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About. The Gallery of Fluid Motion is intended to be a visual record of the aesthetic and science of contemporary fluid mechanics, to be shared both with fellow.
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Simulation of the airflows created by hummingbird wings during maneuvering flight.

Video V at gfm. Optical patterns produced by chaotic flows on the surface of a soap bubble. Surface waves created by small droplets bouncing on an oil bath. Erosion patterns modeled with water flowing over caramel. Off the beaten path, however, you might find a feast for the eyes. These highlight how modern visualization methods and computer power can convey the complexity of fluid behavior GFM is at gfm.

GFM coordinator Ken Kiger remembers his first encounter with the gallery: Applied work involving new kinds of spray nozzles was displayed next to fundamental vortex ring dynamics.

Gallery of Fluid Motion — 69th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics

The inspiration for the gallery came in the s when physicist Milton van Dyke compiled a photo album to help teach fluid mechanics. Apparently there was pent-up demand because they got 70 entries. Back then, the gallery entries were poster presentations. After a few years of tape wrangling, the division reached out to APS, which now hosts the gallery online. At modern-day DFD meetings, the videos are displayed on eight flat-screen monitors next to the poster presentations. Awards are given for the best entries and the criteria vary from meeting to meeting.

Fill in the vowel yourself. Sharp, a recent Ph.

Gallery of Fluid Motion Winners from the 2016 APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting

Every year, the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics hosts the Gallery of Fluid Motion at its annual meeting with the aim of highlighting the art and science of fluid mechanics. In , dozens of poster presentations were submitted to the gallery. For more on all of the entries and winners, visit gfm. Prakash, Manu Prakash Stanford University.


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Before forming their long and wavy arms, starfish are micro-sized larvae swimming through the ocean by means of tiny, hairlike cilia that cover their bodies. To learn more about how these newborns maneuver and feed in open waters, researchers from Stanford University trapped a single larva under a microscope slide and filmed the flow patterns generated by the cilia movement. To better observe details of the flow field, the team added tiny plastic beads to the surrounding fluid that revealed small vortices in time-lapse recordings. A closer look revealed that areas of oppositely flapping cilia known as reversal regions generated small vortices, which helped draw in larger amounts of algae from farther away.

While this movement helped increase the feeding rate, the large number of vortices resulted in slower swimming through the viscous fluid.

Art and Science in the Gallery of Fluid Motion

The team observed that the larvae could "change gears" with cilia motion, increasing their swimming speed to evade looming predators. With help from particle imaging, a team of researchers from Berlin was able to capture an array of 3D flow features of spatially oscillating jets. A sweeping jet, created by a fluidic oscillator, was emitted into a strong cross flow generated by a wind tunnel. A particle imaging velocimetry PIV system, which moved transverse to the crossflow, was able to combine footage of the sweeping jet in all three dimensions, revealing crucial information about the streak volume and velocity of particles originating from the sweeping jet.

Slowed down to times the original speed, the team observed two alternating streamwise vortices, which deflected the airflow between the vortices downward. Known for his "pour paintings," artist Holton Rower pours gallons of rainbow-colored paint over block towers, and waits for the streams of paint to pool onto the canvas below. When poured on top of a block tower, the paint slowly spread to the edges and created flow channels that dripped down the edges of the block. Depending on the height of the block, the pattern of the pooling paint below was either symmetrical or non-uniform in relation to the top pattern.

The complex patterns associated with taller towers were caused by the paint transitioning from a thin film flow into a narrow jet. Earth may have taken some heavy beatings in the early stages of its existence. But unlike the Earth we know today, our planet of long ago lacked the hard outer crust to protect its iron core-- and was, instead, covered in a hot, magma ocean of liquid silicate. A group of researchers from the French National Center for Scientific Research CNRS set up a laboratory analog to mimic these post-impact flows, using a tank filled with a water-glycerol mixture, and a balloon filled with liquid gallium.

The metal-filled balloon was suspended within the viscous fluid, then carefully popped, to observe the amount of fragmentation while traveling through the oil-water mixture. The film recordings, slowed down by a factor of 10, show the complex dynamics of the moving cloud of liquid metal drops, and the effects of the viscosity ratio between iron and silicate on the amount of liquid metal fragmentation.

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A larger ambient fluid viscosity resulted in a faster descent, but less fragmentation of liquid metal. A larger gallium viscosity descended slower, but generated larger and stabilized drops of metal during fragmentation. The maple tree often uses a special pollinating trick; each of its seeds is equipped with a small wing, so that these offspring spiral down from the tree tops, and are picked up by the wind to eventually scatter towards faraway soils.

These falling maple seeds were studied by a group of researchers from Seoul National University to better understand the "autorotation" mechanism that each seed exhibits. In calm weather, the seed started off falling with no spin, and then entered a steady, circular rotation, which significantly decreased the descending velocity. The rotation and falling velocity then decreased to a periodic rotation rate, which created an elegant flow pattern from the drag of the wing flowing through air.

Windy conditions showed the same characteristics of velocity and rotation while falling, but the seed was carried farther out in the direction of wind flow due to low descending velocity. Researchers from Imperial College London and Shell Solutions UK set out to observe the behavior of convex and concave bubbles created from dishwashing liquid, one minute before their rupture.

The Merger of a Bubble and a Soap Film

The video footage recorded of concave bubbles showed a colorful and dark portion of the film, where the brighter colors corresponded to thicker soap film and gravity-driven flow. Small secluded dots began to form by means of diffusion on the darker, thinner film over time, then started to rapidly converge. While viewing the convex bubble directly overhead, small white dots formed a spatially non-uniform pattern that did not exhibit the same coarsening effects as the concave bubble film, but the pattern spread outward until the eventual pop.

70th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics

Even though the dynamics are subtly different for each system, these thin soap bubbles can act in mysterious ways when observed up-close. Formation of mini vortex rings arising from a vortex pair impinging on a wavy wall — Milton van Dyke Award — Sarah Morris, C. In a typical laboratory setting, researchers send wavy vortex pairs onto a flat wall to study specific flow features and turbulence of these structures. A group from Cornell University decided to switch things around, and instead experiment with straight vortices encountering a wavy wall.

The observations reveal critical features of this unique flow, showing the formation of mini vortex rings that do not form in typical experiments.