incipit of a text may include title, table of contents, calendar, and so forth, and have been assigned the symbol 7T For example, 7r6 a-z8 describes a book with a preliminary gathering of 6 leaves that is unsigned, followed by 23 gatherings of 8 leaves signed a to z: The number of printed alphabetic text lines on a page and the number of columns on a page For the number of printed staves on a page and the number of columns of music, see below, 6c 5 Illustration Since woodcut or engraved illustrative material sometimes relates closely to the location of the printed music, information on its presence is indicated Such a relationship occurs in the missal, in which the leaves preceding and following the full-page Crucifixion usually contain chant 6 Music a Presence of printed i notes, 2 staves,.
Trustees of the British Museum, Brunet. Jacques-Charles Brunet Manuel du libraire et de l'amateur de livres 5th ed 6 vols Paris: Ganda Arnaldo Ganda I primordi della tipografia milanese: K W Hiersemann, ; vols 8: Hiersemann, and I-2 2 vols Nieuwkoop: B, de l'Abbaye du Mont Cesar Louvain: A Picard et Fils,. Pressler, , pp Bibliographical Society of America, Van Praet. I Agenda Aquileiensis Venice: Modus et ordo cerimonialiu et quorunda actuum I ecclefiafticorum totius anni: Singulari cura et impenSis I prouidi Iohannis volkarth de Noremberga: Im I preffus venetijs per Iohannem herczog de landoia alemanu: Francesco Spessot, "Libri liturgici aquileiesi e rito patriarchino," Studi Goriziani 35 A-Vienna, NB, Ink Societatis Jesv I Monachii; front pastedown: Agenda brevis et perutilis Colophon, f i8, red: Iuffu 7 impenSis iohannis I volkarth de noreberga: Agenda feu Benedictionale fcd'm I vjun [sic] jancte eclejie [sic] Patauienfis I Incipit, f a i , red: Incipit ageda fiue benedictionale de acti bus fcd'm choru 7 obferuatione eccl'ie Pata I uiefis Colophon, f p8 cxx , red: Modus 7 ordo cerimoniaru eccl'iafticaru: Antiphonariu fm morem fancte I Romane ecclefie copletu: Antiphonarium proprium et co I mune fanctor9 fm ordine fancte I Romane ecclefie fama cu diligentia reuilum: Cum gratia et priuilegio I [printer's mark of Luca Antonio Giunta] Explicit, vol 3, f 3o, 8 , black: Fiat pax in vir I tute tua red: Et ha I bundantia in tur ribus noftris Collation: Companeros Alemanes, ca I49I.
F-Paris, BN Copies seen: Title, f a i, woodcut of hand and hexachord syllables; f ar': Reuerendo in chrifto Fratri Marcho de duchis ordinis mi I noru prouintiae Mediolani: Incipit Breuiloquiu muficale ualde optimum Et breui I ter notatum: B quadrata is used in the text but variation in size indicates it was cut in wood rather than metal Bibliography: I-Bologna, Mus Copies seen: Colorado College Music Press, Copies: Explicit Breuiloquium muficale editum a fratre Bonaue-. Incipit, f 71i, calendar; f 2rrI, red: Incipit tabula epl'ai f ai: Colophon, f ee7, red: IIo X 76 mm Provenance, f ee8: Frater sebastianus de castro florentino Binding: Impelis Bndicti librarij bonon ac fuma induftria I Ugonis de rugerijs: G Mazzatinti, Inventario dei manoscritti italiani delle biblioteche di Francia, 3 vols.
I-Bologna, Mus, A64 Lacks. Rev G B Martini Binding: I92 X I35 mm Binding: First initial flourished, initials and chapters rubricated in red and blue Binding: B87 Lacks f ai Size: Splendido equiti aurato Philipino flifco ducalis cu I ftodie capitaneo Franchinus Gaffurus falutem I Meorum affecla ftudioru3 Francifcus cacia qui te ' fufpi cit 7 veneratur eques fpledide vernacula lingua f a2: Tractato vulgare de canto figurato de francefco caza Explicit, f b4: Iio Manuscript music in brown ink white mensural notation without staves Provenance, on front pastedown: Proprietas in mufica eft deriuatio plurinm I vocum abvno eodeq3 principio I ExiJtentib9 igitur modis fiue proprietatibus trib9 toti9 I cantus; Explicit, f b4: Explicit mufices non inutile Compendium: Nouembris [printer's mark, IBS].
American Institute of Musicology, I Copies: H ; GW 9: Rege Ludovico Duce Mediolani, felici aufpicio regnantibus Collation: Gaffurio, Franchino Practica Musicae Milan: Breslauer, I, pp Facsimile edition, Westmead, Farnborough: Ricevuto in dono fattomi dal Sign: Collegii Mirandolani Soc Jesu i 7th century Binding: Biblioteca Rossi Rossi became the librarian of the library in 1x8 , at which time he donated his io,ooo books, acquired mainly from suppressed monasteries There is an old library mark on the front pastedown L.
Lxxxxii I die xv Decembris Collation: Questo libro e de mio zantomas fisa mano Treviso, BC, I Bound with D 13 X mm. CRedo i unu deu f [a7]: Impre'fuq3 e parme Colophon, f [m7V]: Mufica Bernado Daiano frib9 ars e I Sic ipffa pri9: Frammento tipografico della Biblioteca Parsoniana," La Bibliofilia 56 i Miscellanea in onore di Lamberto Donati, Florence: Olschki, , pp Copies: Graduale Jm morem fancte Ro mane ecclefie: Explicit graduale dnicale ImpreJfum Uenetijs cura atq3 impeJ nobil' viri luceatonij de giun I ta floretini: Finit feliciter comune fanctoru I maxima cum diligetia ac fum mo ftudio emedatu: Graduale fm morem sancte Ro j mane ecclesie integrum I com- pletum: I [printer's mark] I Correctum per fratrem Francifcum de Brugis ordinis minorum de obferuantia.
K8, N8, and Vio; a manuscript leaf with prayers for St. Francis is inserted for F8.
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Milan, BN, Gerli Inc. Modena, Est, a P. Incomplete; bound in leather over wood, with bosses. Est Thomae Gasparotti Parmensis ex dono Adm. Vitalis Gallineri Monachi Casinatis. Venice, BN, Rari vellum. Added manuscript vellum leaves include a Kyriale and mensural Credo.
NOTE ON ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS
Added manuscript paper leaves include a table of contents, dated x, and the endpaper at back with music for St. Pastedowns are discarded printed vellum leaves of vol. Appears almost unused, in contrast to other copies examined, but a few pasted-in corrections and a crossed-out passage indicate updating perhaps at the printer's shop? Vio and sheets E5. Lacks signatures P8, and ff. Music added in manuscript on f. N8 blank , and a new vellum sheet inserted for Ri. CCCL with manuscript title "Cardinalis. Incipit ordo ad faciedu aqua bndicta.
I Dnica prima aduetus 7 T oibus dnicis I per annu pulfato figno ad tertia hebdo I madari9 itret facraftia: Explicit, f q4, red: Finitur opus libri baptifmalis cum mul tis benedictionib9. C I; R 2: In hoc paruo libello qui intitula I tur liber cathecumini I queda valde putilia imprefja junt ad vjum vtilitateq3 facer I dotum fm ritum Ro I mane curie; que hic I in principio huius I tabule facilere I peries I [printer's mark] LA Explicit, f 14 , red: Dal medioevo all'umanesimo, Rome: Editrice Anselmiana, Studie Linselmi 75 Binding: In hoc paruo libello qui intitula tur liber cathecumini: I [printer's mark, IBS]; f f2, red: I56 X mm Provenance: Duke of Parma Binding: S Siluestri quirinalis Binding: In hoc paruo libello qui intitula I tur liber catecumini: Impenfis Lucantoni de giuta I Florentini Anno dfii.
Maria geborna zu Leifers This copy was described by Reichling and his slip is in the book Binding: No space for music Copies: Antonio Zarotto, 28 IV Magnificat aYa mea dominu3 Ends, f [a2 ]: Abachuc in hieme Collation: Incipit manuale baptifterium fecundu confuetu dinem Romane curie ac totius diocefis Neapoli I tane Explicit, f f3 xliv: D-Stuttgart, WL Copies seen: I-Venice, Cini Copies seen: I-Venice, Cini, Latin missals are listed in two alphabetic sequences: Finis I Antoni patria parmenjis: I Primus miffales imprimis arte libros Nemo reptore3 nimiu3 Je iactet in arte I Addere plus tantu q3 pepiffe ualet I Impreffum in alma ciuitate Mediolani M cccc lxxv decimo kalen aprilis per Antonium Zarottu3 parmenfem Collation: Arnaldo Ganda, "La prima edizione del messale ambrosiano Motivi pastoralli e aspetti commerciali," La Bibliofilia 83 Victor Advielle of Arras Binding: Crucifixion drawn and colored f [o8'V ; major initials in gold and colors, minor initials and rubrics in red Size: II 22 The complete music has been added in Ambrosian plainchant on staves of a single red line or a red line and a yellow line Decoration: I09 22 ff ; IGI ; Graesse 4: In noie yhu xpi incipit miffale 1 p totius anni circulum fecundu I g9uetudine diui Ambrofij pris I nri copofitu3: Mediolani per I Xpoforum Ratifponenfem an no.
Lecto evangelio, statum diaconus annunciat pasca resurrectionis Noverit caritas [music] dfii futurum ac modo is not generally accorded a musical incipit in manuscript missals of the period, and nowhere else in printed missals, as far as I have observed The reason the music was not printed in the space might be that the passage called for complex neumes beyond the capabilities of Valdarfer's type Copies: I-Milan, Ambr, Decoration: Incipit officiu ad aqua bndi I cta facienda: In note yhu xpi icipit miffa I le p totius ani circulum fecu I dum cofuetudinem diui Am I brofii patris noftri copofiti Explicit, f F6: Caroli Aloysii Pionii Binding: In nomine fancte et indiuidue tri I nitatis amen I Incipit liber miffarum totius ani fecundum morem Ambrofiane I ecclefie Explicit, f zio, red: Missa in comemoratione sancti pontifis gregori [and other masses] Size: Antonio Zarotto, Graesse 4: Messa sci antonii abatis Provenance, ex libris: Incipit liber miffarum totius ani jecundum morem Ambrofiane I ecclefie Explicit, f z6 clxxiii , epigram: Impffum Ml'i p magiftrum Leo nardu pachel Anno dni M.
Wilhelm Martin Luther, "Notendruck: A-Vienna, NB, Ink 2. Missale secundum ecclesiam auxitanum I [printer's mark] Explicit Claudin , verso of last leaf, red: Henri Louis Baudrier, Bibliographie lyonnaise, 12 vols, Lyons: Brun iI92I , J Dodivers, I, no Note: Finit miffale fm vfum ec I clefie burgenfis: Vatican City, BV, Inc. Manuscript roman plainchant on f. Yo Juan del arp? The copy remained in Burgos until 19I I. Ordo miffalis fm confuetudinem ecclefie claromo I tenfis ac. I [printer's mark, IAB]. Space for 8 staves per column, with only I.
C4 and M-B 59 give a variant place of publication, Lyons. Sander states that C Lyons equals C Venice. My notes indicate that the title page is identical in the two editions and the Crucifixion appears on the same leaf, but the music space begins on f. Weale cited another copy of the Lyons edition at Lyons, Bibliotheque des Peres Jesuites, which might provide the different colophon. Joannes canon at Clermont-Ferrand , Oratorii Sammagloriani I Ex dono R. Heinrich Alding, 31 V I H I ; Dibdin 6: In laudem et gloria3 fancte ac I indiuidue trinitatis: Marieq3 I femp virginis: Sedete Sixto quarto poti- fice maximo: Opus hoc sacriu impreffum eft: Anno ab incarnatione I domini: Millefimo quadringe I tefimo octuagefimo.
Microfilm of music leaves. Seventeen manuscript leaves inserted between groups of 88 and leaves. Initials by hand, rubrics in red. An inserted leaf contains a colored copperplate engraving of the Crucifixion by Israel van Meckenem see Ottley, History of Engraving,. Ad laudem et gloria sancte ac indiuidue trinitatis: Introitus Explicit, f Q7: Sicilie 7 c rege: Anno ab Tcarnatoe clni M. I-Catania, Sem Copies seen: Incipit miffale Jrm ufu diocef Na meten requifitione Reuere. F-Nantes, BM Copies seen: Victoris Sta crux Nannetensis I Miffale j;m uju3 ecclefie pariJieJis Incipit, f ai, red: Ad laude3 dei omnipotentis: In cuius honorem fundata eft I facra eccl'a parifienfis: Imprejforibus quide3 Ioh'is I hamani de Landoia: Ioh'ifq3 emerich de vdeherm I ocijs Anno domini millefimo quadringentefimo I octoagefimo feptimo: Table in manuscript, 2 leaves at end.
Italian Music Incunabula
Plainchant in manuscript on ff. Miffale Jm morem alme eclefie Quinq3 ecclefiefi. Incipit, f ai, red: Dominica prima in aduentu domini Introitus ad I miffam.
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Im I ppu3 venetijs ipefis Joh'is I Paep librarij buden. H-Budapest, BN, 99o paper viewed on microfilm. Manuscript music added to most printed staves. Three pages of prayers added at end in manuscript, including Missa de Sancti Gratoni. Klimo Eppus Quinque Ecclesien. Hunc librum possidet nunc Gallus presbiter. Ego Gallus presbiter I5 undecimo primo sum presbiteratus et emi hunc librum. Johann Emerich of Speier, 14?? Per f H8, woodcut. W is without an asterisk, indicating it was personally inspected, and includes the following details: Ohly's recently published catalog of incunabula of the Stadt- and Universitatsbibliothek in Frankfurt includes two editions of Emerich's missals: The signatures of the five copies of the Missale Praedicatorum of Emerich D that I have seen contain two gatherings outside the main sequence but are otherwise quite different: I t8 for ff.
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