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Table of contents
However, European Portuguese and Spanish distinguish between going somewhere for a short while versus a longer stay, especially if it is an intended destination, in the latter case using para instead of a. While there is no specified duration of stay before a European Portuguese speaker must switch prepositions, a implies one will return sooner, rather than later, relative to the context. This distinction is not made in English and Brazilian Portuguese [ citation needed ]. In Spanish the distinction is not made if the duration is given in the context maybe implicitly , and in this case a is generally preferred.
Note, though, in the first example, para could be used in Portuguese if in contrast to a very brief period of time. In informal, non-standard Brazilian Portuguese, em in its original form or combined with a given article in a contraction, yielding no , na , numa , etc. In Spanish hasta has the same meaning and function. Spanish has two prepositions of direction: Of them, only para exists in Portuguese, covering both meanings.
Colloquially, para is often reduced in both languages: Portuguese pra , in turn, may join with the definite article: Both languages have a construction similar to the English "going-to" future. Spanish includes the preposition a between the conjugated form of ir "to go" and the infinitive: Usually, in Portuguese, there is no preposition between the helping verb and the main verb: This also applies when the verb is in other tenses:. While as a rule the same prepositions are used in the same contexts in both languages, there are many exceptions.
The traditional Spanish alphabet had 28 letters, while the Portuguese had Modern versions of recent years added k and w found only in foreign words to both languages. Portuguese also added y for loanwords. With the reform in by the 10th congress of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, Spanish alphabetization now follows the same pattern as that of other major West European languages. Prior to this date, however, the digraphs ch and ll were independently alphabetized.
For example, the following surnames would be put in this order: Many Spanish dictionaries and other reference material still exist using the pre-reform rule of alphabetization. Only in Spanish do interrogatives and exclamations use the question mark or exclamation point respectively at the beginning of a sentence.
The same punctuation marks are used, but these are inverted. This prepares the reader in advance for either a question or exclamation type of sentence. On the other hand, in Portuguese, a person reading aloud lengthy sentences from an unfamiliar text may have to scan ahead to check if what at first appears to be a statement, is actually a question.
Otherwise, it would be too late to enable proper voice inflection. Neither language has the equivalent of the auxiliary verb to do , which is often used to begin a question in English. Both Spanish and English can place the verb before the subject noun to indicate a question, though this is uncommon in Portuguese, and almost unheard of in Brazil. Aside from changes of punctuation in written language, in speech, converting any of the above examples from a question to a statement would involve changes of both intonation and syntax in English and Spanish, but intonation only in Portuguese.
The palatal consonants are spelled differently in the two languages. King Denis of Portugal , who established Portuguese instead of Latin as the official language, was an admirer of the poetry of the troubadours and a poet himself. Examples include names such as Port.
Mi nh o Sp. The exact pronunciation of these three consonants varies somewhat with dialect. The table indicates only the most common sound values in each language. A similar phenomenon can be found in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese e. It always represents the "soft c " sound, namely [ s ]. Both languages use diacritics to mark the stressed syllable of a word whenever it is not otherwise predictable from spelling. Since Spanish does not differentiate between mid-open and mid-close vowels and nasal vowels , it uses only one accent, the acute.
Without the accent, as in Spanish, the last syllable would be a diphthong: Parag uai Portuguese and Parag uay Spanish 'Paraguay'. These do not alter the rules for stress, though note endings - im , - ins and - um , - uns are stressed, as are their non-nasal counterparts see below. A couple of two-letter words consist of only the nasal vowel: Phonetic vowel nasalization occurs in Spanish—vowels may get slightly nasalized in contact with nasal consonants—but it is not phonemically distinctive.
In Portuguese, on the other hand, vowel nasalization is distinctive, and therefore phonemic: Portuguese changes vowel sounds with and without accents marks. Spanish pronunciation makes no such distinction. In other cases, it is the combination of the preposition and the feminine definite article; in other words, the equivalent of a la 'to the' in Spanish.
As the Portuguese grave accent, the trema does not indicate stress. The accentuation rules including those of predictable stress of Portuguese and Spanish are similar, but not identical. Discrepancies are especially pervasive in words that contain i or u in their last syllable. Note the Portuguese diphthongs ei and ou are the approximate Spanish equivalent of e and o respectively, but any word ending with these diphthongs is, by default, stressed on its final syllable.
Compare the following pairs of cognates, where the stress falls on the same syllable in both languages:. Semivowel—vowel sequences are treated differently in both languages when it comes to accentuation rules.
Comparison of Portuguese and Spanish
A sequence of a semivowel adjacent to a vowel is by default assumed to be read as a diphthong part of the same syllable in Spanish, whereas it is by default assumed to be read as a hiatus belonging to different syllables in Portuguese. For both languages, accentuation rules consistently indicate something other than the default. A consequence of this is that words that are pronounced alike in both languages are written according to different accentuation rules.
Another consequence though less common is that some words are written exactly or almost exactly the same in both languages, but the stress falls on different syllables:.
Although the vocabularies of Spanish and Portuguese are similar, the two languages differ phonologically from each other, very likely because of the stronger Celtic substratum  in Portuguese. Phonetically Portuguese bears similarities to French and to Catalan while the phonetics of Spanish are more comparable to those of Sardinian and Sicilian.
Portuguese has a significantly larger phonemic inventory than Spanish. This may partially explain why it is generally not very intelligible to Spanish speakers despite the lexical similarity between the two languages. One of the main differences between the Spanish and Portuguese pronunciation are the vowel sounds. Dialectally, there are Spanish dialects with a greater number of vowels, with some as Murcian and Eastern Andalusian reaching up to 8 to 10 vowel sounds.
This appears to be, similarly to French, a Celtic  phonological adaptation to Latin. Portuguese, as Catalan, uses vowel height, contrasting stressed and unstressed reduced vowels. The following considerations are based on a comparison of standard versions of Spanish and Portuguese. Apparent divergence of the information below from anyone's personal pronunciation may indicate one's idiolect or dialect diverges from the mentioned standards.
Comparing the phonemic inventory of the two languages, a noticeable divergence stands out. First, standard Portuguese has more phonemes than Spanish. Also, each language has phonemes that are not shared by the other. Spanish and Portuguese have been diverging for over a thousand years. One of the most noticeable early differences between them concerned the result of the stressed vowels of Latin:. In other Brazilian dialects, only stressed vowels can be nasalized this way. In European Portuguese, nasalization is absent in this environment.
The Spanish irregular verb forms in -oy e. But in some other words, conversely, Spanish o corresponds to Portuguese oi , e. The history of the unstressed vowels in Spanish and Portuguese is not as well known as that of the stressed vowels, but some points are generally agreed upon.
The pronunciation of the unstressed vowels does not differ much from that of stressed vowels. The system of seven oral vowels of Vulgar Latin has been fairly well preserved in Portuguese, as in the closely related Galician language. In Portuguese, unstressed vowels have been more unstable, both diachronically across time and synchronically between dialects , producing new vowel sounds.
The basic paradigm is shown in the following table it has some exceptions. Brazilian unstressed vowel allophones vary according to the geographical region of the country. While this is true of all colloquial BP, it is especially characteristic of the latter dialects.
Similar alternation patterns to these exist in other Romance languages such as Catalan and Occitan. Although it is mostly an allophonic variation, some dialects have developed minimal pairs that distinguish the stressed variants from the unstressed ones. The orthography of Portuguese, which is partly etymological and analogical, does not indicate these sound changes.
This makes the written language look deceptively similar to Spanish. The former is unstressed, and the latter is stressed without any diacritical mark. Some of the most characteristic sound changes undergone by the consonants from Latin to Spanish and Portuguese are shown in the table below. Peculiar to early Spanish as in the Gascon dialect of Occitan, possibly due to a Basque substratum was the loss of Latin initial f - whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongize. Nevertheless, Portuguese fogo corresponds to Spanish fuego from Latin focum 'fire'.
Another typical difference concerned the result of Latin - l - and - n - in intervocalic position:. A Portuguese medical expression may be similar to another scientific term, but have a different meaning or translation. Any new addition to the Portuguese-English dictionary has to be corrected before it is finally included in the dictionary.
This happens when 10 other users have voted the translation as accurate. Join the community on bab. Any activity where you help improve the dictionaries, like adding new Portuguese to English translations, earns you points toward the world ranking list. If you should be unsure whether you got a translation right you can always ask other users in the Portuguese-English forum. In the forum topics like translation, grammar and other subjects relating to Portuguese language are discussed.
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After the wars of independence fought by these colonies in the 19th century, the new ruling elites extended their Spanish to the whole population, including the Amerindian majority, to strengthen national unity, and nowadays it is the first and official language of the resulting republics, except in very isolated parts of the former Spanish colonies. In the late 19th century, the still-Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico encouraged more immigrants from Spain, and similarly other Spanish-speaking countries such as Argentina , Uruguay , and to a lesser extent Chile , Colombia , Mexico , Panama and Venezuela , attracted waves of European immigration, Spanish and non-Spanish, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
There, the countries' large or sizable minority population groups of second- and third-generation descendants adopted the Spanish language as part of their governments' official assimilation policies to include Europeans. In some countries, they had to be Catholics and agreed to take an oath of allegiance to their chosen nation's government.
In the 20th century, more than a million Puerto Ricans migrated to the mainland U. Spanish continues to be used by millions of citizens and immigrants to the United States from Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas for example, many Cubans arrived in Miami, Florida , beginning with the Cuban Revolution in , and followed by other Latin American groups; the local majority is now Spanish-speaking.
Spanish is now treated as the country's "second language," and over 5 percent of the U. The presence of Spanish in Equatorial Guinea dates from the late 18th century, and it was adopted as the official language when independence was granted in In Spain expelled its Jewish population. Their Judaeo-Spanish language, called Ladino, developed along its own lines and continues to be spoken by a dwindling number of speakers, mainly in Israel, Turkey, and Greece. In the Marianas, the Spanish language was retained until the Pacific War , but is no longer spoken there by any significant number of people.
Language politics in Francoist Spain declared Spanish as the only official language in Spain, and to this day it is the most widely used language in government, business, public education, the workplace, cultural arts, and the media. But in the s and s, [ citation needed ] the Spanish parliament agreed to allow provinces to use, speak, and print official documents in three other languages: Since , following the death of Franco , Spain has become a multi-party democracy and decentralized country, constituted in autonomous communities.
Others—such as Aragonese , Asturian and Leonese —have been recognized by regional governments. When the United Nations organization was founded in , Spanish was designated one of its five official languages along with Chinese , English , French , and Russian ; a sixth language, Arabic , was added in The mention of "influences" on the Spanish language refers primarily to lexical borrowing.
Throughout its history, Spanish has accepted loanwords , first from pre-Roman languages including Basque , Iberian , Celtiberian and Gallaecian , and later from Greek , from Germanic languages , from neighboring Romance languages , from Arabic , from Native American languages , and from English. The most frequently used word that entered Spanish from or through  Basque is izquierda "left". Basque place names also are prominent throughout Spain, because many Castilians who took part in the Reconquista and repopulation of Moorish Iberia by Christians were of Basque lineage.
Iberian and Celtiberian likewise are thought to have contributed place names to Spain. Words of everyday use that are attributed to Celtic sources include camino "road", carro "cart", colmena "hive", and cerveza "beer". Influence of Basque phonology is credited by some researchers with softening the Spanish labiodentals: Others negate or downplay Basque phonological influence, claiming that these changes occurred in the affected dialects wholly as a result of factors internal to the language, not outside influence.
Some words of Greek origin were already present in the spoken Latin that became Spanish. Additionally, many Greek words formed part of the language of the Church. Spanish also borrowed Ancient Greek vocabulary in the areas of medical, technical, and scientific language, beginning as early as the 13th century.
The influence of Germanic languages is, by most accounts, very little on phonological development, but rather is found mainly in the Spanish lexicon. Words of Germanic origin are common in all varieties of Spanish. The modern words for the cardinal directions norte, este, sur, oeste , for example, are all taken from Germanic words compare north , east , south and west in Modern English , after the contact with Atlantic sailors.
These words did not exist in Spanish prior to the 15th century. Instead, "north" and "south" were septentrion and meridion respectively both virtually obsolete in Modern Spanish , while "east" was oriente or levante , and "west" was occidente or poniente. These older words for "east" and "west" continue to have some use in Modern Spanish.
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In Spain was invaded by Moors , who brought the Arabic language to the Peninsula. It is thought that the bilingualism of the Mozarabs facilitated the transfer of vocabulary from Arabic to Castilian.
With the development of the Spanish Empire in the New World came lexical borrowing from indigenous languages of the Americas , especially vocabulary dealing with flora, fauna, and cultural concepts unique to the Americas. Borrowing from English has become especially strong, beginning in the 20th century, with words borrowed from many fields of activity, including sports, technology, and commerce. The incorporation into Spanish of learned, or "bookish" words from its own ancestor language, Latin , is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Spanish-speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Spanish. The form of Latin that Spaniards spoke and the loanwords came from was Classical Latin , but also Renaissance Latin , the form of Latin during that time.
Spanish shares with other Romance languages most of the phonological and grammatical changes that characterized Vulgar Latin , such as the abandonment of distinctive vowel length , the loss of the case system for nouns, and the loss of deponent verbs. Syncope in the history of Spanish refers to the loss of an unstressed vowel from the syllable immediately preceding or following the stressed syllable. Early in its history, Spanish lost such vowels where they preceded or followed R or L, and between S and T.
Later, after the time of intervocalic voicing, unstressed vowels were lost between other combinations of consonants:. Words capital, computar, hospital, recitar and vindicar are learned words; cf.